Few lucky ones do not face the problem of noisy neighbors upstairs. They either live on the top floor, or have an apartment in a building with five-meter ceilings and thick walls, or they are just lucky and the neighbors live very quietly. From time to time, the rest have to wonder what furniture the neighbors are now moving, why they brought a horse in the apartment and why they need to play violin on the morning of the day off.
But the problem can be solved. Soundproofing the ceiling in the apartment will help create silence and comfort in the house.
Features of the
Before throwing away the saving earplugs, it is worth studying the intricacies and features of the soundproofing process. Although its installation does not require colossal efforts, it should be carried out after preparation and taking into account all possible nuances of the work.
The main advantage of sound insulation is that noises from the upper floor will no longer interfere with a quiet life. The second obvious plus is that the surface of the ceiling will turn out to be smooth and beautiful. In this case, you can do the work yourself. This technology is simple enough that a person who has never done this in his life could equip noise insulation. Also, among the pluses, it is worth noting that the work takes place practically without dust and dirt.
The main disadvantages of using soundproofing materials are the time and financial resources that must be spent on installation work. In addition to the insulating material itself, you will need to install the lathing and stretch ceiling, and this is already a significant amount and the need to hire specialists to install the stretch ceiling. If the beauty of the lathing and sound insulation is of no interest to anyone and you can do it yourself, since this is a rough layer, then the ceiling stretch canvas is a decorative element. It must be assembled by professionals.
A serious disadvantage of sound insulation is that it "hides" exclusively in the system of a stretch or false ceiling. If for apartments where its height is normal or average it will pass imperceptibly, then in small apartments with a low ceiling an extra 10 cm of height, which will be taken away by sound insulation, is an unaffordable luxury.
If water gets from the neighbors' apartment on top of the sealant, the ceiling will be damaged. The material will swell and lose its properties, and the stretched canvas will sag. Repair will cost no less than installation.
You can use materials that do not absorb moisture. For example, extruded polyurethane foam. But, with its great thickness, it does not belong to the most effective in the fight against extraneous noise. On the contrary, if improperly installed, it only exacerbates the situation.
Also, when deciding to install sound protection, you need to take into account the types of noise that are in the house. By themselves, extraneous sounds are equally disturbing and annoying. But it is important to know their predominant type, since material with different properties is needed to eliminate certain sounds. Some will reflect sounds, others will absorb.
- Acoustic … This is an echo or reflection of sound from the walls of the room. This problem is typical of spacious apartments, rooms with arched ceilings and high ceilings. This is a rarity in a modern panel house. But if a neighbor plays a musical instrument badly or listens to some kind of music, he will be heard without an arched vault.
- Air … The quietest type of noise as it is caused by vibrations in the air. These are the sounds of doors being opened and closed, voices, footsteps. They penetrate from a neighboring apartment in a difficult way: through cracks in the floor and walls, sockets, ventilation shafts.
- Drums. Continuous repairs from neighbors, the sound of a hammer, stamping - these are types of impact noise. Their source is mechanical impact on the floor or walls in the apartment on the floor above.
- Structural … These are sounds that propagate through the structural parts of the building: floors, ceilings, walls, ventilation.
The material from which the high-rise building was built is also important. One can be denser and transmit less sound (this applies to a concrete structure with thick ceilings), the other is made of porous materials through which any noise passes freely (blocks), and the third is something in between (bricks).
In a modern panel house, the quality of the material can be different. In one case, the noise is almost inaudible, in the other it may seem that the walls and ceiling are literally made of cardboard, the sound insulation is so low. Solid brick is a good indicator of sound insulation. It does not need a complex structure and a thick layer of additional insulation.
The situation is more complicated with monolithic-frame houses, where hollow bricks and porous blocks are used for internal partitions. They pass a lot of sounds. Here you will have to try to ensure that the soundproofing of the ceiling gives the desired effect.
Problem case - new panel houses … They have a large number of slots through which all sounds seep from above and from neighbors on the side and below.
Soundproofing the ceiling in such a house is indispensable. It is recommended to take care of both the walls and a high-quality floor screed.
A separate conversation is noise insulation in a private house. As a rule, it is required to reduce the noise level on the ground floor or in rooms under a residential attic. Here materials can be either concrete, brick or wood.
