Underfloor heating is very popular nowadays. The demand for such systems is explained by the fact that they are very effective in providing heating to any area. In addition, they can be combined with different finishing materials, and many heating structures can be installed on their own. In order for the system to function smoothly and efficiently, it is necessary to take seriously the choice of pipes. We will talk about this today.
Features of the
High-quality and practical floors that heat a room are quite common today. They can be used in a wide variety of environments. It can be not only a private house, but also an ordinary city apartment. Moreover, people often install such heating systems on balconies and loggias, turning them into full-fledged living rooms.
The quality of work of these structures largely depends on the competent choice of pipes. In addition, these details also affect the service life of the underfloor heating. That is why it is necessary to select suitable pipes with all responsibility, otherwise the structure will not last very long and will not work at full strength.
Modern manufacturers offer a choice of buyers copper, steel, metal-plastic, polypropylene and polyethylene pipes. You cannot use ferrous metal products in the installation of a warm floor. This is due to the fact that these elements are suture and it is not recommended to lay them under the screed.
Also, experts do not advise using steel pipes for laying a warm water floor. These elements are susceptible to corrosion, therefore, limescale can form in their inner part quite soon. The appearance of such defects can lead to leaks or a decrease in the throughput of the entire system as a whole.
Copper options are considered universal. Their main advantage is their long service life. However, it is worth considering that a water-heated floor with such pipes will cost the buyer a tidy sum. This is due to the fact that in addition to the pipes themselves, the owners will have to buy special connecting elements, fittings and reliable fasteners. The listed components increase the cost of the floor by about 30%.
Reinforced-plastic pipes for underfloor heating are alternatives. The main features of these parts are their low weight and environmental friendliness. Reinforced-plastic components consist of several layers, the quality of which must be ideal, otherwise the pipes will leak. These elements are cheaper than copper ones, so they are very often chosen by modern consumers. Of course, a number of positive qualities also affect their popularity, which we will talk about later.
Polypropylene pipes are distinguished by a large bend radius. That is why their installation is considered more difficult. Buyers do not turn to these types of pipes so often, although they are inexpensive. Not every home craftsman will be able to cope with the installation of these parts. As a rule, specialists are hired for this, which leads to additional expenses.
Pipes made of cross-linked polyethylene can boast of unique properties. Their feature is the additional processing that they undergo in the process of their manufacture. This process takes place under high pressure, due to which new molecular bonds of the raw material appear, and it becomes more durable and reliable.
Quite good heat transfer is characteristic of stainless steel pipes. This corrugated tube is durable. According to the manufacturers, these components have no life limitations. This feature of stainless pipes is very tempting in the selection of suitable components for underfloor heating, but such elements are expensive, and the rubber seals in them are not as durable. They serve no more than 30 years.
The main feature that pipes for a warm floor must have is their elasticity. At the moment of bending, these parts should not undergo deformation or breakage, because during the installation process, contours with a length of 60-120 m will be laid, and small bends in them will occur many times.
Having familiarized yourself with some of the features of different pipes designed for water heated floors, you can proceed to familiarize yourself with their pros and cons. Knowing detailed information about these elements, the selection of a suitable option will be greatly simplified and will not take much time.
One of the most common are pipes, in the production of which cross-linked or heat-resistant polyethylene is used.
This raw material has its own designations:
- PE-X is a sewn material.
- PE-RT is a heat-resistant material.
- There are also low pressure polyethylene tubing (HDPE).
Surely many people know that polyethylene itself is a fairly plastic material that does not hold its shape at all. In this state, it is not suitable for equipping underfloor heating structures. To solve this problem, experts have developed a special method of "stitching", during which polyethylene molecules are connected to each other. This process has a beneficial effect on the strength and rigidity of the raw material. The quality of the finished material can be determined by its stitching.
There are several types of XLPE:
- PE-XA (70%) - in such a raw material, high pressure is used to combine molecules, under which (in the presence of peroxides) they combine with each other.
- PE-Xb (65%) - this method of crosslinking occurs under the influence of chemicals. Silane is most commonly used for this.
- PE-Xc (60%) is a special method of electron irradiation. Under its influence, the formation of bonds between molecules in the composition of polyethylene is carried out.
- PE-Xd - This technology is outdated. It involves the use of special nitrogenous substances.
Polyethylene pipes are a good option for underfloor heating. They boast good thermal conductivity, excellent mechanical properties, and a minimum roughness factor, which minimizes the resistance to movement of the coolant flow. The diameter of such pipes is usually 16-32 mm.
