Warm Floor (180 Photos): Which Is Better, Types Of Heating Systems For Houses And Apartments, Water Built-in Convectors

Floor 2023

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Warm Floor (180 Photos): Which Is Better, Types Of Heating Systems For Houses And Apartments, Water Built-in Convectors
Warm Floor (180 Photos): Which Is Better, Types Of Heating Systems For Houses And Apartments, Water Built-in Convectors

Video: Warm Floor (180 Photos): Which Is Better, Types Of Heating Systems For Houses And Apartments, Water Built-in Convectors

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: UNDER FLOOR-MOUNTED CONVECTOR ELECTRIC 2023, January
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Everyone understands the components of comfort in a home in their own way. But there is a basic list of conditions that make a home cozy, and underfloor heating is among the first on this list. This useful device is necessary to make the flooring pleasant to walk on barefoot at any time of the year, the air temperature in the room remains comfortable and the risks of colds are reduced. This is especially true in rooms where it is impossible to lay carpets due to allergies and in houses where there are small children, because most of their games take place on the floor.

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A natural question arises: how to choose a warm floor? This is easy to do by studying all the features, pros and cons of different types of floor heating systems.

Features of the

Underfloor heating is a relative novelty in the domestic market. Nowadays it is no longer a luxury, but a means of making your home more comfortable and pleasant to live in, using modern technologies. But even a few decades ago, due to the high cost of equipment and installation, it was considered affordable only for elite class housing. Hence, today's consumer has so many questions about how it works, which is better to choose a warm floor and whether it is safe to use it.

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Different types of floor heating systems have different performance characteristics. Their principle of operation, installation methods, technical characteristics differ. The price range of the system and the work on its installation are different. But all types of underfloor heating unite a number of inherent features:

  • Room heating method. Comparing the thermal profile of centralized heating (radiators, batteries in an apartment or house) with the profile of an underfloor heating of any type, it is easy to notice the difference in the way the air is heated in the room. In the case of radiator heating, there is a loss of heat at a distance from its source. The temperature difference in one room near the radiator and at the opposite end of the room can be 7-10 degrees. The farther from the radiator, the colder it gets.

    Underfloor heating gives off energy evenly, warming up the surface of the floor covering. Thus, underfloor heating ensures the correct distribution of heat in an optimal way for the body: it is warmer at the feet than at the level of the head.

  • The ability to regulate the microclimate in room. Floor heating systems are equipped with control units. A heat sensor, a regulator, a servo drive are useful system components that make it possible to use a warm floor at any time of the year. It is not necessary to wait for the heating season - if the weather is cool outside the season, you can use the system when necessary. You can also independently set the desired temperature to which the system should warm up the floor surface. Most models provide for automatic on and off the system, which heats the temperature to a predetermined parameter, then turns off when it reaches it, and the cycle repeats from the beginning.
  • Correct and rewarding investment… Few people do not try to save the family budget, and the underfloor heating, especially of the latest generation, is designed in such a way that it provides the maximum energy efficiency of the system per 1 m2 of the room. Yes, the system itself and its installation can be expensive, but they pay for themselves very quickly.
  • Features of the system device. If we compare smartphones or laptops of two consecutive generations, the representative of the latter will turn out to be more compact.This is the trend for all smart appliances, including floor heating systems. If ten years ago, to install it, it was required to mount a structure up to 20-30 centimeters in height, then the warm floor of the latest generation takes no more than 5 millimeters from the height of the room.
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This is achieved by changing the internal structure of the system: heating and conductive elements become more compact, protective and reflective layers become thinner.

Advantages and disadvantages

Underfloor heating, especially in ground floor apartments and private houses, is popular due to its impressive list of advantages. For each type of underfloor heating, they are slightly different from the others, but they are common the advantages of all varieties are as follows:

  • Underfloor heating contributes to a more even distribution of heat in the room, without overdrying the air.
  • It can replace all heaters and heat fans that create convection of heat flows in the room, which also leads to stuffiness and uneven heating of the air layers.
  • No static electricity generated.
  • Allows you to walk barefoot. This fact is already pleasant in itself, but its actual the benefit lies in the beneficial effects of barefoot walking on the body:
  1. Prevention of flat feet, clubfoot and developmental defects of the feet in children and adults. Correct formation of bones, muscles and ligaments of the feet;
  2. The risk of fungus, peeling, calluses and calluses is reduced, since the skin, relieved of sweating in slippers and socks, remains in a healthy state;
  3. Blood circulation is stimulated, and therefore, the tone of the body and the emotional background increase;
  4. Pleasant tactile sensations help develop the nervous system;
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  • The ability to control the temperature in the room with an accuracy of a degree.
  • Simple and straightforward operation of automated modern systems.
  • Warm floor is a convenient place for children to play, exercise and exercise.
  • The system can be combined with different types of finishing;
  • If there are allergy sufferers in the house, a heated floor will save you from the eternal dilemma - a synthetic carpet that does not cause allergic reactions and has no other advantages, or harmful, but high-quality natural.
  • Underfloor heating can be installed in any type of room, from a children's bedroom to a bathroom.
  • Some types (for example, infrared film floor) can be mounted not only under flooring, but also on walls and ceilings.
  • Underfloor heating eliminates a common problem in ground floor apartments - cold rising from below. The floor of all the upper floors is much warmer, since this is the ceiling of the neighbor's apartment, but on the first floor it is as close as possible to the ground and the foundation and is the main source of cold in winter.
  • The manufacturer's warranty for almost any system is from 10 years.
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It is impossible to ignore the disadvantages inherent in most types of underfloor heating:

