Maintaining cleanliness and hygiene is very important for everyone. Moreover, for people working on the land or living outside the city, it is more logical to equip a bath. It will also come in handy for those who are simply a fan of the sauna culture.
To properly make a bath and achieve a decent result, you need to carefully study all the nuances and understand the structure of such a room. It will not hurt to delve into the intricacies of design.
Features of the
The construction of a bathhouse differs from the construction of a house, first of all, in that it is necessary to periodically create very high temperatures by household standards in the steam room. At the same time, even in "dry" versions, the air humidity is inevitably very significant. Therefore, you need to think about how to establish high-quality ventilation and release the air from excess fluid.
To solve this problem, options are used that are never used in residential buildings, especially in utility rooms.
And all finishing materials, all electrical devices must withstand such extraordinary conditions calmly, without undesirable consequences.
In addition to traditional Russian and Finnish baths, other options for bathing and washing areas are becoming more and more popular. The passion for hammam has been growing in recent years.
The Turkish standard bathhouse, insignificant in area, suggests that it will be entered for 10–20 minutes at most twice an hour. A modest area is preferable because otherwise a very powerful steam generator would be required. For four people, a volume of 250 x 250 cm is enough.
But there is an exception: in a small hammam it will not be possible to put a massage table. In any case, you will have to take into account that the external finish, walls and thermal insulation will absorb at least 7-10 cm in thickness. In hammams, flat seating surfaces are designed, as well as lying areas. Seats must be equipped with backs, it is advisable to use anatomical seats, sun loungers.
The steam outlet through the nozzle should take place at the most safe point for washable.
The ceilings of Turkish baths are mostly made arched, because this is the simplest solution.
If funds are available, you can attract designers and develop an original project:
- regular or pointed vault;
Do not expect that the arrangement of a Turkish bath, even with a total size of 3 x 4 m, will drastically save money. After all, you will definitely need, for example, a marble bowl - an indispensable attribute of any hammam. It is necessary to provide for the formation of an isolated technical block where the steam generator will be located. Most often, 1–1.5 square meters are allocated for such a compartment. m.
If a Turkish bath is attached to the house, it must be completely isolated from it.because 100% humidity will quickly begin to damage the main structures.
Hammam is always built immediately and for the entire cycle of use. It is very difficult to remodel it, almost impossible. Therefore, the design of a building costs a lot of money and is carried out exclusively by trained specialists.
It is recommended to use strictly natural materials in the interior design.… But at the same time, not all of them are able to withstand prolonged exposure to absolute humidity.
It will not be possible to do without exhaust ventilation, and at the design stage, three-dimensional models are necessarily used.
Many people think that building a sauna with a pool will be much easier. Yes, the cultural tradition that gave birth to it is closer and less exotic for the inhabitants of the Russian Federation than the Turkish approach. But at the same time, there are subtleties and nuances that must be taken into account. First of all, you need to decide whether the pool will be open or closed.
An open bath is always covered with a canopy, this will prevent various debris from falling into it.
According to marketing research, most consumers now prefer cascade pools. A series of bowls allows you to systematically reduce the bathing temperature and facilitates the organization of hardening.
The obvious disadvantage is that a lot of space will be required, while there will not be much water saving compared to a large single-chamber pool. Classic rooted-in solutions can be performed in a wide variety of configurations; when making your own hands, the most practical option would be a classic rectangle. Country baths are somewhat different from those that are built at residential buildings in the city.
It is imperative to orient the building to the cardinal points - if the exit is directed to the south, the snow near it will melt faster in the spring, and you will not have to clear the site or walk in a puddle.
Almost all people go to the bathhouse in the afternoon when things are done. Therefore, the windows facing west and catching the rays of the sun are the best choice. It is very important to choose whether the bath will be autonomous or attached to the house.
As the practice of many people shows, an attached option, if well insulated, does not in any way affect the state of the dwelling. There is no need to worry about dampness or getting too hot. But there are other considerations: for example, a detached building is safer in the event of a fire. And if they are going there for a holiday, then you can make noise, sing songs and the like, without fear of disturbing once again the peace of those who remain in the house.
