Is mosaic art or craft? This question can be answered in two ways. On the one hand, this is an art form similar to painting, where the author's intention is embodied in a painting, but only by combining small fragments into a common whole. On the other hand, it is a craft aimed at decorating buildings and interiors, which is based on the special knowledge and skills of the master, aimed at making the interior unique.
What it is?
Mosaic is the art of creating patterns and ornaments from small multi-colored pieces called chips (sometimes chips) from some kind of solid material by arranging them on a plane. From the Italian language, the word "mosaic" is translated as "made of pieces." The most common materials for creating mosaic canvases are natural stone, smalt (multi-colored glass shards), ceramics, wood, metal.
Modern mosaic, which has undergone an impressive transformation over many millennia of development, has become mainly a craft that uses multi-colored mosaic tiles with ready-made drawings and patterns as finishing materials. From such small tiles, either the patterns and designs planned by the manufacturer are formed, or mosaic compositions are formed by means of multi-colored tiles in accordance with the fantasies of the master or the wishes of the customer.
Mosaic began to be called a finishing material, which is a collection of small rectangular tiles of various colors, from which a floor or wall pattern or drawing is made. Ceramic tiles covered with multi-colored glaze have become widely used for interior decoration.
But mosaic, as a part of applied decorative art, is still held in high esteem by many. Individual creations of masters of mosaic technique are valued many times more than using ready-made templates. Unique ornaments and paintings are used by artists both in urban planning practice and by private customers who have sufficient funds and a sense of taste.
Such creations are created mainly from smalt (multi-colored glass pieces), stones, both artificial and natural. Moreover, the materials used in the compositions are combined with each other, creating the effect of the play of light and shadow. There are frequent individual orders for exclusive mosaics for interior decoration of premises using non-traditional materials, as well as precious stones and metals.
Modern designers practice interior decoration by creating floor and wall mosaic canvases made of natural stone and mosaic tiles from expensive wood species, covered with a fireproof and moisture-proof transparent shell. At the same time, the natural structure of stone and wood is emphasized, sometimes separated by inserts of metal and bone. The design of any room, made in this way, looks discreet, but luxurious.
The technique of laying out mosaics is actively used in the decoration of modern buildings, both outside and inside. Floor and wall mosaic tiles, covered with bright glaze, add a unique flavor and sophistication to any interior.
Mosaic originated at the dawn of the emergence of human civilization as the art of creating drawings, composed of small multi-colored fragments of various materials: stone, glass, wood, shells and other materials.
History has recorded the facts of the rudiments of mosaic creativity as early as four thousand years BC. e. in Mesopotamia. In ancient times, the Sumerians created a mosaic from baked pieces of painted clay. Mosaic is also present in the tombs of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs, where multi-colored pieces of glass were actively used.
From VI to II century BC e. is noted by historians as the period of pebble mosaic, when mosaic drawings were simple figures composed of sea pebbles of black, white and reddish color. Evidence of such creativity was found during excavations in the regions of Central Asia.
By the 4th century BC. e. pebble mosaics became more complex, taking on the appearance of more complex patterns and structures, where lead plates were used to separate fragments, and the number of elements began to number in the thousands.
In the III century BC. e. in mosaics, square and rectangular tiles made of stone, glass and ceramics began to be used. This made it possible to significantly diversify the compositions, giving them clear outlines and colorfulness. Mosaic creations have become more like paintings, with greater realism. The oldest tile mosaic was found during excavations in Sicily near the village of Morgantina.
But as a full-fledged type of applied decorative art, mosaic was formed in ancient times, which is where the name of this type of art came from. Nine patrons of the arts, who were the daughters of Zeus, were considered muses in ancient Greek mythology.
Through the paintings made of glass and stone and reflecting scenes from the life of different times and cultures, as well as ornaments and patterns, one can trace the peculiarities of the development of human civilization, the religious preferences of cultures and peoples.
You can trace how the mastery of the luminaries of mosaic creativity was honed: from the creation of simple stone patterns to voluminous colorful panels that combine painting techniques and materials.
In ancient times, and then in the Roman and Byzantine empires, the use of mosaics became an integral part of urban planning practice. Mosaic tiles began to be used both to decorate the walls of houses and to decorate the road surface. They began to lay out dwellings from the inside with mosaics, covering walls, pools and fountains with it. It has become a kind of measure of the owner's well-being.
In ancient Rome, the monochrome - black and white mosaic style was born, which became predominant for several centuries.