  • The requirements for the condition of the subfloor, on which the heating will be installed, are very high, as are the requirements for the quality of the material for finishing the floor. It is important to take into account its thickness and composition, and the presence of special markings, and all performance characteristics.
  • Moving from the premium category, underfloor heating is still an expensive pleasure. There is also a concomitant drawback - a large number of fakes and unscrupulous manufacturers. A low-quality system will cost several times cheaper, but the safety of its use is a big question. In addition, the service life of such a system is severely limited.
  • The question of whether an underfloor heating can replace centralized heating or whether it can only work as an additional source of heat remains ambiguous. Many manufacturers claim to be capable, although in reality this is not the case.

    The only exceptions are a few options.The first is the use of underfloor heating as the main source of heat indoors in the warm regions of the country, where a mild climate and "European winter" prevail. The second is to lay products under the floor that take into account the climatic characteristics of cold regions and operate at higher power.

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  • Electric heating systems, even the most modern and intelligent ones, cannot guarantee 100% fire protection.
  • Not all types of underfloor heating can be used in an apartment.
  • An electric floor cannot be repaired if it breaks down.
  • Removing the floor covering in the event of a malfunctioning system is a time consuming, messy and financially costly process.
  • Electrical networks in older buildings may not be able to withstand the additional load.
  • Power outages affect system performance.
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Varieties

There are about a dozen varieties of underfloor heating, which can be combined into two large groups: water floor and electric floor.

Water

It is a heating system for heating indoor air through floor decking, based on a piping system in which a hot liquid (water or ethylene glycol) circulates.

It is customary to distinguish two types of water floor: a system with a heating cable inside the pipes (electrically conductive) and a system that operates an electric boiler.

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  • First type does not require connection to a heating boiler, since the heating element is already installed inside the pipe along its entire length. Even the liquid inside the pipes is already there when you buy a ready-made assembly kit. It is enough to connect them to a 220V power source using a thermostat with an automatic room temperature control system.
  • The second type does not have a heating element inside. He works at the expense of a gas boilerheating the coolant - liquid (usually water), a temperature sensor and a thermostat. The water circulates through the pipes, cools down on the way and returns to the boiler already cool in order to reheat to the desired temperature.
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The device of the heating system itself using pipes and liquid with high temperatures also has several varieties:

  • Concrete. Heating elements are mounted inside a cement-sand monolithic screed. A reflective film is laid down, and a thin sheet of fiberboard, chipboard, cork or other material is laid up, which protects the floor covering from overheating. Installation of a concrete system is very time consuming, but reliable, therefore it is considered one of the most demanded.

"Wet" work on laying a cement-sand screed, taking into account the time for complete drying of this screed, can take 20-30 days.

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Flat. Due to the fact that all layers of the system are lined with ready-made materials, the work is faster, cleaner and easier, but such a system is more expensive. There are several types of floor technology for assembling the system:

  1. Floor polystyrene system. There is no concrete screed in it
  2. Wooden planking system based on slats.
  3. Wooden flooring system based on modules.
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For multi-apartment buildings, the condition of which is assessed as good or excellent, you can choose any option. But for old buildings and houses with poor operational condition, rack-and-pinion "constructors" and built-in modular systems are more suitable.

Advantages of a water floor:

  • System elements can be installed under any type of flooring, be it tiles, laminate or linoleum;
  • The total cost of the entire structure is cheaper than the electrical system;
  • Helps to save energy costs up to 40%, which significantly reduces the amount in the receipt for payment for electricity;
  • The autonomous control system is not affected in any way by power outages;
  • Underfloor water is more likely to replace district heating;
  • Long service life. High-quality installation of the system ensures its uninterrupted operation for up to half a century, while the limitation on the electrical system is 20 years.
  • The water floor successfully replaces all heaters, mobile convectors, fans and other systems of additional space heating during the cold season. Convectors dry the air, heat it unevenly, like central heating, and are not fireproof. And from an aesthetic point of view, they are not always appropriate in the interior. The water floor is not visible to the eye, it does not create stuffiness and a greenhouse effect and is as safe as possible against fires in case of breakdown.
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You should not rush to conclusions and mark for yourself a heated water floor as the best option, because There are even more disadvantages of this type of heating system than advantages:

  • It is forbidden to use a water-heated floor in an apartment building. Its installation requires an expert assessment of the condition of a residential building, mandatory approval of the installation in all necessary authorities and a separate heating circuit or boiler with a pump and thermostat;
  • Under the floor, with constant heating and lowering the temperature of the liquid in the pipes, condensation can form, and as a result - an unpleasant odor, fungus or mold;
  • If the system breaks down, hot water may leak;
  • The system cannot be restored;
  • It is not recommended to install in rooms where the ceiling height is less than 3 meters. The pipe system takes up a fairly large space under the floor (15-20 cm) and eats up the much needed extra centimeters in the room;
  • The area of ​​the premises is desirable from 20 sq. meters. The fact is that the pipes are very difficult to bend with a small step in order to heat the floor as evenly as possible. This is made easier with an electric cable that is flexible for any manipulation in the underfloor heating system;
  • Underfloor heating water is more difficult to regulate. This is due to the fact that water heats up and cools down in more than one second, it needs some time. Accordingly, the heating system is also not able to instantly heat up cold pipes to make it warm and cool the hot liquid in them.
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Electric

This is an underfloor heating system, the work of which is based on the conversion of electrical energy into heat.