Such a pipe for underfloor heating must necessarily have an acid-water-tight protection in the form of an additional layer of EVOH, which is a thin film. With this treatment, polyethylene pipes will serve for a very long time, like the entire heating system as a whole.
It is worth noting that simple polyethylene pipes conduct heat slightly worse than popular metal-plastic options. Another drawback of these parts is their excessive elasticity. This characteristic leads to the fact that the tube itself bends easily, but it must be tightly tied to the structure frame. Otherwise, it will return to its original form. Because of this nuance of installation, polyethylene pipes complicate the process of installing a warm floor.
Relatively recently, a special heat-resistant polyethylene has appeared, which is made in a different way. For its production, chemical reactions are used, the result of which is the interlacing of chains of molecules, and this happens mechanically, and not through a bond between atoms.
Heat-resistant polyethylene is a less common and often found material, as it is still considered new. It has good quality and performance characteristics, but it is not recommended to use it for underfloor heating. This is due to the fact that heat-resistant polyethylene can reduce the service life of the heating system and degrade its performance in high temperature conditions.
Polypropylene pipes are produced in small pieces. Their diameter is usually 20 mm. The disadvantage of these parts is their rigid structure, due to which they are difficult to bend, which cannot be avoided during the installation of underfloor heating.
Due to the fact that these parts are very difficult to bend, parts of the pipeline will have to be connected to each other using couplings using welding.
Because of this, several problems arise at once:
- Leakage sources may develop over time in the connecting areas.
- Installation time will increase significantly.
Before pouring the screed, it is necessary to ensure the quality of all pipe welds. To do this, start the system and let it run at high pressure and operating temperature. Take your time checking the work of the structure. During the operation of the floor, you need to carefully inspect all connections. If water does not seep through them, then the system can be considered sufficiently reliable and durable.
Of course, experts recommend using only high-quality pipes produced by well-known companies. Such parts are more reliable and durable.
The advantages of polypropylene pipes include:
- Low cost;
- Quite good thermal conductivity characteristics, similar to metal-plastic products;
- Harmlessness (these elements are chemically neutral);
One of the best and highest quality pipes are copper pipes. They are perfect for hot water heating systems.
Such details have a number of positive qualities that make them in demand and popular with modern buyers:
- First of all, it should be noted the increased wear resistance of copper elements. They are not destroyed by aggressive components.
- Copper pipes have excellent thermal conductivity. In this regard, they are ahead of polymer materials.
- They are flexible enough. Most often, a special annealed pipeline is used in heating systems.
- Copper parts boast a long service life. They can serve for decades without causing any trouble to their owners.
- Such pipes have a large number of temperature regimes during their operation.
- The inner walls of copper pipes are absolutely smooth, so these elements have excellent hydraulic properties.
Copper pipes are rightfully recognized as the most reliable, durable and practical. However, they also have their own weaknesses. For example, the disadvantages of such products include their high cost. Not every consumer is willing to pay large sums of money for copper pipes.
It is also worth mentioning that special equipment is required to install them. That is why the installation of copper pipes can be an overwhelming task for a home craftsman.
Pipes in the production of which metal-plastic is used are among the most popular today. Such details are perfect for underfloor heating. Reinforced-plastic pipes consist of two polymer layers, supplemented with an aluminum layer.
The popularity of these parts is due to the affordable cost and other positive qualities:
These pipes have good thermal conductivity. This effect is achieved thanks to the aluminum interlayer
- Reinforced-plastic structures are perfectly protected from various external damages, as they have polymer layers.
- Installation of these pipes is not difficult, since they bend quite easily. Thanks to this characteristic, it is very convenient to use such structures in the underfloor heating system.
- There is no need to be afraid of damage to the screed or wear of the line, since metal-plastic pipes have a low coefficient of casting expansion.
In many respects, metal-plastic pipes are superior to conventional plastic and even copper options. However, when using a low-quality adhesive, these elements may last less and lose many of their positive qualities.
More recently, stainless steel corrugated pipes have appeared on the market. Such specimens are considered ideal for installing a warm floor, because they are characterized by increased flexibility, reliability, durability and fairly simple installation. In addition, the corrugated pipe is inexpensive and is produced in coils of impressive length. Corrugation made of stainless steel is frost-resistant and withstands hydraulic shocks without problems. In addition, it has a low expansion coefficient and high thermal conductivity.