In Russia, mosaic creations began to appear only towards the end of the 20th century after the adoption of Christianity, which was influenced by the Byzantine Empire. The well-established production of smalt from glass in Kiev at that time marked the beginning of the flourishing of the mosaic craft in Russia. The pinnacle of mosaic art in Russia can be considered a panel that adorns the St. Sophia Cathedral.
The Byzantine school, where the Ravenna mosaics are most significant, was based on religious beliefs. It used the popular colored enamels and gold tiles to give the mosaics a vibrant and intense color. At the same time, the gold plates were placed at various inclinations, which created a magical play of light and shadow.
Eastern mosaic had its own characteristics. Based on the fact that the Islamic religion prohibits any depiction of body parts, including the face, in the themes of oriental mosaics there are mainly ornaments, geometric shapes, flowers and plants, as well as all kinds of patterns.
The most difficult to execute is the technique of the Florentine school, where natural stone textures were used.The careful selection of natural stone design and its shades, carried out by the mosaic masters, and the skillful combination of this with the perfect combination into a single whole, gave the Florentine mosaic creations a peculiar charm, where the naturalness of the materials was harmoniously intertwined with the ideas of the master. The mosaic used stones such as tiger's eye, malachite, agate and others. Mosaics made of precious and semi-precious stones and precious metals were often used for interior decoration, especially for decorating furniture and fireplaces.
By the 16th century, the Florentine school of mosaic paintings was formed, which still retains its individuality. The masters of this school are in demand at the present time.
By this time, there was a clear division between mosaic art and the work of artisans, who began to lay out tiles with ready-made patterns and paintings, decorating interiors. The keepers of mosaic art as art created their unique masterpieces, decorating temples and palaces with stained glass windows and mosaics. Mosaic began to be used not only for decoration of premises, but also for decoration of furniture, caskets and even clothes. The themes for the mosaic were very diverse: floral patterns, animals and birds, biblical themes, holiday scenes and scenes from urban life.
Towards the end of the Renaissance, the development of mosaic art subsided, passing the baton to panels and frescoes. But by the middle of the 19th century, the Italian master Antonio Salviati began to revive mosaic craftsmanship in the glass Venetian style. Interest in the almost forgotten craft has flared up with renewed vigor thanks to the strength, practicality and durability of wall and floor coverings made from mosaic tiles.
During the reign of Catherine II Lomonosov M.V. developed new technologies for smelting smalt and created an enterprise for its production. Many of his mosaic creations have survived to our time. His composition of smalt "Poltava Battle" entered the world cultural fund. Then, after the death of Lomonosov, the mosaic craft was practically not used until the middle of the 19th century.
Interest in mosaic craftsmanship arose against the backdrop of an emerging style of historical architecture. At this time, mosaic workshops appeared in the Vatican and London.
Tsar Nicholas I organizes the creation of Russian mosaic workshops, inspired by the Byzantine mosaics in Kiev's Sophia Cathedral. To revive mosaics in Russia, the emperor sent artists to study at the Vatican school and began to attract foreign masters. Large mosaic workshops were organized in St. Petersburg, Paris, Vienna and Venice.
The 1920s Venetian mosaics, exhibited in Paris in 1925, were created in a new Art Deco style. Mosaic works also began to appear in the Art Nouveau style. In Barcelona, Antoni Gaudi, together with Josep Maria Jujola, create mosaics from broken glass and ceramics in Parque Guell.
Mosaic as an art, as well as a craft, does not stand still, constantly replenishing its arsenal with new technologies and materials. At the beginning of the XXI century, along with traditional types of mosaics, thanks to new technologies, mosaic tiles with a three-dimensional effect of 3D images began to appear. Folded compositions from such materials, using the effect of volumetric space, create realistic drawings, especially animals, birds and landscapes.
There are international mosaic organizations to promote master mosaic artists: the British Association for Contemporary Mosaics and the Society of American Mosaicists.
The beauty of mosaic coverings is successfully combined with their reliability due to the absolute moisture resistance and durability of the cover. Therefore, mosaic is used as a facing material for facade decoration of buildings, as well as for decoration of rooms with high humidity.
Facade cladding by means of mosaic coatings makes it possible to successfully camouflage flaws and cracks.
For facade decoration, as well as for decorating walls inside a room, methods and features are often used that are guided by the classical art school of mosaic. It is characterized by the execution of paintings and various patterns using traditional materials: smalt, wood, bone, metal, natural stones - onyx, travertine, marble.