With wood floors, contrary to the beliefs of many, there are enough problems. First, wood is a good conductor of sound. Secondly, if the floor is poorly installed, sound will seep through numerous cracks. Over time, wooden floors will start to squeak, and worse than that sound is hard to imagine.
With a high ceiling height (4.5-5 meters), there are practically no problems with sound insulation. Such ceilings are usually found in houses of the old foundation, and in them all the walls and ceilings are so thick that the sound on the other side is unable to overcome them.
Another thing is the modern imitation of such buildings. In them, the problem with noise is relevant, and one of the common situations is acoustic noise. This does not affect the choice of insulating material. With five-meter ceilings, you can afford to mount a layer of any thickness. Here, the features of installation work are more important. It is already dangerous to carry them out on your own, and in order to get to the very ceiling, you will need to erect scaffolding.
Rooms with a height of about 3 meters are considered the best option. At such a height, you can carry out installation work yourself, and the removed 10-20 cm from the height will not significantly affect the interior.
The most difficult case is the "Khrushchevs" and rooms with a ceiling height of no more than 2.2 m. They look squat even without a stretch canvas and limit design possibilities. When a few centimeters are taken away from such a height, the ceiling begins to visually “press” from above.
To solve this problem, it is recommended to select materials with a minimum thickness. Moreover, these should be precisely soundproofing materials, and not insulation. It is better to choose a frameless mounting option.
The most effective (but least likely) option is to negotiate with neighbors and, at your own expense, lay a thin layer of soundproofing material on their floor. This is much more reliable than protecting yourself from noise only from your side.
Types of materials and their characteristics
Modern soundproofing materials are virtually identical to wall and ceiling insulation. All the same sheet, plate and spray materials are used as a means of protection against extraneous noise in the apartment. The use of foam rubber, wool of various origins is widespread: rolled mineral wool, ecowool, basalt or stone wool, based on fiberglass.
Often used materials like foam and its modifications in the form of foam and polyurethane foam (polyurethane foam). They are slabs that can be conveniently cut into pieces of the desired length and width. These materials tend to be thicker than others because they are coarse and porous. The exception is sprayed polyurethane foam, but it is rarely used in the arrangement of noise insulation of the ceiling.
Glass can also be foamed. It is produced in the form of sheet material and in spray cylinders.
Soundproofing products based on plant and natural raw materials are gaining popularity: cellulose, cotton, bamboo and coconut fiber. If ecowool is still risky to use under a stretch ceiling, since there is a risk of dust, then bamboo and coconut fiber with their unique properties can compete with cotton wool and foam. Literally healthy (antibacterial, dirt repellent, biostable), but expensive. At the same time, sound insulation is not the most effective.
Also, not the most effective, but suitable for apartments in brick houses and private cottages, the material is cork sheets. The insulation turns out to be thin and saves in not the most deplorable cases.
The plasterboard layer improves the quality of the cork material, but in this case its advantage is lost - its small thickness.
As an alternative, manufacturers have started producing combined self-adhesive materials. This is the so-called membrane sound insulation. Basically, the membrane sheets are glued to the ceiling like linoleum to the floor or very thick wallpaper. The composition contains felt and materials that reflect sound.
From modern means, liquid insulation is worthy of attention. It is applied to the working surfaces with a special gun, but is not used by itself, but serves as a "filling" in the interlayer between drywall sheets.
Foam insulation is practically the same as polyurethane foam insulation. This name has become a household name due to the fact that the main supplier of polyurethane foam was called "Porolon" during the Soviet era.
Of course, the insulation material differs radically from that thick, loose yellowish dust collector, which many people imagine when the word "foam rubber" is used. Even its name is appropriate - acoustic foam rubber.
It is actively used for noise isolation in recording studios, large offices, restaurants and other places where silence is necessary for high-quality and productive work. The material is produced in the form of slabs of various sizes and shapes, its outer surface is embossed (wavy or "jagged").
The advantages of foam rubber are that it is easy to install (self-adhesive or on an adhesive solution), gives a good result, elastic and flexible, which allows it to be used on a ceiling with rounded corners. Easy to cut, does not collect dust.