It is better not to make the size of the summer cottage too large, because then there will be less space for other garden needs and buildings.
Bath houses are often complemented with an open veranda - but there are also nuances and tricks here. So, it is recommended to pay more attention to the equipment of the porch, which should be wide. It is very important to decide at the time of design how the entrance to the terrace will be formed. It is made either rigid or attached to the wall.
For your information: during the construction of the veranda, the same basic material is used as for the bath itself.
Most often, projects of this kind involve the use of timber, as well as hand-made handrails. Another option is a shallow (2 x 4 m) veranda; it is unlikely that it will be possible to hold tea there, except for one or two people. But it is quite possible to accumulate firewood and store other things necessary in the household.
If the veranda is larger, it can be equipped with several windows on one side and a closed wall on the other. Then it will be possible to isolate areas for recreation and for celebrations.
A very important point is the difference between one-story and two-story baths. A structure with a single floor has been recognized as a classic format for a long time, and it is these buildings that are used most often.
The reasons are obvious:
- saving on the volume of building materials and work;
- simplification of foundation construction;
- savings in use.
If the bath occupies an area of 6 by 8 meters, it is easy to place both a steam room and a washing room of sufficient area in it, and even equip a comfortable dressing room. It is also advisable to think about a leisure room. When there is enough space on the site, it is advisable to equip it with a sanitary unit and / or a kitchen.
One washable person should be from 1 sq. m of premises, and in order for washing to remain comfortable, this indicator should be increased by one and a half times.
Making a one-story bathhouse for a company of 4 or more will not work if its area is less than 50 m².
If there is not enough space on the site, one floor is no longer enough, you need to compensate for the lack of territory by increasing the height. The situation is different when it is required to free up space as much as possible, and even a simple one-story bath is not suitable. Then you should think about its location in the basement of a private house.
A side advantage of this solution is that you can go to wash in any weather, right from the living room. The construction of a basement bath, with due diligence, is quite accessible to anyone, even without special training.
In the basement rooms, where there was something else before, you will need to re-create:
- sewerage system;
- water pipes;
Regardless of whether the house is being built from scratch or it has been in use for some time, you need to prepare a project. Particular attention should be paid to chimneys, because they are the ones that cause the main difficulties in this version. All wires are pulled under the floor, in extreme cases - only slightly raise them above the floor. As in any other bathhouse, only heat-resistant light sources and electrical appliances need to be installed in the basement.
It is advisable not to rely on ventilation alone, but also to use air dehumidifiers - and for basement baths equipped with pools, this is generally a mandatory requirement.
The building will have to be insulated from all sides, since high humidity cannot be avoided. And she must meet an insurmountable obstacle on the way to the walls, the floor of the first floor, the foundation. The air tunnel from the wall to the insulation should be 0.1–0.2 m - if you make it more, the costs will rise unreasonably, and the result will not pay off.
Insulation of bath basements with foam is categorically unacceptablethat tend to emit toxic fumes when heated. Walls are recommended to be sheathed with natural wood, but not varnished or painted.
To supply water to the basement bath and drain dirty drains outside, it is worth using a pumping station.
Saving on waterproofing materials is unacceptable. A separate exit should be made from the room; another emergency exit is being prepared in the main building … It will not be possible to take into account all the subtleties and problems properly without outside help. Therefore, contacting a professional construction company is very important.
Both domestic and located in the country, baths are often equipped with a second floor. This decision is justified not only to save space, although it is also very important. Thanks to him, it turns out to distinguish between heterogeneous rooms and wash (steam) on one tier, and then relax on the second.
In most projects, the first level is reserved for the washing and boiler rooms., and at the top there is a rest room; this is the most practical way. Few people like to lift fuel and water to the second floor.
Many projects are aimed at making the second floor residential. Although some people are trying to locate a workshop or other utility room there.
It is extremely important to determine the appropriate dimensions of the structure, to calculate the number of those who will wash in the bath. And here again the advantage of the two-story structure is revealed. Even if its dimensions are less than 6 x 8 m, companies of four or five people will be able to use such a building. But in cases where there will definitely be more visitors, or the upper part is planned as residential, it is advisable to make the building more spacious.