Fittings differ in the way they are installed. However, connections can only be addressed in exceptional cases, because their use in a screed is a big risk. It is recommended to lay a single piece of pipe and place it on the manifold assembly. The service life of a corrugated pipe is 30 years (on average).
Which is better?
For underfloor heating, you can use any of the listed pipes, but the most popular and recommended are copper and metal-plastic options. Consumers choose them most often because they are durable, wear-resistant, and also have excellent thermal conductivity. Unfortunately, the cost of such pipes is high, but their performance fully justifies the price.
When making a choice in favor of expensive copper structures, it should be borne in mind that their installation is quite difficult. Because of this, you will have to spend additional money on the services of specialists.
Cross-linked polyethylene pipes are also a good option, as they have excellent heat transfer characteristics.
Polypropylene pipes are the least suitable for underfloor heating. As stated above, they are not flexible, so installing them can be a real hassle. Also, heat-resistant polyethylene is not at all suitable for underfloor heating systems, since at high temperatures it can deform finishing materials.
The pipe diameter in the heating system plays one of the key roles. This indicator directly depends on the speed of movement of the coolant. The diameter also influences the selection of a suitable pump.
As a rule, in warm floors there are pipes with a diameter of 12, 16, 20, 25, 32 mm. However, in most cases, small specimens with a diameter of 16 or 20 mm are used.
Most often in stores there are pipes for underfloor heating, the size of which is 20x2 mm, 20x3.4 mm, 20x4.2 mm.
Also, pipes differ in bending radius. For example, for polypropylene options this figure is 8-9 diameters, and for more flexible polyethylene pipes - 5 diameters.
As for the length of the pipe, it depends on the dimensions of the room., in which it is planned to install a warm floor, as well as pump power. So, if the room has a simple rectangular shape, then pipes can be placed in two available ways: lengthen or reduce them. As a result, we can conclude that the installation of floor heating pipes largely depends on their size. During installation, these parts are poured with concrete (or another mixture), therefore, they differ in strength characteristics and reliable tightness.
As for the pipe pitch, it is worth considering that it is also determined strictly individually. However, the most common steps are from 10 to 40 cm. Of course, this indicator can be achieved only if the materials are sufficiently plastic.
Most quality pipes for underfloor heating have a high melting and burning temperature. For example, popular polyethylene specimens will melt only when the ambient temperature reaches 150 degrees, and the combustion temperature of these products is 400 degrees Celsius.
Polypropylene pipes, which are poorly suited for laying in a warm floor system, are quite demanding on temperature conditions. They can be installed only if the room temperature is at least 15 degrees, and this indicator is not always typical for regions with unfavorable climate conditions.
As for expensive and durable copper structures, they are corrosion resistant and can easily withstand almost any temperature conditions. This indicator can vary from -100 to +250 degrees.
Reinforced-plastic products for warm systems cannot boast of such resistance to temperature extremes as copper options. They withstand indicators from -10 to +95 degrees. The limit value is 110 degrees, and this temperature should be kept for a very short time, otherwise the pipe will begin to deform.
Do not rush to start installing floor heating pipes. First you need to make an accurate heat engineering calculation. Of course, complex computational operations are needed only when it comes to large areas. For an ordinary private house or city apartment, simple recommendations developed over many years of practice are quite enough.
First you need to solve the issue regarding the diameter of the pipes. Most often, 16 or 20 mm options are chosen for installing a warm floor. The diameter of the structures depends on many factors.
- Room area;
- The total number of living rooms;
- Working pressure in the heating system;
- Immediate temperature of the coolant;
- Pipe laying method;
- Boiler volume;
- Pump power (taken with a margin).
It is worth considering that the wider the pipe is, the more water will pass through it. Using such details, the room will warm up much faster than with small diameter tubes. However, wide elements will require a screed of decent thickness and a more powerful pump, since it will be necessary to pump a considerable amount of water, as well as maintain the appropriate pressure in the system.
If you are going to install underfloor heating throughout the house, then one pump is definitely not enough for you. In order not to face unnecessary problems, you should consult with specialists who will tell you how to be specific in your situation.
The pipes themselves can be absolutely any (of all of the above), but the hydraulic resistance of the entire system will change slightly from this. Moreover, the power of the pump, as a rule, is selected with a margin, so the difference between different materials will not be significant.
It is recommended to calculate the flow rate of the pipe after preparing a separate place for the manifold. This device is designed to maintain optimal pressure in the pipes, as well as to heat the water in the system. Thanks to the collector, you can maintain a certain temperature in the room. It is necessary to purchase this useful device, taking into account the footage of the room.