Acoustic foam rubber isolates not only sounds coming from outside, but also coming from the room. The neighbors will be grateful for this isolation. The disadvantages are that it requires careful handling and is prone to burning. In the process, it emits toxic smoke and loses its properties under the influence of ultraviolet radiation.
Often this material is chosen to make sound insulation and thermal insulation at the same time. But still, it is more intended for insulation than to achieve the decibel standards recommended by SNiPs.
Cotton wool reduces noise due to its structure of fibers, between which there are air spaces, and different thicknesses of the fibers themselves.
For maximum effect, it is recommended to lay sheets of drywall on top of the cotton wool slabs and under them.
There are three types of wool: mineral, stone and glass wool. Each variety has its own characteristics, fiber size, technical characteristics.
All types can be used for noise insulation, but the density of the material must be taken into account. The higher it is, the more reliable the insulation will be. For example, cotton wool marked P-75 will be of little use, and PPZh-200 is able to solve problems with sound insulation for different types of noise.
Stone wool has the highest density. With an increase in density, the price also increases, but sound insulation is not the case when it is worth agreeing to half measures for the sake of economy.
The advantages of the material are that it meets all building codes, serves for a long time, does not accumulate dust, does not emit toxins, and is resistant to deformation and shrinkage.
The disadvantages include a thick layer of the entire structure as a whole, the instability of cotton wool to moisture, the need to use waterproofing. Without protection from water that can get on the cotton wool when a neighbor's apartment is flooded, the material will swell, become heavier, and lose up to 70% of its properties. Drying or replacing it will be a separate problem. Mineral wool shrinks over time.
The material is known as extruded (expanded) polystyrene. Its predecessor is Styrofoam, which everyone has seen at least once in their life.
Styrofoam can also be used as a sound insulating material, but the result from the use of polystyrene and its derivatives cannot be called impressive. With a slab thickness of 40-100 mm, it still needs auxiliary materials that absorb and reflect noise.
Expanded polystyrene has some advantages. For example, it is suitable for insulation in rooms where the problem of noise is not as acute as in thin-walled panel buildings. It is lightweight and does not load the suspended ceiling.
It is possible to do without mounting the frame in some cases. It also costs significantly less than mineral wool or acoustic foam rubber and is hydrophobic. If water flows from the neighbors from above, the material will not suffer and will not lose its properties. For these reasons, the ceiling is insulated with foam.
Penofol is used as an auxiliary element. Penofol is a thin reflective material based on polyethylene foam.
Such layering practically does not give results in terms of sound insulation. All materials are more focused on keeping warm in the room.
Many people choose cork insulation because the manufacturer promises serious noise reduction figures (about 20 dB). But if you think about it, the numbers are deceiving. And the point is not that the cork is not able to reduce the noise by such a number of dB, but that such a noise level does not exceed the sound of a human whisper or a ticking clock. This is nothing when it comes to regular stomping from above, continuous repairs and other unpleasant sounds.
But low efficiency is not so bad. The problem is that cork materials are able to insulate against impact noise. That is, they drown out the sound only when the insulation is installed not under the stretch ceiling, but on the floor of noisy neighbors above.
In other cases, the effect is achieved only due to self-hypnosis and a small air gap between the stretch ceiling and cork sheets. If we have already opted for cork insulation, then it will be correct to combine it with other materials. For example, sheathe with plasterboard. This will increase the chance of finding the desired silence in the house.
The advantages of the material boil down to the fact that it is convenient for installation work. The cork backing is lightweight, easy to cut, easy to attach. The disadvantages of the material, in addition to the fact that it is almost useless in itself, includes its fear of moisture and the need to use waterproofing.
Latest generation materials available on the market in the form of thin sheets, plates and belts. Sheets can be record thin - only 3 mm. Maximum - 15. Sheets are laid on the surface of the ceiling (floor, walls) and between materials. They help protect against impact noise. Ideally, the material should also be lined on the floor in the apartment where the noise source is located.
The tapes isolate such paths of extraneous sounds in the apartment as ventilation pipes, drains, cracks, risers. They are aimed at reducing acoustic and airborne noise. Membranes are produced by several companies in Europe and Russia. Popular are Tecsound, Topsilent, Green glue, Zvukoizol, Shumanet.