The dressing room is always located on the ground floor, where a steam room and a washing room are most often prepared. As for the upper lobe, the latest architectural fashion was the equipment of a SPA-hall with vibration massagers and exercise machines.
Well, for those who cannot afford it, it is advisable to make there a small warehouse of inventory and various accessories … The construction of the attic allows you to lighten the structure and shorten the time for its construction in general, save money and simplify work with the foundation.
Separately, it should be said about the sauna stoves, or rather, about their correct location. An autonomous foundation is always equipped for the stoves. The entire area under and around them is best made of stone or brick. A steel sheet laid on a wooden base in a residential building will still prove to be reliable protection against fire, but in a bathhouse such a solution is no longer enough.
The distance to walls, railings, benches and shelves must be at least 30 cm.
And even under this condition, it is required to prepare external protection from non-combustible materials.
You cannot put a bath near the water itself or where the spring flood can reach.… Two-storey buildings are most organically located in elevated places, where a natural slope facilitates the passage of sewer drains. You cannot drain these drains into any bodies of water., both natural and artificial.
A two-story building usually places high demands on the foundation. The best ovens, according to professionals, are made of bricks.; but if it is necessary to heat two floors in winter, gas heating will be required.
Having dealt with the features of the projects, you can think about materials suitable for building a bath. One of the most attractive solutions of recent times is the use of SIP panels, which are increasingly in demand in low-rise buildings.
These structures are a pair of oriented particle boards, the gap between which is filled with expanded polystyrene. Thanks to the lightness of the structure, you can do without a heavy complex foundation and get all the work done quickly. At the same time, the level of thermal insulation of the walls is very high, it is much superior to both bricks and cinder blocks.
The bad thing about sandwich panels is that you can't do the work with them with your own hands. The frame should be made only by trained specialists in proven technology.
Another important point is sheathing of internal walls from waterproofing material, best of all plastic … Use foil and leave an air gap between it and the walls. You can completely build a bathhouse out of wood on your own.
This is a deeply traditional material that has been used in the construction of baths for more than one century. But wood is represented by at least a few key species. A beam made from coniferous logs is used most often. It retains its shape, retains heat well - and at the same time often suffers from shrinkage. The outer surface must be sheathed outside and inside in order to achieve the most aesthetic appearance.
The profiled type of timber is more expensive than glued timber and initially has precise geometric contours.
The cold is not allowed inside, and the walls get wet less if you use such material. As for the problems, you will have to wait until the prepared raw materials dry out; even after construction, you have to wait for her to sit down.
In some cases, baths are built from boards, bricks, aerated concrete blocks and a number of other materials.
The bathhouse can become a very pleasant and comfortable room - but for this it is not enough to choose the right materials and choose one or two floors. Any real bath, even if it is homemade, must be properly planned. Failure to pay attention to this moment will not only create significant inconvenience, but can also harm people.
Typical layouts include:
- dressing room;
- dressing room (sometimes combined with a dressing room);
- washing room;
- steam room.
In baths built-in and attached to houses, the preliminary compartment is often absent altogether. But with an autonomous structure, it is necessary, since it guarantees that the cold air does not cool out the entire room when the door is opened. The dressing room is always properly insulated. Considering that bath procedures take place mainly in the evenings, it is worth taking care of solid and reliable lighting.
In the entrance compartment, it is advisable to provide places for the location:
- broom (brooms);
- water buckets;
- firewood or coal;
- shoe rack or cabinet;
In more complex versions, this room is equipped with tables and TVs, fireplaces and refrigerators - whatever the owners wish. The only condition is space and financial capabilities.
The washing room is equipped in different ways, depending on how people are used to performing hygiene procedures. Showers and trays, a simple room with a boiler (stove) and buckets, exotic options for baths or a pool - all by personal choice. Additionally, there may be shelves, fasteners for detergents, hooks for towels and bathrobes.
It is advisable to separate the steam room from the washing one, because the required temperature and humidity conditions differ in them. The steam room is thoroughly insulatedto avoid cooling it too quickly. In addition to insulation, you will need to use wood upholstery (lining).