The electric floor appeared later than the water one, but it is developing at a faster pace, and today there are three main types of this system: cable, heat-matting, film floor.

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Their advantages and disadvantages differ in some aspects. In general, an electric underfloor heating system has the following advantages:

  • Does not create convection currents, evenly warming the air from bottom to top;
  • Several independent systems can be installed in one room and areas can be heated as needed. The same autonomy works in different rooms, so the heat level can be adjusted to within a degree;
  • Smart control system allows you to set auto-start timers, prevents the system from overheating and ensures safety;
  • The system is located under the topcoat on the floor and is not visible to the eye;
  • Combines with different types of finishing materials;
  • When the heat level is raised or lowered manually, the system quickly adjusts to the new parameters. The floor area heats up and cools down very quickly.
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Cons of electric floor:

  • An expensive system and professional installation services. It is possible to carry out the installation yourself, but it is not recommended, since this is work with an electric current, it can be dangerous to life and health;
  • High level of electricity consumption, and as a result - growing numbers in payment receipts. Manufacturers are working to eliminate this drawback, but so far only the infrared floor is relatively cheap to operate;
  • Floor covering without special markings allowing laying on a warm floor may crack over time;
  • The system is afraid of water. If it is flooded in an emergency, it will burn out and cannot be restored;
  • With all the precautions taken, the electric floor cannot be called absolutely safe;
  • The old wiring must be replaced before installation.
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Cable

An electric cable floor is considered the most common, although not the most optimal option. Its device is very simple: a heating element (the cable itself), a thermostat, a sensor, a screed. Separately, it is necessary to purchase a reflective film, which is placed under the system so that the heat goes up, and not down, to the neighbors' ceiling.

It is also recommended to protect the system from above with a foil so that no water gets onto the system during wet cleaning.

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There are single-core (heating element only) and two-core (heating and heat recovery element) floor cables. The latter are more modern and practical, since their temperature changes with the ambient temperature and they do not overheat. They perform better in operation, but they are more expensive.

A cable with a thickness of up to 3 mm is mounted directly into the glue, from 3 to 6 - it is filled with cement (a screed is made).

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The advantages of this type of underfloor heating:

  • The cable can be laid even in places where there is furniture. Overheating does not threaten him;
  • The flexibility of the cable allows you to lay it, bending it in the desired direction with any step - from 1 cm to 1 m.
  • Heats up the room quickly, like all electrical systems;
  • Suitable for combination with different types of finishing;
  • Even the simplest cabling system has an intelligent temperature control system;
  • High efficiency - up to 97% of electric current is converted into heat energy.
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Disadvantages:

  • High demands on the condition and quality of the subfloor. Its surface must be dry and even with a maximum level deviation of 1 mm;
  • Serious power consumption - half of it goes to a thick screed;
  • The material for finishing the floor must have thermal conductivity;
  • Leveling the sub-floor, the thickness of the cable, the thickness of the screed (about 3 cm), all substrates and protective flooring, plus the thickness of the topcoat, will "eat up" at least 5 centimeters of the total height of the room;
  • The electric cable floor emits electromagnetic waves. The harm of such a floor to the human body has not been proven, but it is difficult to call electromagnetic radiation useful either;
  • Cannot replace central heating.
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Heating mats

The basis for the creation of universal heating mats were industrial heating plates for creating local heating at agricultural enterprises.

Having undergone significant changes in its device, heat-matting machines appeared on the construction market - heating mats for a warm floor. They are used in an apartment, in a country house, and on the street, since this is one of the most convenient and suitable for different atmospheric conditions type of heating system.

The basis of the mats is a heating cable embedded in a strong fiber mesh. Like the cable floor, they are single-core (for non-residential premises, common areas, balconies, loggias and streets, for example, a porch, so that there is no icing) and two-core - with a low level of electromagnetic energy radiation (for living rooms, bedrooms, nurseries) …

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The width of the mat rarely exceeds 50-60 cm, the length can be any. The step distance at which the cable “zigzags” are formed is 5-7 cm.

It is important to take into account that single-core mats are arranged more primitively and they are laid in such a way as to end in the place from where they started, or you will have to pull an additional cold wire. With two-cores, this problem does not arise, you can finish putting it anywhere.

Two-core cables are able to cope with heating an entire room without centralized heating, but this method will lead to significant financial costs. It is usually used as an additional heat source.

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Different types of mats are required for different rooms.For corridors and hallways, 120 W per 1 square meter is enough, bathrooms and a kitchen need a power of about 150-160 W per square meter. m, and living rooms in a power of 200-220 watts.

Teplomats have many advantages:

  • Simple installation. They are completely ready for laying on a subfloor, have all the necessary layers to reflect heat energy, protect the system and its safety;
  • It is easy to calculate the required amount of material;
  • The absence of a thick concrete screed saves energy consumption by half;
  • The small thickness of the mat does not require the floor to be lifted too much. The level change will be insignificant - 1-2 centimeters;
  • High speed of work;
  • Efficiency - up to 98%;
  • Smart control system, availability of additional functions (heating by a certain time, maintaining the desired temperature, emergency shutdown).