Each manufacturer has its own secret. Most often, the material consists of several thin layers, has a large weight and high density. An acoustic sandwich is obtained by combining several layers of foam felt, polyurethane foam or polystyrene. It can also contain components of rubber, eco-fiber, foamed glass, stone wool, rubber, foam, plasticizers, mineral and plant components, reflective materials.
The advantage of the membrane is that it is a roll material of small thickness, which is glued to the ceiling or stretched under it and does not take up much space. This makes it possible to solve the problem with extraneous sounds and not lose precious centimeters in a small room with low ceilings.
Installation of thin roll material is simple and convenient. A special glue is provided for it, which is diluted like wallpaper. Some species have a self-adhesive backing. The disadvantages of the material are that with large differences in the height of the ceiling, it will first need to be leveled. If the rolls are skewed, they will become less efficient due to gaps in the web.
In addition, the material is heavy. Installation requires at least two pairs of hands. It also means that the base of the ceiling must be well finished and primed to increase adhesion. The price per roll is not the most pleasant. Membranes of European production cost about 8000-9000 rubles. 3 meters per roll.
There are a lot of alternative options for soundproofing the ceiling. In this case, both specialized and adapted materials are used. Since it is still closed from above with a decorative stretch ceiling, only the quality of the insulation is important, and not its appearance.
Materials used to arrange insulation:
- Granular elastic noise plastic. These are small balls of extruded foam with added rubber and an acrylic backing. Traditionally they are used as insulation for a "floating" floor screed, but when pressed, it is convenient to use it as a material for an interlayer between the stretch ceiling and the ceiling of the upper floor.
- Acoustic sealant. This is a liquid substance that does not cover the entire area of the problem surface, but treats individual zones. These are seams, joints of plates, cracks through which extraneous sounds and vibrations penetrate into the room. The product is based on silicone resins and mineral additives. Compatible with any materials.
- Panels and underlaysdesigned for insulation under flooring. They give the maximum effect if you put them in the neighbors' apartment from above, and then mount them under your ceiling. The silence will be almost like a library.
- Damper tape … It is a budget alternative to acoustic tapes for the treatment of ventilation shafts, joints and cracks. It costs many times cheaper, and in terms of efficiency it is almost not inferior to them. In addition, the main purpose of the damper tape in the repair is to prevent wall cracking, as a rule, after pouring the cement screed. And this is a very large load, which indicates the high density and strength of the tape.
- Drywall. Not used by itself. Usually acts as an intermediate component or, on the contrary, covers other materials on both sides. As a rule, it is combined with thin sheet materials or liquid insulation.
- Roll materials based on bitumen. They are petroleum bitumen, cellulose fiber or felt, modifiers. They are mainly used for floor insulation, but also suitable for ceilings. Due to their small thickness, but good efficiency, it is advisable to use them in rooms where space saving is important. Can be combined with other materials.
- Mastic to absorb vibrations and sounds. It happens on the basis of silicones, resins, bitumen, acrylic. It is applied in liquid form in several layers.
- Spray-on cellulose insulation. Eco-friendly and effective insulation, but has several significant drawbacks. This is the high cost of material and procedure, the need to use special equipment, and difficult dismantling.
- Sprayed PU foam … Has the same advantages and disadvantages as cellulose spraying. All materials applied in this way require pretreatment of the ceiling surface to improve adhesion.
- Sprayed glass fiber. The most expensive, but also the most effective of the sprayed options. If the financial issue is not acute, it is worth giving preference to it.
Wood fiber materials… There can be several types of them. Plywood is cheap and cheerful, but not very effective, in contrast to softwood eco-slabs. In difficult situations, when the noise level exceeds 25 dB, ecoplates will not be able to help. Also, they cannot be used in a room with a low ceiling - they will take away 10-14 cm in height. But the slabs have an important advantage: they already have a decorative surface on the front side. A false ceiling is not required
Plates with different designs on the outside (imitation of the texture of wood in different colors) are snapped in according to the tenon-groove principle, like parquet boards. This reduces the financial costs of finishing the ceiling and saves time.