In pair rooms, it is recommended to install stoves like a heater, when choosing a type and model of which they pay attention to random factors:
- the amount of space;
- type of energy used;
- required thermal power.
Important: steam rooms should not be higher than 230 cm. Otherwise, too much of the steam will be wasted.
Inside, they put shelves in two levels: on one they sit, on the other they lie. The height of the upper shelves is made approximately equal to the growth of users.
An indispensable requirement for a modern steam room is the use of thermometers. It is better to refuse mercury devices, they are too dangerous in such a room; an additional hygrometer, on the other hand, is very useful.
How to heat?
A very important point when choosing a bath project and during its construction is the heating option.
Various types of fuel can give water and air the necessary heat impulse:
- natural gas;
- thermal convectors;
- warm floor;
- infrared heaters.
Almost all stoves that use wood can also be used to heat coal.… But the disadvantage of this option is the impossibility of automation. It is only held by the traditional commitment of a large number of people.
In this sense, pellets are simpler and more convenient, but even the longest washing takes only a few hours. Therefore, they cannot reveal their main advantage - long burning.
The use of natural gas for heating a bath is not always possible. This requires costly infrastructure, strict adherence to safety regulations. Coordination of all this with state bodies will also become an expensive matter.
Electric heating does not require such complicated statements, but at the same time it is more expensive than gas heating and implies a powerful supply line or a powerful current source.
Infrared heating is suitable for those who can shell out a large sum right away to save money later.
The use of underfloor heating in the bath is usually of a secondary nature - especially since they do not provide hot water for bathing procedures and "giving" steam.
Regardless of the method used, fire safety rules must be strictly followed. Lovers of Russian and any other traditional baths do not have much choice: they will have to use classic wood-burning hearths. Even the best imitations create only an external semblance of the original, but are not able to create an attractive atmosphere in the bath.
In general, in this case, you need to take into account your own taste, financial and technical capabilities.
The division of the bath space into separate rooms is inevitable. But when thinking over the division into zones, it is required to take into account the basic planning nuances. It is advisable to use low headliners and high thresholds in all rooms.to reduce heat drift.
A steam room even in a 4 x 4 square bath can be made comfortable, but you should not give more than 5 square meters for it. m. For the zoning of individual rooms inside, it is worth using shelves of various levels.
Having thought over the design and layout, choosing the materials, it's time to get ready for the construction of the bath. And the first step in this work is the construction of the foundation. Almost always it is made columnar or tape - the choice is determined by the type of material and the overall weight of the building.
The pillar base is prepared in cases when:
- an elevation difference was found on the site;
- there is a threat of flooding during floods or heavy precipitation;
- the soil includes loamy components, or coarse sand, or fine gravel.
On a flat area with earthy soils, tape bases show themselves much better. For quartz, rocky or solidly compacted sand, the choice of foundation is not important.
Regardless of the foundation you create, you will have to remove all debris and uproot shrubs, trees, grass, old roots. Fertile soil will have to be removed completely, removing it by 10-15 cm. The site is always thoroughly leveled, the protruding fragments are cut off, and the holes and gaps are filled.
Before marking the foundation, you need to choose the type of sewage system. Neither septic tanks, let alone simple cesspools, should be placed in the immediate vicinity of other people's sites, reservoirs or water intake points. If you plan to drain drains into the central sewerage system, the choice of a place for a bath is not limited.
Formwork of strip foundations is done with a rise of 45 cm above the trench … For its manufacture, such fasteners are used, which can then be easily removed without deforming the frozen concrete.
A considerable part of landowners give preference to frame and frame-panel baths over all others. If done correctly, the structure can retain heat very well. Most often, post foundations are hidden under the frame bath house. The frame itself is made from a pair of straps and wall elements.
The board is taken with transverse dimensions of 3.8 x 10 or 3.8 x 14 cm.
If the frame is assembled from a bar, then you can use parts of 10 x 10, 12 x 12 or 15 x 15 cm. Waterproofing of walls is sometimes provided with tar and roofing felt, although these materials are already out of date.
It is recommended to fasten the structures with nails or screws. Most builders make the bottom harness from the corner and assemble it in a circle. But it will be much safer to put the harness first on the two longest sides, and then on the shortened.