Disadvantages of heating mats:

  • High cost per meter of mat;
  • Mats with a base of a two-core cable are more reliable, but also more expensive;
  • If water gets on the system, it will burn out and cannot be restored;
  • Long exposure time before use. After installation, at least a month must pass before the system can be started. All this time, the finishing will have to be delayed, since its dismantling in the event of malfunctioning will be a protracted and overhead task.
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Film

The film or infrared floor is the most perfect and progressive among other heating systems.

Its work is based on the interaction of heating elements of organic origin (carbon, graphite) with electrical energy, which turns into heat and heats the floor directly, and not the air around it.

At the same time, the heating elements are reliably protected by a unique design, the total thickness of which does not exceed 5 millimeters.

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The construction of the film floor includes the following elements:

  1. A dense polymer film, which is both a base and a stabilizing element. On top of it, a thin layer of reflective film made of high-strength Mylar fibers is applied, which is necessary for the heat to go up to the floor. The layer is fireproof: the melting temperature of these materials is above 250 degrees Aim.
  2. Built-in heating element: carbon strips or fibers, and in the latest generation models a solid carbon plate.
  3. Metal busbars for supplying current to heating elements. The metal can be different: copper, silver, mixture. Unlike cables, they are flat, which is why the foil floor is so thin (2 to 5 mm).
  4. Connecting element. Its role, as a rule, is played by a special glue that is resistant to high temperatures and does not contain substances that give harmful vapors when heated.
  5. Top layer of PVC foil. It creates protection against external influences, the formation of condensation, accidental ingress of liquid on the heating system.

There are two types of IR floor: film and rod.

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The core floor is intended mainly for rooms in which the finishing is made on the basis of adhesives - tiles, tiles, porcelain stoneware. Its thickness is more than a few millimeters, it is not covered with a film that can be corroded by construction glue.

The core floor consists of a narrow mesh up to half a meter in length, on which there are metal tubes with an organic heating element inside. They are connected to each other by two-core wires.

Tapes with tubes are placed on a heat-reflecting film on a frame base, fastened together, and covered with a protective film resistant to melting and adhesives from above.

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The film floor is a film of large width and small thickness - up to half a centimeter. Inside the sealed film there is a heating plate and contacts for supplying current. In all respects, it outperforms the rod and other types of electric floor due to its advantages:

  • Mobility.The foil floor is not poured with cement and does not stick to the subfloor in any way. It can be disconnected from the power source, rolled into rolls and transferred to a new location;
  • The ability to change the size of the plates. The heating elements are internally divided into many small sections, and fragments of the desired size can be cut along special lines;
  • The autonomy of the sections from each other gives another advantage - if one section is damaged, the others continue to work, and the uniformity of heat distribution remains the same;
  • The efficiency is 98%. With an even distribution of heat, this allows you not to overlay the film with sheets all over the entire subfloor. Between them, you can make gaps of several tens of centimeters, which allows you to save on material;
  • Easy to install even without the help of professionals;
  • Does not increase the height of the floor due to the absence of screeds, additional protection and its own small thickness up to 5 mm;
  • The distance between the heating elements is less than 5 cm (the smallest possible cable pitch), which means that the heat is transferred to the floor covering as evenly as possible;
  • System power consumption is lower with greater efficiency;
  • Replaces heaters and convectors;
  • The maximum heating temperature that any floor covering can withstand is 33 degrees. This is enough to use the IR film floor as the main source of heat in the room in some regions;
  • Possibility to mount also on vertical surfaces.
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Separately, it is worth noting an important difference between the film floor - it works on the principle of infrared radiation.

In nature, its source is the sun, so many people tend to consider the infrared floor harmful to health, since when using it, the rays directly affect the body. Indeed, in large quantities, short IR waves lead to a painful state, but this is taken into account in the construction of the film floor, therefore it gives long-wave radiation. Remaining uniform and constant, it strengthens the immune system, triggers the body's regeneration mechanisms and has a positive effect on the emotional background.

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But even such a system has disadvantages:

  • The sub-floor for the film system must be in perfect condition, even and dry;
  • The construction of the foil floor implies several contacts for supplying electric current. Ideally, they should work in the same way, but some of them do the job worse or do not do it at all. If you make a mistake with the choice, you will have to reconnect the contacts again;
  • 220 Volts is a potentially dangerous voltage for the human body. It is necessary for the system to work, but even the presence of grounding and an automatic emergency system does not guarantee 100% safety in the event of an accident or breakdown;
  • The basic set of the film floor necessarily includes heat sensors and a system for adjusting the operating mode, and the service life of these devices is usually less than that of the system itself, by 10-15 years;
  • For all its economy, the film floor is powered by electricity, therefore, its consumption increases. The more rooms are equipped with underfloor heating, the more waste is;
  • Floor temperature is subject to power outages;
  • Damaged areas cannot be restored;
  • Furniture must not be placed on the floor with foil heating - it will burn out. Only models with legs that rise 5 centimeters or more above the floor are suitable;
  • Soft floor coverings like carpet and linoleum must be additionally isolated from the heating system with a protective substrate;
  • If the flooring is too thick, the system will not warm up the floor surface well.
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Installation

The process of installing a warm floor depends on its type. The most time consuming process is the installation of a water or hydraulic floor. It is carried out in stages:

  • Selection of materials and tools.The design of the system itself includes a boiler, a tank, outlets for hot and cold water, an electric pump, a pressure gauge and a manifold, pipes under the floor. Accordingly, for assembly, including the preparation of the subfloor, you will need a reinforcing system, a heat-insulating substrate, a boiler for heating water with a pump (not always included in the same set, but both are necessary), ball valves for installation at the boiler inlet, distribution pipes, a collector-regulator for adjusting the system, pipes to the floor made of polypropylene, fittings for laying the boiler-pipe-collector route, clips and fixing strips on an adhesive basis.