The average collector size is typically 60 cm long, 40 cm high and 12 cm deep. Such devices can be purchased at hardware stores.
The flow rate of the underfloor heating pipe largely depends on the loop pitch:
- A step of 100 mm - 10 rm (running meter) per 1 square meter;
- 150 mm - 6.7 r.m. per 1 m2;
- 200 mm - 5 l. M per 1 sq. m;
- 250 - 4 p.m. per 1 m2;
- 300 - 3.4 l. M per 1 m2.
It is also necessary to calculate the length of the water floor heating contour. This can be done based on the diameter of the pipes and the material from which they are made. For example, metal-plastic structures with a parameter of 16 inches must have contours not exceeding 100 meters.
Also, in calculating the length of pipes, it is necessary to determine the scheme of their laying. Most often, people choose snake or snail layouts. For reliable XLPE pipes with a larger diameter of 18 mm, the maximum branch length should not exceed 120 m.
If you are going to put large and heavy furniture or appliances in the room, then under these objects, pipes of a warm floor cannot be carried out. This will reduce the measured area. In addition, about 20 cm should be retreated from the floors. These nuances must be taken into account when you calculate the area of the room.
If you have made all the necessary measurements and stocked up with the necessary materials / tools, then you can start laying the heating system. The first step will be the installation of thermal insulation.
Installation of thermal insulation
At this stage, preparatory work is taking place. The floor is thoroughly cleaned of foreign objects, dust and dirt. After that, you need to expand the thermal insulation layer. For this, inexpensive foam is often chosen. Its slabs must be laid on a rough base.
The thickness of one foam sheet should not be more than 12 cm. It is necessary to calculate this parameter based on the dimensions of the room and its location in the building.
Installation of waterproofing
When you have finished installing the foam (or other thermal insulation material), you need to properly lay out the second layer of waterproofing. Most often, plastic wrap is bought for these purposes. It must be attached to the walls in the room (next to the skirting boards) and supplemented with a reinforced mesh.
Laying and securing pipes
After laying all the necessary layers on the rough base, you can proceed with the installation and fastening of the pipes of the heating system. If all the calculations were made correctly and you have selected a suitable scheme for laying the structure, then this work will not be difficult and will not take much time.
When laying pipes for a warm water floor, they must be fixed with a special reinforced mesh. To do this, use connections in the form of guy wires or clamps. After this stage, you can proceed to crimping the resulting structure.
Pressure testing must be carried out within 24 hours at operating pressure. Using this process, you can identify installation errors, as well as eliminate various mechanical damage to materials.
There are other ways to install floor heating pipes. For example, such systems can be connected to the main heating in the room. For the installation of such elements, you can use both one-pipe and two-pipe lines. They are installed not only in private houses, but also in ordinary apartments in a city high-rise building. The constant circulation of water in these structures is provided by a pump, which is responsible for high-quality heating of the space and the return of the coolant through the return pipes.
As for the circuit of such a heating system, it is quite possible to design it yourself. To do this, you just need to take into account the location of the pipes in the room. If all the installation work is carried out correctly, and the boiler functions properly, then this heating option will surpass conventional batteries in many respects.
For a high-quality installation of a warm floor, the following components will be required:
- Stapler holder. This part is necessary for attaching the heating pipes with a stapler to the thermal insulation layer.
- Corner retainer.
- Fixing track for pipe laying. Most often, this part is made of PVC. It is advisable to buy tracks with built-in pipe clamps.
- Threaded fastening.
- Special tiles for pipe laying. Such parts represent a panel made of polystyrene foil with installed pipe clamps.
- Fastening wire.
- Fastening strip with additional adhesive layer.
- Expansion profile.
- Pumping and mixing block.
- Thermostatic mixing valve.
- Collector set.
- Pump-mixing module.
- Tightening clamps.
- Foil for the expansion joint.
- Double-sided tape for connecting panels.
- Thermal insulation foil.
- Textured foil.
- Polyethylene film.
- Fixing anchors.
- Various fasteners (staples, wires, tracks, straps).
- Reinforcing mesh.
- Damper tape.
- Rough base underlay.
If you decide to independently select and install pipes for a warm floor, then you should know what problems you may encounter in this work:
- In order not to face the unpleasant problem associated with the formation of condensate, you should turn to high-quality pipes. For example, metal-plastic options do not face such disadvantages, since they have an insulating foil layer.