After finishing the work and checking its result with a level, you can grab the racks and the upper harness. Intermediate posts are set at a distance of 60 cm from each other; an exception is made only for places where windows and doors will have to be located.
The upper and lower limitation of the openings is achieved with the help of ledgers attached to the vertical parts. Before creating the upper strapping, the posts must be fixed with temporary braces, which are made from any unnecessary items.
Any walls, whether frame or other, support the roof of the bath. It is performed either as a gable or a pitched one. Exotic roofing structures can only be seen occasionally above the bathhouses. Even the attic floor is not always equipped, in many cases it is limited to creating a ceiling that underlies the roofing cake.
Shed roofs are equipped mainly in the case when the bath comes close to the house; also their advantage is the ability to drastically reduce costs.
Two ramps are widely used to cover log baths. If there is enough height at the slopes, and the ceiling has been worked out properly, it is easy to organize a utility or residential attic in the roof gap.
The height of the skates is determined by the aesthetic intentions of the owner and whether the under-roof space should be used or not. By increasing the angle, they improve the downward flow of precipitation - but at the same time, installation costs increase and the risk of heavy roof coverings collapsing increases. As a roof support, either the upper overlapping beams or the Mauerlat attached to the upper trim are used.
The second option is in demand mainly on walls made of:
- foam concrete;
- aerated concrete;
- slag concrete;
- sand concrete.
To put the upper overlapping beams on a wooden bath, the crowns are strictly at the same level equipped with nests. In this case, it is required to carefully verify whether the prepared grooves are clearly on a horizontal line. The withdrawal of beams outside the walls of the bath is allowed, but without supporting pillars, it cannot be more than 50 cm.
To form the rafters, you can take completely ready-made prefabricated blocks or independently assemble parts from logs of at least 12 cm in diameter.
The formation of the frame is not the only option to make the walls in the bath properly. There are other ways, each of them has its own subtleties and possible problems. Log structures are often preferred because they are breathable and provide natural ventilation.
This does not mean that special ventilation solutions can be dispensed with.
In addition, the wood will have to be treated with waterproofing, antiseptics and fire retardants.
The best species are spruce and pine wood. from the northern regions of the country. Linden is a good substitute for them, moreover, this material is also cheaper than a coniferous massif. In any case, you should refuse wood containing many resinous pockets, as well as knotty material.
When stacking logs, work so that the thick end of each log overlaps with a thin, and vice versa. The most serious opponent of natural wood is moisture accumulating in its massif.
In addition to roofing material and glassine, polymer films of a special sample and aluminum foil provide protection against it. They are placed above the insulation, attaching either with small nails or with a stapler. Brick and building blocks inside are sheathed with clapboard, and in the interval from it to the main wall, heat protection is placed.
Partitions are made in ½ or ¼ bricks. When laying the basement above the waterproofing, hollow bricks are used.
Brick walls require insulation in any case. Plate insulation materials have become widespread. There are no special differences between them, except for small nuances. Important: it is required to leave an air gap from the insulation layer to the outer wall.
Brick waterproofing is done by painting or pasting. In the first case, bituminous mastics or primers of a special composition, reinforced with antiseptic components, are used.
When plastering, solutions are used from a mixture of lime and cement with the addition of pumice, expanded clay and other lightweight fillers. A layer of plaster can be applied to the outer surface, but there you will also need to use lining. This technique will guarantee the highest thermal stability.
From the inside, corks made of wood are actively used, embedded in the masonry itself.
It is much easier and easier to attach full-fledged slats through these plugs than directly to a brick.
Floor equipment in baths is no less responsible than working with walls and ceilings. These structures must tolerate stable moisture and be safe to walk on. Often they are one of the elements of the sewage system, and if the bath is operated only during the warm period, they must also endure frost.
Pouring concrete into the base is harder and takes longer than laying logs. But on the other hand, the service life of the coating exceeds 50 years.
If you use lumber, then they will need to be changed after 7-9 years. You can, of course, use stronger types of wood - only their cost is almost the same as that of concrete, but it will still not work to achieve its characteristics.