For floor coverings, methods typical of the modern Venetian mosaic "terrazzo" are often used. It is a cement mixture with stone chips and broken bottle glass, to which fragments of granite and marble are added. After hardening, a very tough waterproof surface with a mosaic pattern is obtained, which must be polished.
By style, the mosaic is divided into many ornaments and patterns. If pattern dominates in European culture, patterns with bright saturated colors, flowers and geometric shapes prevail in oriental mosaics.
More and more people want to equip bathrooms, swimming pools and kitchens with Turkish and Moroccan mosaics.
If Turkish mosaic tiles have a bright color scheme, where bright squares and triangles are decorated with rich colors, then Moroccan mosaics are distinguished by pastel tones and ornaments reminiscent of Persian carpets.
Along with the time-tested types of mosaics, mosaic tiles have appeared, in the manufacture of which new digital technologies are used. They allow you to make mosaic tiles with a 3D effect, which recreates the effect of three-dimensionality. This property can be interpreted both in the concavity of the space, which makes it possible to visually expand the room, and in the convexity, as if bringing the parts of the mosaic pattern closer, reviving it. 3D mosaic gives the greatest realism to compositions compared to traditional types of mosaics.
Mosaics are classified according to the type of materials used and the type of installation.
By the type of materials used:
According to the method of laying the mosaic canvas, the following types can be distinguished:
- block mosaic.
In this method, mosaic fragments are used, which are geometric shapes - mainly triangles, squares and rectangles. This mosaic style is usually used to create simple ornaments and paintings. Before installation, a sketch or a stencil is applied to the surface, and then the fragments are glued along the contour with side surfaces. After that, fragmentarily, taking into account color combinations, the body is filled inside the contour of the drawing, where the side surfaces of the fragments are coated on all sides with glue.
In this style of laying, smalt and wood of hard valuable species are more often used. At the same time, inserts made of metals such as copper, brass and bronze are often practiced.
This type of laying of a mosaic canvas provides for the creation of a composition of a certain shape, that is, a figured mosaic. In intarsia, mosaic tiles are fitted as accurately as possible along the side surfaces, gluing them together with their edges and inserting them into the floor or wall covering, in which the contour corresponding to the mosaic figure is preliminarily cut or hollowed out to the depth of the thickness of the mosaic tile.
In this case, it is necessary to pay special attention to leveling the surface of the wall or floor recess, into which the mosaic pattern is then laid. The outer surface is ground and polished. This type of styling was most popular during the Renaissance.
This type of mosaic placement is made by inserting fragments into each other.It is considered the most time-consuming style of installation and is used, as a rule, for cutting bone and metal fragments into a wooden surface. Fragments of different wood species and stones of different texture and tonality are often inserted into each other.
After inserting the inserts, they are ground flush with the main surface, and then the entire surface is to be polished.
It should look and feel as one piece. In this case, the surface is either polished or matte.
Block mosaic is a type of mosaic laying in which a pattern or pattern is divided into small blocks, which are mosaic tiles, consisting of separate fragments, interconnected by a single color, tonal and semantic solution. This type of mosaic laying, having come from the Ancient East, continued its development in Italy under the name of the Chertosian laying.
This type of styling is used more often to create small paintings with small but significant elements, for example, when creating faces, bodies, animals.
Since mosaic is the compilation of a single picture from small solid fragments, there are a great many materials for its production: from pebbles, used since ancient times, to the most modern plastic, artificial stone such as acrylic and PVC panels with imitation of mosaic patterns. PVC panels are made of vinyl chloride-based plastic, which makes the panels resistant to aggressive environments, mechanical strength and moisture resistance.
PVC panels are also resistant to temperature extremes, which determines their durability. They are used, as a rule, for interior decoration of rooms with high humidity.
But although plastic mosaic is the cheapest, still preference is given in mosaic craftsmanship to natural components as environmentally friendly and the most versatile.
The most commonly used types of mosaics are based on the type of material used for fragments:
Glass mosaics are one of the oldest types with their own traditions. A creation of this kind corresponds to different schools: Eastern, Byzantine, Venetian and Florentine.
Currently, Venetian glass is most often used in glass mosaic, which has such necessary qualities as durability, heat resistance, strength, and which has rich bright colors. It is used to decorate wall and floor coverings as well as swimming pools and bathrooms. This type is also used to decorate furniture and fireplaces.