- Install the structure correctly. Mistakes made during installation most often lead to serious damage to heating systems.
- A common cause of underfloor heating breakdowns is pipeline damage.
If a sharp drop in pressure has occurred in it, then this, as a rule, is associated with structural leaks. Such unpleasant consequences can be caused by a hall of pipes or any other damage to them.
- Often, households are faced with the problem of insufficient heating of the room while observing the optimal pressure regimes. The most common cause of this defect is the uneven distribution of liquid along the branches of the pipeline. You can get rid of this problem if you initially correctly set up the work of the warm floor. The ideal level must be determined for each circuit.
- Often there are also problems associated with electrical equipment underfloor heating. Any sensors and pumps operating on power supply can fail during their operation. You can make sure that such elements are in good working order by paying attention to the rotation of the rod during operation of the device - it should be visible. A multimeter is also suitable for testing equipment. Thanks to this device, it becomes possible to check the power supply.
- Also common problems associated with underfloor heating are insufficient thermal insulation of the subfloor and poor boiler output. In order not to face the first problem, you should take a responsible attitude to the preparation of the floor before installing the heating system. Do not skimp on thermal insulation, otherwise the room will not be as warm as you would like.
- It is better to select a boiler with a small power reserve. In this case, you will insure yourself against insufficient functioning of the heating system.
- There are times when the boiler has sufficient power, but the room is still cool. Perhaps this indicates that it is necessary to properly clean the boiler and audit the temperature sensors or carry out scheduled repairs to the structure.
- Less often, owners are faced with the problem of excessive heating of the living space. With such a defect, the room becomes unbearably hot, and the floor heats up a lot in a very short time. If this problem is not solved in time, then the floor covering may deteriorate, and with it the screed and the pipes themselves. Most often, excessive heating occurs due to an incorrect setting of the heating system. If you have not been able to find out what the reason is, then it is better to call specialists before the base and finishing materials undergo deformations.
The listed problems can be completely avoided. In order not to encounter these defects, you should purchase high-quality and reliable materials that will last a long time and will not cause any problems. To do this, you should turn to products from well-known manufacturers who value their reputation and produce reliable components for underfloor heating.
You should also install the heating system in accordance with all the rules. None of the installation steps can be neglected, otherwise, as a result, the structure will turn out to be of little functionality and short-lived.
To find the perfect pipes for your underfloor heating and install them without any problems, it is worth familiarizing yourself with some of the recommendations of experts, with the help of which you can avoid many problems:
- It is recommended to install pipes for underfloor heating in the company with an assistant. If you are going to carry out installation alone, then you should give preference to lightweight metal-plastic types or corrugated pipe.
- Don't skimp on floor heating pipes. Choose only quality products that will last for many years. As a rule, such products can easily withstand temperature changes and do not undergo deformations such as fractures, which can lead to leaks.
- Choose only those pipes that have increased tightness, because a high-quality heating system must be protected from oxidation.
- If you want to achieve better heating of the living area, then you should use pipes with a diameter of 20 mm or more. However, it must be borne in mind that for such structures, an appropriate pump will be required. By the way, it always needs to be selected with a small power reserve.
- Pay attention to the temperature conditions inside the system. The optimal input and output index should not differ by more than 5-10 degrees. As for the minimum temperature of the coolant itself, it should be no higher than 5 degrees.
- After drying, cracks may appear on the underfloor heating screed - this is a fairly common phenomenon. Such defects may appear due to the low density of the insulation layer, poor compaction of the solution, or an unnecessarily large thickness of the screed. In order not to face this problem, you need to correctly lay out the thermal insulation plates, and also properly dilute the solution for pouring the screed.
- Be careful with steel and metal structures in the underfloor heating system. Such parts are susceptible to corrosion.
Manufacturers and reviews
Many companies produce high-quality and durable pipes for warm water floors. Let's take a closer look at the most popular of them.
Today, one of the most popular and demanded is Valtec, a major manufacturer of high-quality metal-plastic pipes. The products of this brand are at the top of many ratings. The pipes are multi-layer and very durable. The main advantages of Valtec pipes are their strength and ductility.
The material from which the pipes of this large brand are made boasts increased resistance to mechanical damage. It also has excellent heat resistance. With regard to the degree of hydraulic resistance, it is quite low. Valtec products have a service life of over 50 years.