    An important part of the design is a three-way valve that regulates the temperature of the water entering the pipes. For example, if it is higher than the permissible value, a valve with cold water opens in the mixing unit, liquids are mixed, the temperature level drops to normal.

    Pipes that are laid out on the floor should have a diameter of 15 to 30 millimeters, heat resistance - 90-100 degrees, pressure - 9-12 bar.

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A collector is a splitter required to connect two or more heat loops to the boiler and to take cooled water back. It also contains all valves, regulators, air vents, emergency service systems and a controller.

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Directly in the work, you need tools at hand: a tape measure, drawing accessories, tools for cutting plastic and metal (bolt-cutting scissors, a cutter, a grinder and others), pliers, a set of screwdrivers, a fixer, an assembly tape, a screwdriver, adjustable and wrenches, a level. For the screed, you will need a concrete or cement mortar (you can purchase a ready-made one), a concrete mixer, spatulas and spatulas.

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  • Calculation of pipes, creation of a scheme for their distribution over the floor surface. Despite the seeming simplicity, this stage is much more difficult than the installation itself, since any errors can lead to the system not working. For accurate calculations, it is recommended to use special computer programs, and even better - the services of professionals. To carry out calculations (required pipe length, installation step, pipe laying route), you must provide them with the following information:
  • Room area in square meters;
  • The type of materials used in the construction of floors, walls and thermal insulation;
  • Type of insulation under the heating system for the floor;
  • Planned type of floor finish;
  • Planned placement of cabinet furniture. It is undesirable to lay a cable in the places of its installation;
  • Pipe diameter;
  • Boiler power.
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When calculating, experts will take into account such important points as the fact that along the outer walls of the room and windows, the pipe installation step should be less (not 30, but 10-15 cm), and the farther from the boiler, the lower the water temperature in them.

  • Sub-floor preparation. The water floor needs the most even and insulated (so that the water in the pipes does not freeze) surface of the subfloor.

    To prepare it, it is necessary to dismantle the old screed and the system, if installed. Then level the work surface if there are differences in height of 1 centimeters or more. Following this, a layer of waterproofing material is laid out, and on top of it is a heat-reflecting substrate. It is necessary so that the heat goes to the floor, and does not go to the ground. Foil, expanded polystyrene or expanded clay slabs are suitable for this purpose.

    The last stage in the preparation of the floor is the laying of the reinforcing screed. Without it, a high-quality and even screed will not work, and it is to it that pipes are attached with clips.

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  • Installing the manifold box and manifold. The complexity of the device depends on the requirements for the heating system. The most automated system with all valves and protection in case of emergency is several times higher than the cost of the simplest collector. The device is placed in a so-called collector box. Installation begins with the installation of the box.The assembly is carried out according to standard instructions using tools and does not cause difficulties even for a non-professional master.
  • Boiler installation. The main requirement for the boiler is compliance with the system's capacity and a margin of 15-20%. The boiler is also installed according to the standard instructions simultaneously with the pump, the power of which corresponds to the load on the pipes.
  • Installation of pipes. To maintain the uniformity of the step, plastic dowels are used. They are attached to the floor, and then the pipes themselves are inserted into the nests in them and fastened to the reinforcing mesh with clips. Do not overtighten the pipe, the loop should remain a little loose. At the ends of the pipes, a polyethylene foam insulation is installed, then they are fed to the collector. Fitting or Eurocone system is used at the connection points.
  • System check. It is carried out within 24 hours in the presence of water in the pipes and a pressure of 6-7 bar. If there are no leaks, defects and expansions in the pipes, you can proceed to the last stage - filling the screed.
  • Filling the screed. This is a separate complex process, consisting of several stages and requiring the participation of professionals. It is important to take into account that the screed for tiles should be at least 30 mm and no more than 50, and for other finishing materials (laminate, linoleum) - up to 30 mm.

Installation of an electric floor is easier and takes less time, but it is fraught with health risks if the work is not done by a professional.

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Not all types of electric underfloor heating can be installed independently. The cable floor is a system that should only be installed by a professional. But during installation work, the presence of the customer is important in order to monitor compliance with all rules and regulations. It is important to pay attention to the following points:

  • You can purchase a cable only after careful calculations. It cannot be cut off, so two problems may arise: it will not be enough and one of the sections will remain without heating, or there will be too much of it, then you will have to dismantle the installation and start over;
  • The recommended laying spacing per square meter is indicated in the cable passport. When increasing, the effect of "thermal zebra" may appear, and when decreasing, there is a risk that the system will burn out from overheating;
  • Do not lay the cable closer than 50 mm to the wall;
  • Laying is not done under massive furniture that does not stand on high legs and does not have space for ventilation under it: headsets, walls, wardrobes, sofas.
  • The installation workers must be familiar with the official documents, which indicate the location of communications (centralized heating). A cable is not laid next to it either;
  • The subfloor surface must be dry and level and covered with a heat-reflecting layer;
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  • High-quality fastening of the cable to the reinforcing mesh is important. Before solidification, the screed is a liquid solution, in which a poorly fixed cable can "float";
  • The cable does not bend at right angles;
  • It is forbidden to apply it in several layers;
  • If the finishing coating in the room is planned to be combined from different materials (for example, tiles and laminate), it is required to lay two different heating systems under them;
  • The beacons for pouring the screed must be installed as accurately as possible, without plaster getting on the cable (it has poor thermal conductivity);
  • The temperature sensor is a component of the thermostat, not the cable, so it should never touch the cable. It measures the temperature in the air, not in the system;
  • Before filling the screed, it is necessary to check the performance of the system and the resistance between the cable cores. It must match the indicators in the system passport;
  • It is necessary to transfer the scheme of the laid floor to the passport, noting on it all couplings, ties, the location of the tube and sensor;
  • In rooms with high humidity, an RCD must be installed;
  • The ideal screed is 30-50 mm without cavities inside.In places where there are wooden floors, and such a thickness of the screed cannot be made, foam or expanded polystyrene is used;
  • Complete drying of the screed - 4 weeks or a month. It is forbidden to turn on the system before the expiration of this period.
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Teplomatov

Modifying the cable floor to finished mats has greatly simplified the installation process. Such a system can be assembled by hand, without having much experience in installation work.

Installation is carried out step by step:

  1. Calculation of the required length of mats and their number, taking into account the furniture in the room. It is also important to take into account the location of other heat sources in the room and maintain a distance of at least 50 mm between them and the mat. At the same stage, a drawing of the scheme is drawn up according to which the mats will be laid. The drawing should reflect the location of the radiators, sensors, couplings and sockets for connecting the mats to the mains.
  2. Choosing a place to install the thermostat and the system control panel. They are wall mounted to a depth of several centimeters. When the optimal location is selected, a strobe is cut through the wall and floor to connect the connecting wire to the thermostat.
  3. Sub-floor preparation. Like any system, it is laid on a dry, maximally flat and lined with heat-reflecting material surface.
  4. Thermomats are stacked. They can be cut along special lines to go around the places where furniture will be installed that does not rise above the floor.
  5. A thermostat and a corrugated tube with a temperature sensor inside are placed in the strobe. The end of the tube is closed with a cap to prevent grout from entering the sensor.
  6. After connecting the system, a check is made for operability and compliance of the indicators with the data in the system passport.
  7. The last layer before finishing is a layer of tile adhesive (up to 5 mm) or leveling primer (10-15 mm).
  8. The system can be switched on again after complete drying of the top layer in 7-8 days.
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Film

Of all the underfloor heating systems existing today, this one is the easiest to install. To complete it independently, you must follow the sequence of steps:

  • Selection of a film (infrared) floor set suitable for technical characteristics.
  • Determination of the area on which the foil floor will be laid and the configuration of the arrangement of the sheets. It is advisable to put this on the diagram in the passport of the heating system, reflecting the joints of the film with the cold wire, the placement of couplings and sensors. There are two types of use of the film floor - comfortable and basic. In the first case, 40 to 60% of the usable area of ​​the room is closed, and in the second, from 70 to 90%. The same rule applies to wall mounting.
  • Preparation of the work surface. The film floor does not tolerate flaws and dampness. When it comes to installation in a room with high humidity, you should give preference to the infrared rod floor. Its installation is almost the same as film installation. The subfloor must be leveled with a cement or priming compound if there are differences of more than 5-10 mm in height. Then, after the solution has completely dried (about a week), the heat-reflecting material is laid. As a rule, it is rolled and has a width of up to 1 meter, so the sheets are connected to each other with adhesive tape (construction or painting).
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It is important to take into account that for an even distribution of heat, the reflective film is laid over the entire surface of the floor, even if the heating element will not lie in some areas.

  • Laying the film. The fragments are connected to each other with clamps. The places for cutting and fastening the clips are marked on the film and in the passport.
  • Installation of the thermostat. Similar to the device for thermal mats, next to the outlets.
  • Installation of wires for connecting the floor to the mains. It is important to correctly identify the location for stripping and to work with rubber gloves. The electricity must be turned off. The wires are laid down along the wall or skirting board. For a closed installation, you need to punch a strobe, and then close it up; for open, a special decorative box is used.
  • Connecting the film to the wire. To do this, carefully remove the insulation from the end of the wire and press it to the contact with pliers.
  • Connection of wires to the thermostat.
  • Connecting the temperature sensor to the regulator.
  • Connecting the regulator to the network. This is a responsible and dangerous moment, which is recommended to be performed either by a professional installer or after careful study of safety precautions with strict adherence to it.
  • System health test. If it works properly, you can mount the flooring.
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Principle of operation

Warm floors are different, but all of its varieties have one thing in common - they emit heat and transfer it directly to the floor covering, and not to the air around, due to which there is a uniform heating of the room without dry air. However, each species has its own characteristics. They can be conditionally divided into three groups: water, electromagnetic and infrared fields.

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The water floor system is powered by electrical energy, but it does not directly affect the floor surface. Electricity is necessary for the operation of the heating boiler and all systems that regulate the temperature of the water and supply it to the pipes, be it a mixing tank or a controller. Hot water flows through the pipes in the screed, heats the screed, which, in turn, transfers thermal energy to the flooring. The higher the thermal conductivity of the finishing material, the warmer the floor surface.