When choosing a floor structure, you should immediately distinguish between water-permeable and water-proof options. The first type is recommended if you can discharge wastewater directly into a drainage pit.hidden under the base of the bath.
As a result, they are equipped with:
- baths in the southern regions;
- or used seasonally;
- or buildings left cold in private houses (in winter they are heated about once a week).
Equipping a floor that won't leak at all takes a lot more effort. The flooring on the logs is formed from grooved material (strictly larch or pine) and make sure that even negligible gaps do not remain. There is always a sub-floor under this layer. Sometimes its additional insulation is practiced. The slope of the floorboards in any case rushes to the point where the drains are collected and pass into the sewer ditch or into the septic tank.
Before pouring concrete, the soil is tamped and strengthened, and the first layer of mortar should be 50 mm. Then a heater is put in, mainly felt or expanded clay; above it there is a reinforcing layer with a Rabitz mesh and a leveling layer. Only then can the top coat be applied. The slope rate is the same as for wooden products - it is 10 degrees.
Knowing these simple requirements avoids many problems when operating a bath.
No matter how strong and solid the structure is, no matter what type of floor and wall decoration is chosen - all this can become unusable in a matter of months. A well-designed ventilation helps to avoid such a negative development of events.
The sauna air constantly accumulates carbon dioxide and water vapor, and the oxygen content gradually decreases. Therefore, adjusting air exchange with the external environment is also a concern for your own health and safety.
At the same time, thoughtful ventilation does not distort the thermal regime and does not lead to excessively intense heat loss.
The outflow of exhaust air to the outside occurs through a box, which is recommended to be placed diagonally from the inlet. You need to ventilate not only the steam room, but also all the other rooms of the bath.
To prevent rodents and insects from seeping into the interior, special grilles on the air ducts will help. The stove is placed in such a way that the finished floor is above the blower: this technique allows you to use it as a hood. The underfloor ventilation duct is located at the very metal sheet, then the risk of ignition is reduced to zero.
The interior and exterior decoration of the bath is equally important for the owners themselves. But for strangers, the exterior is still in the first place. It is advisable to agree on the design concept of the bathhouse and dacha (country house) as a whole.
Most often used for outdoor decoration:
- various types of tiles;
Important: it is undesirable to close the log buildings with something at all.
Their aesthetics are self-sufficient, even capable of becoming an architectural dominant on the site. Plastics and other cutting-edge materials are strongly undesirable.… Even if the entire space is designed in a constructivist style, let there be at least a corner free of ultra-modern delights.
An original move: to make a "bathhouse that is not recognized as a bathhouse" - an imitation of a residential building or other structures allows you to make a good impression. If the surface is nondescript in appearance (lined with ready-made blocks, for example), a ventilated facade is invaluable.
Metal siding is non-flammable and is deservedly recognized as one of the best solutions for shallow baths. The panels on sale now can be painted in a wide variety of colors, but most consumers prefer cream and chocolate shades.
It is worth immediately considering the fastening of the panels, because mistakes in it can lead to rapid damage to the material.
Dark siding gets too hot in the sun in summer. Imitation of a bar is more expensive than it, but at the same time it will completely satisfy the most demanding aesthetic taste.
Simulating a timber is useful because this solution:
- 100% environmentally friendly;
- mounted without unnecessary problems;
- has a wide variety of sizes;
- able to work from 20 years, providing great thermal insulation all this time.
Problems can be associated with the flammability of the finish and its insect susceptibility.
Special processing solves them to a large extent, but increases the cost of construction or repairs. It is advisable to calculate the required amount of material before purchasing, otherwise unnecessary costs are obtained. You can trim only the most even walls on top of a wooden or metal crate.
The lathing made of wood must also undergo all the prescribed preventive treatment.
The construction of the building and its external decor does not mean that all work is over. Interior decoration - and in each of the rooms according to its own special rules - is of the utmost importance. Don't experiment with original styles or try to invent your own approach unnecessarily.
An impeccable, seasoned classic is much better suited for an even, calm rest. Interior walls and other surfaces should not have too bright spots of color, flashy geometric shapes or finishes in radically new materials.