Most buyers were satisfied with the company's metal-plastic pipes, but many were unpleasantly surprised by the too high cost of Valtec products. Despite the rather easy installation and flexible structure, such products often serve much less than the manufacturer claims, as many consumers say.
It is worth noting that the market is literally flooded with fake pipes, which are passed off as branded Valtec products. These specimens are of low quality and do not last very long.
The well-known company Rehau occupies a leading position in the market for the manufacture of high-quality lines for underfloor heating. Products of this brand are made from cross-linked polyethylene and propylene.
Rehau branded pipes are resistant to temperature extremes, high strength characteristics and long service life. If these products are subjected to deformation, then very soon they acquire the same shape, which indicates their plasticity. In addition, Rehau products are corrosion resistant, which is especially important for water heating systems.
Consumers note the durability and reliability of pipes from this manufacturer. People also liked the rather simple installation, as well as the flexibility of the material. Users attribute too high prices to the disadvantages of Rehau products.
A large company Varmega is engaged in the production of engineering plumbing. All products of the brand are of unsurpassed quality. The range is represented by reliable and durable radiators, water supply and heating systems and other similar products.
Pipes of this brand were appreciated by many buyers. They serve for a long time and during their operation do not fail, causing leaks. In addition, consumers are pleased with the wide range of Varmega, represented not only by heating systems, but also by various constituent components for them.
The official dealer of Tece in Russia offers a huge range of high quality products for consumers to choose from. Heating pipes of this brand are in demand not only in the Russian Federation, but also in Europe.
Consumers were pleased with the manufacturer's warranty for all Tece products. All ordered parts and assemblies are delivered as soon as possible. In addition, people claim that the products of this company serve for a long time and without problems, and are also quite easy to install.
High-quality heat-insulated pipes are produced by the renowned Uponor brand.
Its range is presented:
- Heating systems;
- Cooling systems;
- Hot and cold water supply systems.
The company's products are characterized by a long service life and are also ideal for major refurbishment projects. Uponor heating systems meet all quality standards and are environmentally friendly.
Home craftsmen and experts claim that the products of this company are of excellent quality and ease of installation. However, the cost of most Uponor pipes and heating systems leaves much to be desired, and some users have noticed that the installation of Rehau structures is easier and faster.
The assortment of this brand includes high-quality and reliable XLPE pipes, as well as elastic corrugated options. In addition, the company offers customers accessories and components for various heating systems, manifolds and manifolds, boilers and fittings.
Most consumers have no complaints about the products of this brand. Moreover, many people prefer it instead of expensive Rehau designs.
This German manufacturer offers high quality XLPE pipes for consumers to choose from. Branded designs are able to withstand temperatures of +70 degrees and are highly wear-resistant. In addition, Frankische pipes are not subject to mechanical damage and oxidation.
Consumers note the high quality of branded German pipes, as well as good thermal conductivity. The brand's assortment includes pipes of different prices, so you can choose the best option for any wallet.
Unidelta is a leading company in the production of high quality Rex XLPE pipes. The assortment of this large brand includes both floor heating systems and traditional heating systems.
The products of this company have long found their regular customers, who have chosen it for its excellent quality and excellent performance. Unidelta pipes are installed quite easily and quickly, which allows even inexperienced home craftsmen to work with them.
High-quality pipes for warm water floors are also produced by many Russian brands:
- LLC "Sanext. About ".
Russian manufacturers also make rather strong and reliable pipes from polyethylene and metal-plastic. In the assortment of these companies, you can find both expensive and very affordable products. For example, the company "Politeks" offers consumers PE-RT polyethylene pipes at a price of only 21 rubles per meter.
Successful examples and options
It was mentioned above that water floor heating pipes cannot be placed under furniture or other heavy objects. Do not be afraid of this limitation. You can allocate a separate space for the heating elements. For example, it can be an area opposite a seating area in the living room, where there are no sideboards or coffee tables.
Quality pipes for underfloor heating can also be installed in wooden houses. In such an environment, households will be much more comfortable and cozy. That is why owners of private log buildings so often turn to such heating systems.
Such constructions will also be useful in city apartments. They can be installed in any room, from the hallway to the children's bedroom. The second option is the most preferable, because children love to tinker and play on the floor so much, so it will be better if it is warm.
Often such modern heating systems are used in the design of loggias and balconies. Thanks to heating pipes and warm glazing, these rooms can be made living and functional. Moreover, in them elastic pipes can be installed on the walls, thereby forming the most comfortable and cozy space.
In this video you will find an overview of pipes for a warm water floor.