The third type is soft fiberboard… They are made from coarse wood fiber without any additives. The wood is split and then "dumped" like wool. It is used as a felt material, but it has a large number of positive properties. Among them are antibacterial properties and the ability to disinfect indoor air. However, needles can cause allergies
For allergy sufferers, birch fibers or board material based on raw materials of coconut, flax and bamboo are more suitable. Such plates can be mounted either by themselves or under a plasterboard layer.
- Ecoplites from volcanic raw materials and glue … Particles of volcanic origin that have undergone special treatment (expanded clay, perlite fibers and others) are glued together using the safest glue - PVA. This soundproofing is recommended for use in children's rooms.
- Polyester hypoallergenic fibers … Polyester is also used in children's rooms and rooms where people with allergies or asthma live (the material does not accumulate dust).
- Multilayer cardboard filled with quartz sand. One "block" of such cardboard weighs about 10-15 kg, which makes it dense, and the density of the material is the key to its effectiveness in the fight against noise.
Soundproofing the ceiling with your own hands is a completely doable task. But this does not mean that you will not have to face some difficulties.
For example, one-handed installation of lightweight porous materials requires a flat work surface and preparation. And the installation of heavy roll materials such as acoustic membranes cannot be carried out alone. Although they are 3-15 mm thick, they weigh about 30 kg. Lifting such a weight with outstretched arms above oneself is not only difficult, but also traumatic.
Another important aspect is that only the ceiling finish with insulating material is considered partial. An effective system should cover all surfaces of the room area.
Since sound tends to pass through cracks in walls, ventilation and ceilings, and noisy neighbors can live not only on the floor above, the entire room must be isolated. This is many times more expensive, longer and more difficult than finishing the ceiling, and also affects the useful and visual volume of the room.
But effective sound insulation is often not the one that is performed in your own apartment, but the one that is located in the same room with the noise source. Only understanding neighbors will agree to lay insulating materials on the floor in their apartment. Even at someone else's expense. All this does not mean that attempts to rid oneself of extraneous noise by soundproofing the ceiling will not work. They are capable of attenuating noise of 30 dB on average.
To understand what the result will be - minus 30 dB of noise - you need to listen to the refrigerator working in the kitchen, and then turn it off for 5-10 minutes. The difference will be felt right away.
The success of the event depends on two things: the correct choice of insulating material and quality installation. The type of house is considered a universal selection criterion. In some cases, the height of the ceiling also plays a role, but here the decision must be made individually - is it worth sacrificing 10 cm of the height of the room or is it better to put up with extraneous sounds.
In a brick house, materials are needed to isolate air (acoustic) noise. The construction of brick high-rise buildings is not solid, so the percussive sounds die out as the apartment moves away from the noise source. The brick itself is worse at transmitting sounds. But they have a more common problem with airborne noise. Therefore, it is important to use lightweight, but multi-layer structures.
For example, sound insulation from drywall and cork materials, alternating drywall with polyester blocks or wood fiber boards will be good protection. Drywall with polyurethane foam, mineral wool, liquid insulation is also suitable.
In a panel house and a monolithic house, the problem is the same - the propagation of shock noises almost throughout the house. If the neighbors from above have started repairs, everyone will know about it. But the bottom and top floors come first. This is due to the fact that a monolithic house (as it is already clear from the name) is a one-piece structure in which all partitions and walls are of the same thickness. And if the slabs are also hollow inside, this is a double problem.
When choosing a material for sound insulation in a panel and monolithic house, it is important to take into account the thickness of the floors. If it is less than 220 cm (and this is often a phenomenon, in "Khrushchevs" - about 120 cm), first you need to eliminate this disadvantage by "building up" the thickness. Here, lightweight materials are suitable and the creation of "air" layers between the suspended ceiling and the ceiling finish. And after eliminating problems with insufficient floor thickness, thin but very dense material should be mounted.
The peculiarity of dense material is its high weight. Acoustic membranes, cardboard blocks with quartz sand filling, basalt wool, OSB slabs are suitable.
It is important to consider that soft materials predominantly absorb sound, while hard materials reflect. None of the materials perform these functions at the same time, so it is recommended to use layering. First, sheathe the ceiling with reflective materials, then mount the absorbing ones and reinforce all this with an air cushion between the stretch ceiling and the insulation.
From the point of view of installation technology, sound insulation on any surface can be frame and frameless.