The temperature is regulated by adding and decreasing the degree of water heating in the boiler. Recommended temperature is 28-30 ° C. It is important to take into account that passing all the way through the pipes, the water gradually cools down.

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Systems with electromagnetic radiation include an electrical cable floor. The principle of its operation is based on the transformation of electrical energy into heat. This happens inside the cable, which, with a small thickness, has a very complex design: several types of cores for different purposes (conductor, drainage, heating), identification colored fibers, shielding aluminum foil and a fluoropolymer housing.

Together, they transfer heat to the floor surface up to 30 degrees Celsius.

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Infrared heaters are designed differently, and electrical energy is converted here into infrared radiation, which tends to heat nearby surfaces.

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The essence of the process of converting one type of energy into another is as follows: inside a fire-resistant and moisture-resistant polymer film, a current passes through metal tires (plates made of copper, silver, aluminum or an alloy of these metals). Passing through heating elements made of organic materials, it is converted into infrared radiation and heats the floor surface just like the sun's rays heats the earth's surface - using wave radiation. This ensures fast and harmless floor heating. Also, infrared rays have disinfectant properties and destroy odors and bacteria.

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Thermoregulation

Any floor heating system has its own maximum thermal threshold. Usually it is in the range of 30-35 degrees. But the maximum temperature is required extremely rarely, only in very severe frosts, when the floor covering works as an additional radiator in the house. More often, 24-25 degrees or less is required.

The way to regulate heat transfer depends on the type of floor and the complexity of the equipment. Based on the design features of the system there are several ways to change temperature conditions:

  • Use of low-temperature sources of thermal energy;
  • Installation of various units and mixers;
  • Preset mode support;
  • Sensors and accessories.
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In practice, these are four simple and straightforward ways heat regulation:

  • Manual. Here, a thermal head is used, which is installed on the manifold. It works like a toggle switch that switches the temperature in divisions from lower to higher, and vice versa. To change the heat level, it is enough to move the pointer to the division forward or backward in a circle.
  • Automatic. This is a more sophisticated control panel that controls the system using buttons. There is a display on the panel, which indicates the designation of heat in degrees. It is not as accurate as possible, but it is not difficult to set a comfortable temperature.
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  • Individual. This is a system for setting a comfortable microclimate in a separate room.
  • Group. This is a single system that unites all rooms equipped with underfloor heating. Its main disadvantage is the inability to regulate the heat level in a separate zone. And plus - you can adjust the desired level and the system itself will choose the working rhythm in order to maintain it stably.

Sometimes a fifth method is distinguished - a combined one. But at its core, it is just a clever combination of individual and group control.

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Systems management, powered by electric current is also variable, but a power or floor temperature regulator is always used. They are of three types:

  1. Mechanical or electromechanical. The easiest way to explain the principle of its operation is by drawing an analogy with the mode regulator on an iron. To change the floor temperature, simply turn the graduated dial. Its main advantages are simplicity, reliability and low cost. The main disadvantage is the inability to regulate the temperature of the floor surface with an accuracy of a degree.
  2. Electronic or digital. It can be compared to setting the time on an electronic watch by simply pressing the buttons. And the result will be visible on the display. This method provides clarity and the ability to set the desired temperature in degrees without errors.
  3. Programmable. This is the most complex and perfect system. It is easy to operate (buttons or remote control), has a display that reflects all functions and readings and makes it possible to set a constant temperature level or start the system and turn it off at certain hours. For example, the floor stays cool at night, and by the time the owners wake up, the system turns on and heats it up. The disadvantage of such a system is its high cost.
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Which is better?

When buying a warm floor, one of the pressing questions is - which floor is better to choose? There is no definite answer. It is necessary to take into account many aspects at once:

  • Technical characteristics of the system (energy consumption, speed and maximum heating temperature, manufacturer, floor surface temperature, service life, what type of control is used, what kind of thermostat the system is equipped with, whether it can withstand dampness and cold);
  • Type of premises (private house, apartment, non-residential, rooms of various functions inside a residential area)
  • Room dimensions;
  • The operational state of the premises;
  • Installation technology and terms;
  • Floor finish type.
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Together, these factors affect the cost of the system and its installation, safety of use, quality and service life.

The infrared floor is universal and suitable for all types of premises. For laying under tiles, under tile glue, for rooms with high humidity, it is recommended to use a rod infrared floor, and for other types of finishing in dry rooms - a film floor.

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This type of floor is as safe as possible for health and is equipped with automatic emergency systems, it is easy to install and serves for a long time. It can be installed both indoors and outdoors or in outbuildings. Installation is simple and straightforward.

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The price per meter of such a floor can hardly be called cheap, and the energy consumption for equipping the entire house and large rooms is quite high.

Which heating is more reliable?

The best and most reliable are not identical concepts when it comes to choosing a floor heating system that will last a long time and without interruptions in work.