When facing from the inside with wood, an indispensable requirement is the use of one species, otherwise an unpleasant variegation arises. It is much more correct to place accents with the help of traditional accessories - brooms, samovars, hats and discreet pieces of furniture. Any decorative elements look most profitable in the light of soft yellow lamps..
The rest room in most cases is sewn up with clapboard; lamps are mounted both on the ceiling and on the walls. The floors are predominantly tiled in order to provide easy maintenance in addition to their visual appeal.
Modern entertainment and electronic equipment is inevitably becoming a violation of the classical approach. But this is the error that is quite acceptable even in the most classicist interior.
Maximum attention should be paid to decorating the steam room, the main material in this case is the lining of wood on the walls and tiles on the floor … Fidelity to tradition is expressed with a stove-type stove that looks natural and simple. As a last resort, you can try the design of natural stone or single inserts of refractory glass.
A blind wooden door to the steam room is a traditional move; a concession to modern design principles can be made with a glass door. Such a step is definitely better from the point of view of safety (it will be easier to control what is happening inside from the outside, and it will be easier to get out). The outward opening is clearly more correct than inward, because it does not absorb the free space in the steam room.
It is not recommended to use pine boards in the decoration, it is too easy to burn yourself on them.
Design is inextricably linked with style - and there are good reasons to believe that the Russian country sauna, even if imitated at the modern level, will not go away for at least a couple of centuries. The saturation of the interior space with additional functions did not pass unnoticed, of course. An insignificant number of people agree to drown in "black" and not even have a separate steam room or rest room. But it is all the more important to maintain each of the premises in a single traditional style.
Demonstration of adherence to it will help:
- rough, unfinished or carved wood;
- forged parts;
- handmade decor.
The relaxation room for a bath, made in Russian style, contains a lot of high-quality textiles. It is advisable not to paint the floors, but only soak with hydrophobic agents.
The role of decorative accessories is great - wooden spoons and bast shoes, thematic painting, emphasized antique curtains. In addition to specialized stores, you can find suitable options in rural markets and on specialized sites. The best and most enjoyable way to get the desired interior design is to make the decor yourself.
It is not at all necessary to limit your design searches only to the Russian classical approach. Country style has earned no less popularity now - it is intended for wooden buildings of a utilitarian nature. The simplest subtype of country music appeared in the USA, but French is somewhat more elegant and graceful.
The main requirement, regardless of the national format, is the use of light wood in decoration and furniture.
Carved patterns and polishing make furniture more attractive than in the Russian style - but it can only be installed in dressing rooms and rest rooms. The dishes that meet the requirements of the country are always painted in bright colors, mainly blue-white or light yellow. Images of pastoral landscapes, colorful natural fabrics will also be a good idea. Beams on the ceiling and a plank or tiled floor will help to complete the ensemble.
In the oriental bath the design approach is somewhat different.
It already implies:
- bright and juicy colors;
- chic-looking textiles;
- furniture strictly corresponding in spirit;
- exotic design items.
Mosaic helps to increase the attractiveness of the interior in an oriental style.
When there is no desire to completely transform the bath, you can place it not in the steam room, but in the washing room or around the pool. The relaxation area turns into a hookah lounge with light touches. If this is not necessary, a table with beautifully bent legs can add oriental notes. The seats are decorated with mosaics in any case, as this is firmly required by the canon.
No luxury and pomp can be seen in a Scandinavian bath … It is not at all necessary to use it specifically for a sauna - in ordinary washing houses this solution also looks attractive. The main requirement is a flexible combination of classic proportions and accentuated external roughness.
Preference is given to light colors, an excess of design details is categorically unacceptable … But at the same time, it will not be a special sin against the canons to form accents on catchy objects.
The design of the Japanese-style bath is gaining popularity … Its principle is the exclusion of the steam room as such. A furako barrel, where hot water is poured, as well as another barrel filled with small pebbles or sawdust, helps to replace it. To improve the effect of "solid wash", use aroma components. Bamboo products will complement the Japanese approach to the interior.