It implies the construction of a frame made of a steel (less often - wooden) profile, on which sound-insulating materials are laid. Owners of apartments with a ceiling height of about 3 meters can afford this technology. Otherwise, the frame structure will "eat" a lot of usable area of the room.
Installation is carried out in stages.
Calculation of materials
This is a difficult and responsible stage that includes several steps.
Step one - calculating the sound insulation index. It can be determined by the thickness of the partitions and finishing materials. It is better to consult a specialist, as it is easy to make mistakes. For self-measurement, there are such guidelines: in the daytime, an acceptable (does not mean "not annoying") noise level - up to 40 dB, at night - up to 35.
Overlappings between apartments of 200-220 cm plus a floor screed from neighbors on top are able to isolate noise up to 54 dB, provided that they are made conscientiously, in compliance with building codes and regulations.
For comparison, the cries of an adult and the cry of a child are 70-75 dB. No partitions according to SNiP will protect against them. It follows from this that for effective sound insulation it is necessary to "increase" the thickness of the ceiling at least to a resistance of 60 dB.
For an overlap with a thickness of 220 cm with a high-quality screed, one layer of cork and drywall will be enough for the neighbors on top. In a thin-walled panel house, more effort will have to be made.
An easy way to calculate the required protection is to listen to the sounds from the neighboring apartment. The sound of footsteps is about 30 dB, talking - 45, shouting - 70.
Step two is the calculation of the absorption coefficient. This procedure is difficult for the layman. It is recommended to select materials with a noise absorption coefficient between 0 and 1.
Step three - calculating the amount of materials … Here we are talking not about the thickness, but about the total amount of all materials. It is calculated quite simply. It is necessary to measure the width, length and height differences of the ceiling. By multiplying the width by the length, you get the total area. Then this figure must be divided by the footage per roll or the size of the slab of panel material to calculate how many sheets or how many slabs are needed for the ceiling. The resulting number is rounded up, plus 10% of the stock material.
The length of the profile for mounting the frame must take into account the length of one strip and the step width. The width of the step through which the planks are mounted should be equal to 30-40 cm plus rubber for gaskets in the places where the plank is attached to the ceiling. This is an important point because metal conducts sound very well. Without rubber gaskets, the frame will only add to the noise problem.
The calculation of fasteners and glue is carried out according to the recommendations of the manufacturer of the profile and materials.
For hydrophobic materials, waterproofing must be provided. This material is also purchased by area size plus 25% for overlaps and wall allowances. A damper tape is needed for fixing to the wall.
These include the choice of tools and materials, work surface treatment.
Required materials: steel profiles, hammer drill, fasteners, screwdriver, level, tape measure, putty, sealant, sound-absorbing fibrous materials (for crevices), elastic rubber gaskets, metal scissors, sound-absorbing and sound-reflecting material. Stepladders or stable high structures will be needed.
Preparing the work surface means removing old lime, paint, decorative materials from the ceiling. It is also important to make its surface as flat as possible in order to mount the frame without distortions.
For leveling, ready-made mixtures are used. It is important to take into account that before leveling, the ceiling must be primed in two layers for better adhesion to the substance, and then let each layer dry well. The leveling layer itself can dry from 1 to 3 weeks. It is impossible to mount the frame on a damp ceiling.
Processing cracks, risers and joints at the ceiling-wall interface
Processing of cracks, risers and joints at the ceiling-wall border.
According to building codes for high-quality sound insulation, there should not be a gap of even a few millimeters between the floor slabs. Otherwise, it creates an unobstructed path for sound to penetrate between rooms. In fact, this rule is often neglected.
The situation can be remedied if all cracks are cleaned of debris and dust and filled with a non-hardening sealant. Acrylic will do. Large gaps can be pre-filled with felt or wood fiber materials and then sealed.
The situation is reversed with risers. When building a house, they are supposed to be isolated from the overlap with a special nozzle, and the risers themselves from the nozzle - with a sealant. To save time and budget, the nozzle stage is skipped at almost any facility. Due to the temperature difference inside, the pipes of the risers expand and contract, gaps and cracks appear between the walls of the pipes and the masonry. It also reduces the effectiveness of the soundproofing. Such areas require filling with a non-hardening sealant. On top of the areas treated with sealant, you need to putty.