A cheaper alternative to Venetian glass is regular glass. Any glass is based on quartz sand. Its color depends on the dyes that are added to the molten sand, and shine and play are achieved by adding mother-of-pearl to this solution. Products made from such glass can be absolutely transparent, glossy or matte.
It must be remembered that although glass tiles are very durable, it is still not recommended to drop heavy objects on them, and they are prone to scratches.
Stone mosaic is also one of the most ancient types of applied decorative arts. It uses various types of natural stone, and in modern times, artificial imitations. Various stones can be used for stone mosaics: marble, granite, travertine, jasper, malachite, pebbles, tuff, etc. Sometimes even fragments of brick are used. A mosaic made of natural stone without any processing looks beautiful.
The most expensive, but also the most durable are marble, granite, onyx, jasper. Stone mosaic can be used everywhere for both exterior and interior decoration of premises.
The stone can be either polished or made matte-rough. But we must remember that it requires special care. It should not be wiped with abrasive materials or moistened with acidic liquids. Stone mosaic, like any stone products, should be rubbed with wax-containing creams and solutions. Granite and marble, respectively, use these natural stones. They are more expensive, but they also look the most sophisticated.
Cladding with the use of travertine can be distinguished as a separate type of stone mosaic. Combining the beauty of natural stone, ease of processing and affordable price, travertine is the best budget option for home decoration. This stone has a relatively porous structure, which makes it easy to process on the one hand, and on the other requires a more detailed approach to it.
When travertine is used in flooring, it is subjected to a special impregnation to reduce porosity, increasing its durability. Travertine can have both glossy and matte surfaces. Travertine mosaics are mainly made from square stone tiles.
At the edges of the tiles during stone laying, glue for natural stone is applied, which is used for gluing porous surfaces and ensures reliable fastening of mosaic fragments to the surface.
Smalt mosaic is also a glass mosaic, but with a certain addition of potassium salts and sometimes manganese and other additives. Compared to ordinary glass, smalt is absolutely opaque. It is obtained by processing ordinary glass into a powdery substrate. Then, thoroughly mixing with the dye and additives, they are brought to a liquid state over the fire and baked in rectangular molds (sometimes other geometric shapes are used).
Each piece of smalt has a glossy or matte surface, having received its own color and tone. Initially, the blue color was considered native to smalt, obtained by adding dyes based on silicic acid and cobalt to glass. Smalt was also called glass turned into stone because of the increased strength acquired after baking. The rich colors create the effect of glowing smalt from the inside.
Ceramic mosaic is a small rectangular ceramic tile. It is covered with glaze of a certain color or has a gradient color fill. Such a mosaic is stronger than glass. It is used in facade and wall decoration both indoors and outdoors, in bathrooms and swimming pools, in residential and office premises. She has no equal when decorating flooring due to its strength and moisture resistance.
The color range of ceramic tiles produced by the industry is very diverse - there is a color for every taste. This material is strong, moisture resistant and durable. Mosaic ceramic tiles are made in the same ways as ordinary ceramic tiles: a solution is made, which is poured into molds, pressed and, filled with glaze, is fired in an oven at a high temperature. The mosaic is smaller.
Other, more rare in use types of mosaic coverings include metal, wood, coconut and with the use of bone, precious stones and metals, as well as porcelain stoneware mosaics.
Metal mosaics are often combined with other types. Outlined parts often contain metal plates of silver, copper, brass, and bronze that emphasize the outline of the design or pattern. Also, drawings with an outline are used to express an image using color effects.
To create the most beautiful, but also the most time-consuming mosaics, they use the natural texture of stone and wood, which, together with other materials, can embody the most daring design ideas into a mosaic panel.
Rarely used materials include eggshells, which are used to give aging in the form of cracks to a stone wall and to simulate flowering, while covering pieces of the shell with multi-colored enamel.
A mosaic made of coconut or pine nut shells looks rich. Hazelnuts have a very high strength, moisture resistance and resistance to temperature extremes. Facing tiles based on this material are made by laser cutting into even squares. These squares are connected using natural resins.
Shapes and sizes
The shapes and sizes of mosaic chips are very diverse. The length of the side can vary from 1 to 10 cm: up to 3 cm - small, and over - large mosaic. Fragments of different shapes and sizes can be used in one mosaic composition. The canvas itself can also have different shapes.
The glass mosaic is produced industrially in the form of rectangular chips measuring 20 by 20 mm and comes in a set of monochromatic and multi-colored elements.