Sometimes (but relatively rarely), the modern style is used in the design of the bath space.… It can be briefly described as follows: everything that is contrary to the spirit of country. The main idea is to replace the straight classic configuration with curved, even strange-looking shapes. The combination of a variety of interior items and finishes is encouraged.
The modernist setting is almost perfect for the most daring and radical experiments. It is advisable to finish the rest rooms with leather, glass and chrome parts.
Speaking about decorative objects and style, one cannot but touch upon a very important aspect - what kind of furniture is better to put in the bath. In the steam room, you should definitely equip two curtains and a bench. A bench or bench should also be installed in the rest room (for her, this is the very minimum). The simplest option is acceptable if in the bath they just come to their senses after washing, and then immediately go home.
But for a more thorough rest, you should look for a suitable sofa.
A canopy made of wood is easily made by hand. The main thing is to clearly understand its desired shape, length and type of wood. Such a structure can be made of steps in a specific place or it can be a shelf that stretches along the perimeter of the room.
The upper canopy is recommended to be fixed to the wall, and the lower one to the floor. In the manufacture of seats, both well-polished boards and lining are used.
Separate blocks are spaced 100–150 cm apart to facilitate water drainage and speed up drying of the seat. Wooden dowels are better than nails when working on bathroom furniture, because you cannot burn yourself on them.
If there is a desire to at least periodically sit in the bath at the table, the best place to place it is the dressing room.
Each board is thoroughly sanded before starting work, even with sandpaper. Extreme parts, corners and cut-off places are processed as carefully as possible.
Professional furniture makers believe that bath set items are best obtained from high-quality pedunculated oak … It looks aristocratic and sophisticated, creates the most benevolent impression. But at the same time, strips made of such a material are very fragile and can crack if handled carelessly.
Aspen tree is much more practical, is relatively inexpensive and can be used in the most aesthetic interior. Its disadvantage is its tendency to dry quickly and the appearance of mechanical deformation.
Alder is also well processed at home., and even allows you to form a pattern like more expensive types of wood. Experienced people carefully check how well the alder massif is dried, and whether there is an excess of knots in it. It is in this breed that such problems are encountered quite often.
The use of MDF and chipboard is impractical … Even the cheapness of the structures made from them cannot be an excuse.
The main conclusion that can be drawn when studying the reviews of the owners of baths is that when designing them, you should not chase fast-moving fashion or try to adjust the interior, appearance to the status. You need to think about what is required for yourself personally, focus primarily on your own taste and approach. Of course, if they do not make the bath dangerous.
There is no particular choice of materials in the steam room, but it is quite possible to experiment with geometric shapes of structures and hidden lighting.
The leisure room will benefit from the addition of a barbecue.
Many people do not even think about it - and completely in vain; whoever dares to try such an element never abandons it. When decorating a room, you need to move as far as possible from a standard office or mass living space. Even eclecticism in design is acceptable, provided that the subject that will be the organizer is clearly highlighted. Most often this is a large format TV.
You should also not neglect the organization of space in the attic.
By tradition, some of the baths are still made without a sanitary unit, but every year there are fewer and fewer of them. Even adherents of the Old Russian style or Gothic architecture are unlikely to give up such a comfortable element.
The use of swimming pools is also a useful addition to bathing leisure. This is far from just a "container with clean water of a certain temperature." After all, it is quite cheap to equip a pool with illumination of a sophisticated geometric shape.
If the building is large, you can equip a leisure room directly in front of the steam room. When there is not enough space, a dressing room is converted for it.
Lighting is done in two levels: central light sources provide the main stream, and local ones show accents.
There should be a rich light in the middle of the room, and relaxed light would be better at the edges.
If it is planned that several people will visit the bath at once, a corner sofa becomes the optimal way out for a small room.
The bathhouse can be, in fact, practically a work of art, not leave anyone indifferent in principle. This is how one of the options for the steam room looks like, upholstered with boards from the inside and carefully designed.
One of the possible types of baths outside (from the facade). A roof that is strongly pushed forward is surprising at first. But then it becomes clear that this is just an original move, and in general the whole concept is built on maximum originality. What are at least the twisted columns of open roof supports, harmoniously combined with the curved wooden surfaces of the facade wall.
See below for more details.