The best option is a water floor if gas is installed in the house. There are several reasons for this:

  1. The service life of a water floor and related systems is longer than that of an electric one - up to 50 years.
  2. There are systems that run on electricity, but water does not come into contact with it directly under the floor covering, so in case of an accident, only a leak is possible.
  3. A water floor cannot be installed in a multi-storey building above the first floor - this is both a plus and a minus, since the neighbors will not suffer from a leak. You will not have to pay damages on top of the financial costs of dismantling the system.
  4. The risk of breakage is minimal.
  5. Gas, as the basis for the operation of a heating boiler, is many times cheaper than electricity.
  6. The gas system is independent of power outages.
  7. It is more profitable to install in large premises.
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The disadvantage of this system is that it is not universal. It cannot be used in apartment buildings, cannot be installed in rooms with an area of ​​less than 20 square meters and is difficult to regulate with an accuracy of a degree. In addition, such a system heats up more slowly due to the fact that the thickness of the screed is at least 30 mm.

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For different rooms

From an attempt to identify the best and most reliable system, it is clear that this status is largely determined by the type of premises.

For country houses and private cottages, a water heated floor is more suitable. In apartment buildings, heating systems and infrared floors are more relevant. There are also different zones inside the dwelling, the microclimate of which is more or less suitable for different systems.

Experts recommend using different systems for different types of premises, and sometimes combining two in one as follows:

Bathroom, wc, toilet, sauna… To maintain cleanliness and a long service life of the coating in rooms with high humidity and low temperatures (without additional heating), wear-resistant materials are used that are not afraid of contact with water and household chemicals. These are various types of ceramic tiles and artificial stone. Such a coating adheres to glue or cement compounds, so the underfloor heating must be well protected and resistant to alkaline components. The best option is a core floor

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Kitchen and dining area. Materials resistant to mechanical damage and frequent wet cleaning are also popular here. A topcoat that does not absorb odors is encouraged. Often, the cooking area is finished with tiles, and the dining area uses laminate. Such a room requires an infrared floor that destroys bacteria and odors. Under the tile - core, under the laminate - film

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If this is a kitchen in a country house, then a water floor will do.

Sometimes linoleum is used in the kitchen. In this case, you can give preference to a core warm floor with the obligatory use of a solid separating layer up to 15 mm in thickness between it and the linoleum.

You can use a cable and water system with a screed, but there will be more heat loss.

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  • Living spaces. This category includes bedrooms, children's rooms, study rooms, living rooms. Often in living quarters, preference is given to a pleasant to the touch and beautiful-looking finish. It can be laminate, parquet, board or soft carpet - carpet (a backing is needed under it).

    Premises that are rarely visited should be equipped with a cable or rod floor of 150-180 W. And for example, for children, where the child spends all the time, and part of it is on the floor, it is better to provide a film infrared floor with a power of 200-220 watts.

    Rarely, but still found in living rooms self-leveling floor. This is an expensive pleasure, and the thicker the layer is poured, the higher the cost, so a 4 mm pivot floor is best suited in this case.

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Cold rooms. When it comes to balconies and loggias, then the best choice is cable or infrared floor. For a private house, where you need to insulate a veranda or a walk-through room - water

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Manufacturers and reviews

Of no small importance to the quality and service life is the accessory of the warm floor to one or another manufacturer. Based on the reviews of the owners, taking into account the advantages and disadvantages, the top ten includes:

Caleo. This Korean brand is a kind of flagship in the production of underfloor heating and tops every second rating in the Russian market. The secret of success is that Korea is home to the best floor heating for apartments - infrared. Numerous reviews confirm the excellent quality of the product

Among the positive aspects, the possibility of laying a film infrared floor under soft coverings (carpet, linoleum) without an intermediate substrate is noted.

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Rehau. This brand has earned recognition for its consistently high German quality, simple and intuitive operation of the system and the most even distribution of heat over the floor surface

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Energy. The English supplier's products are often cited in positive reviews as a system of excellent quality at an affordable price. The production uses safe materials, advanced technologies and components from trusted suppliers

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Spyheat. The domestic manufacturer is also on the list of suppliers that have received positive reviews. Spyheat systems are electric underfloor heating, fully equipped and ready for assembly immediately after leaving the factory

This fact is very important for those who want to reduce costs, effort and time for purchase and installation.

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Ensto. The country of origin of these products is Finland. Severe frosts, as you know, are a characteristic feature of the northern climate, so all types of underfloor heating produced by this brand meet the expectations of consumers by 100%. Particularly loved in Russia is the line called "FinMat", which was developed taking into account the peculiarities of the climate in our country

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Electrolux. Unanimously named a quality and acceptable product

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Warmstad. According to the owners, it is synonymous with “cheap and practical”. Consumes less energy than others

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Aura. Another example of a German product, which is of high quality and reliable, which is loved by the Russians. A distinctive feature of the company is that when purchasing warm floors, you do not have to worry about the safety of the floor covering, since for each type of facing material the company has its own version of a warm floor

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Heat plus. Safe heating based on organic materials is the specialty of this Korean brand. And in Russia it was highly appreciated

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"National Comfort", "Snail". Domestic manufacturers producing goods of European quality with a focus on the climatic conditions of our country

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Successful examples and options

Underfloor heating is a useful device for the home. It is convenient to use it to heat the living room, bedroom, kitchen, cold bathroom. But besides the standard application, it also improves climatic conditions in places such as balconies and verandas. At the same time, in very cold rooms, some types of underfloor heating can be turned into wall heating. This system is very relevant for insulating a balcony and creating a recreation area, a botanical garden or a dressing room there.

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Recommendations for choosing a warm floor, you can find out from the video below.

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