The rectangular, especially the square shape is used more often than others. Often a hexagonal shape is used, reminiscent of a honeycomb. Less commonly used are building fragments of the type of octagons, and very rarely - a round component.
For unconventional works of authorship, the masters make the necessary figures from ready-made fragments in order to avoid unnecessary emptiness and gaps.
For individual creativity, mosaicists often use broken bottle glass and fragments of stones of different configurations. The process is very laborious, but it gives an opportunity for self-expression, avoiding standard clichés.
Mosaic tiles are produced for the consumer market in different shapes and sets of different shapes, related to a single theme. Design ideas are being floated everywhere. Stretching is one such idea. The mosaic stretch aims to create volume in an image by smoothly transitioning from dark to light.
At the same time, dark colors seem to be stretched, turning into a gradient, which creates the effect of a wave overflow of colors, tones and halftones. In this method, with a professional approach, you can embody design ideas using color effects and properties of various colors.
In this case, the gradient can be used from the center, creating the effect of convexity or concavity of the pattern, diagonally, horizontally or vertically.
Drawing up mosaic canvases, even from standard materials bought in a store, is a creative process that requires from the master, in addition to the skills of laying the mosaic, a certain talent for color perception.
Mosaic tiles, the so-called chips (chips) - small elements that make up a mosaic pattern, have a variety of colors and shapes. Currently, craftsmen have access to both dyes and ready-made chips of various colors and shades.
When decorating with mosaics, it is necessary to be very careful about creating color schemes, using color design solutions based on the well-established laws of color separation. When choosing colors and shades, it is necessary to take into account the location of the panel, using the properties of perception by the human psyche of certain colors.
Each color combined with certain shades should excite a certain mood. A bathroom or pool should not resemble tombstones, even if decorated with granite or marble mosaics. And the interior of the bedroom should not be dominated by bright flashy colors, appropriate on the facade and external attributes of the building, fountains and pools.
Therefore, for the most effective work on creating mosaic creations, a designer should be involved who is sensitive to colors and their shades, who knows the patterns of established color solutions, uses the properties of colors in various combinations, and also knows how to realize their unique color fantasies. He should be able to play both on shades, creating gradient soft color transitions, and to make full use of contrasts.
The ability to subtly put the play of light and shadow in accordance with the mood of a particular room is considered aerobatics of design art.
The most commonly used color properties in design include spatial, temperature (weather) and emotional associations:
- Spatial - features of certain colors create the illusion of increasing or decreasing objects, as well as creating the impression of distance or approach, increase or decrease the space. Color scalability is most noticeable with the contrast of light and dark tones (especially black and white) - light fragments visually increase against a dark background, and dark ones on a light background - vice versa.
- Temperature - the property of color combinations and shades to create associations with warmth and cold.
- Emotional - the ability of certain colors to create a certain mental mood.
In addition, when choosing colors for certain rooms, it is necessary to take into account the lighting of these rooms in the daytime and at night. It must be remembered that the same color under natural and artificial light can render different properties. A mosaic pattern in light colors, superimposed on a corner or ledge, visually smooths out irregularities. This makes any room seem more spacious.
Incorrect selection of color and color solutions (gradients, contrast, etc.) to a certain lighting intensity can spoil the impression even of a very high-quality mosaic creation, creating negative effects of broken connections between individual elements of the composition. Colors should be perceived both near and far the same way.
Variations in colors and color shades must take into account different optical laws of physics. Our color perception is influenced by the law of chromatic contrast, based on the dispersion properties of light waves. Thanks to chromatic contrast, you can achieve visual enhancement or reduction of color contrasts and brightness of colors.
Vivid examples of special color solutions are gray tones in various variations: on an orange background they create the effect of blue and blue paints, on lilac - yellow and its shades, on green - pink. Wood mosaic of reds and tan hues against a red background creates shades of gray, and against a green background creates a rich red color. Against a pink background, green is the brightest.
A multi-colored composition against a background of weakly saturated shades acquires the greatest brightness, which colors the entire background in the brightest color of the pattern itself. In this version, a mosaic looks good in a combination of a drawing or a composition of a drawing and an ornament in bright glossy designs, with a background in pastel colors.
A good example is the combination of a glossy surface of a design in rich marine tones with a matte beige or turquoise background coating. In this combination, bathrooms and kitchens are often decorated.