Along with sealing cracks, it makes sense to process sockets with electrical shields. They have no direct relation to the ceiling, but they are also sources of noise transmission. It is important to consider two points: the processing of gaps and cracks around the outlets is carried out only after a power outage, the materials must be non-flammable.
Installation of a frame from profiles
Performed step by step:
- Installation of soundproofing material. It has a small thickness and high density, and also levels the surface before installing the profile.
- Installation of vibration isolating suspensions. These are small parts on which the guide profile is attached. Either a vibration pad should be provided in the suspension structure, or they should be mounted on an elastic rubber gasket. Step - from 50 to 90 cm.
- Installation of the guide profile. The profile closest to the wall is at a maximum of 15 cm from the wall. The step is determined independently - from 50 to 60 cm. It is attached to the hangers with 4 screws per 1 hanger. The guide profile can be extended in length.
- Installation of an auxiliary profile. It fits across the guides. The step is 40-50 cm. The exact distance is chosen in accordance with the sheet material, for example, drywall.
- Filling the profile with sound-absorbing material: cotton wool, plates, sheets.
- Installation of the frame. Basically, it is carried out from drywall in 1-2 layers. Sheet thickness - 10-12 mm. If two layers of drywall are mounted, then the joints should not coincide. In order to perform the separation of the joints, the sheets of the upper layer are laid in a different direction. The joints are sealed with an acrylic based sealant. They also close the seam at the points of contact between drywall and walls.
- If the structure touches the risers, then the pipes must be pasted over with damper tape or similar self-adhesive material.
Installation of decorative coating on the ceiling
For soundproofing without the installation of a steel or wooden frame, the materials are attached directly to the ceiling surface. For fastening, dowels and screws, special fasteners with wide heads and elongated legs, glue are used.
Such insulation is used when the height of the ceiling does not allow taking away several tens of centimeters from the room, for example, in "Khrushchevs". The second case is the operational state of the house, which does not allow mounting a too heavy structure on the ceiling. The third - when materials and technologies were used in the house during the construction to protect against noise from the neighboring apartment, but these measures need to be strengthened with additional insulation.
Frameless soundproofing is also installed in stages:
- The selection and calculation of materials is similar to the calculation for a structure on a frame.… If you plan to lay sheets or slabs in two layers, then the amount of materials on the ceiling area doubles. Dowels for fastening panels are used only plastic, since steel will conduct sound and reduce the efficiency of the structure.
- Surface preparation. Many materials are glued or have a self-adhesive backing, so it is especially important to treat the ceiling surface for frameless sound insulation. But before that, all differences in height and unevenness are eliminated. All preparation includes three important steps: cleaning the surface from paint, dust, decorative coating; expansion of cracks, blowing and filling them with a sealant, applying a leveling layer. After the leveling layer has dried, the surface must be primed in two layers.
- Installation of material. Several options are possible here. Can be glued to a self-adhesive backing, glue, or fastened to dowels with a (fungus) shaped head. It is wide, flat and with perforated holes and holds well cellular or fibrous slabs. The best option is to fix the products with glue, and for additional insurance, install dowels with a step of 90-100 cm.
- Joint processing … Plates and sheets do not adhere tightly to each other. It is recommended to seal the joints with damper tape or fill with sealant. You can layer materials in 2-3 layers.
Repair professionals recommend observing a few simple rules that increase the effectiveness of sound insulation in an apartment:
- Thoroughly clean plaster, paint and whitewash from the ceiling surface. The better the work surface is prepared, the stronger the frameless insulation will hold.
- If the height of the room allows, choose a suspended frame, rather than frameless sound insulation.
- The best insulation, especially for the first floor, is not partial (ceiling only), but complete (walls, windows, doors).
- Avoid cheap materials. Good soundproofing costs good money. The budget material does not give the maximum effect.
- When choosing ready-made acoustic membranes, pay attention to the manufacturer's reviews and reputation.
- Prioritize weight and density over material thickness. 20cm foam is less effective than 4cm wood-based panels.
- Combine materials for sound absorption and sound reflection.
- Improve the efficiency of noise insulation by sealing cracks, joints, processing cracks around outlets, risers, electrical boxes.
For information on how to install frameless sound insulation on the ceiling, see the next video.