Mosaic made of wood material harmonizes well with various metal inserts both in the form of dividing plates and as separate composite fragments. In this case, as a rule, silver metal fragments are used against the background of light wood species. Copper, brass and bronze are used against the texture of dark wood species. Stone mosaic is formed according to the same color principle.
Recently, the so-called coconut mosaic has become of great interest. The interest of the craftsmen in this exotic material was awakened due to its strength, beauty and durability. Rectangular coconut chips are made from pieces of coconut. The cut fragments are connected with each other with natural resins, which gives the product complete environmental friendliness.
Such products can be either homogeneous tiles that differ only in tone, or have metal inserts: silver, copper and brass.Such entourage adds sophistication to the interior in general and makes furniture and fireplaces more elegant. In addition, one of the advantages of using coconut mosaic, compared to wood and stone, is its high resistance to damage and scratches.
Interior design examples
Interior design is the final and most important stage in the creation of a home. What space we create around ourselves, so we will live. The objects around us and the design of the premises are designed to create a comfort zone where a person should feel the most protected in warmth and comfort after a hard day at work. The premises of our homes should have the greatest functionality and bring aesthetic pleasure from being in them.
The creation of the interior must begin with a sketch, and then draw up a phased work plan. Any interior decoration, furniture placement and lighting should be clearly defined at this stage.
The mosaic technique of making drawings and patterns is used not only as decoration, but also as a protective coating. The mosaic, if, of course, is made by a real master from quality materials and tasteful, is very beautiful in itself, and also has high wear resistance and moisture resistance, and therefore is durable.
These qualities of the mosaic coating have become in demand, first of all, in rooms with high humidity, such as bathrooms, baths, saunas and swimming pools. Some of the names of ceramic tiles marketed widely to the general consumer are consistent with the type of use of the name, such as the "Hamam" mosaic. Hamam is the name of the Turkish baths, in which a certain type of mosaic art has historically developed - the brilliance and purity, diluted with oriental flavor, have become legendary.
Prototypes of well-known hamams in private estates are becoming the norm in the global practice of building private baths. The cladding of the bathhouse is the final touch of the creation of the structure, but it can be considered the most important, since each bathhouse is a small work of art.
Its decoration should be individual, and especially for a Turkish bath, it should convey all the colorfulness of the oriental flavor, creating the necessary mood for the visitor.
The decor of the interior of bathrooms and kitchens is carried out in combination with mosaic canvases of bright saturated colors or, conversely, in soft pastel colors. The decoration should depend on the general style of the room and match the style of the furniture. In this case, wall and floor coverings are usually made in the same style.
When decorating the kitchen with mosaics, special attention should be paid to the kitchen apron. - this is an open part of the wall between the countertop and wall cabinets, therefore, the products of fumes during cooking settle on this surface. To hide traces of fatty and other sediments, ceramic mosaic tiles are used with stretching of colors, with gradients of grayish-brown color transitions.
The bathroom is characterized by mosaic tiling with the creation of multi-colored designs and patterns that enhance the mood. You can create compositions on various themes, or you can simply vary the colors. With limited funds, since mosaic tiles are more expensive than ordinary tiles, you can decorate only one wall in the bathroom with mosaics, which is the so-called room accent - this is the wall that the gaze often falls on when you are in the room. The rest of the walls can be faced with ordinary ceramic tiles, but the main color tonic should be in harmony with the dominant mosaic color.
Ordinary glass and smalt fragments are used to decorate rooms with high humidity, building facades, cafes and restaurants. Stone mosaics are used to decorate the interiors of living quarters and offices.Ceramic tiles are used for the same purposes as ceramic tiles: for covering floors and walls, in bathrooms and on building facades.
It is most comfortable to carry out mosaic work when the fragments are placed in advance on a kind of matrix with a size of 300 by 300 mm. They are called tessera. They have a paper or polyurethane backing, which is more convenient than gluing them directly onto the wall. In this case, gluing occurs most accurately.
The decor of any interior decorated with mosaics looks the most sophisticated compared to simple ceramic tiles and wall panels. Mosaic is used both by itself in the form of wall and floor coverings, and in combination with other finishing materials, harmoniously combined with them. Its use is not only a kind of measure of the owner's well-being and success, but also shows his aesthetic preferences, which have been laid out for many years to be seen.
Therefore, the realization of fantasies laid out with tiles must be approached responsibly, involving professionals.
For characteristics of mosaic types and tips for choosing it, see the next video.