No renovation is complete without the process of priming the walls. The primer is one of the components of the preparatory part of the repair or construction work. It depends on her how well the topcoats will form.
The primer is a compound of ancient origin. It appeared about 2 thousand years ago in Egypt. It used to be used to treat sarcophagi to keep them in good condition for millennia. And the Egyptians succeeded - the sarcophagi were really well preserved when using such material.
After the secret of preserving the durability of materials was revealed, the primer began to be used in many other areas - artists specializing in wall painting even became interested in it. For example, in ancient Rome, artists used a primer with marble shavings to create frescoes and other images, as well as to preserve their integrity.
Representatives of each country created more and more new primer recipes, including various formulations. For example, Tibetan specialists used glue and milk vodka with this mixture. Domestic artists also used this material in the field of painting. He was especially popular among icon painters - they were the first to create specialized mixtures based on the composition of the primer, designed to cover boards with them before drawing drawings on them.
Also earlier, drying oil and oil were included in the primer. Some masters added whitewash there. Only after the ideal composition was created, it began to be widely used in the construction industry: domes were treated with soil during the construction of temples.
But modern specialists, who are professionals in the field of construction and decoration, were able to adopt the methods of manufacturing and using this building material. It is currently used to prepare walls for painting or other coatings.
Many have noticed that if you apply paint to an untreated wall, you can only draw attention to all its shortcomings, roughness and irregularities. But if you treat the surface with a primer, as noted earlier, the painted wall subsequently becomes better and more attractive. Then they began to use it before applying other topcoats.
That is why currently, the primer is an integral part of construction and finishing works … Many even create such material on their own at home from improvised ingredients.
Wall primer is a building material that is essential for any finish. It allows you to transform not only the decorative qualities of the room in which it is used, but also improves the operating conditions of any coatings.
The primer determines how professional the renovation will be. It depends on its composition and quality of carrying how long the finishing material will last.
Features of this composition:
- Each type of polymer used for finishing requires the use of certain protective compounds. The primer has the function of adhesion, protection and insulation.
- It is a building material that is used in the initial stages of finishing.
- Allows you to perfectly level the surface and make the coating more decorative.
- Creates additional insulation, since it affects the sealing of the room.
- It plays the role of a binder building material that connects insulation and finishing material well, due to which the quality of both is improved.
- Allows you to combine plaster and putty during the repair process - it is thanks to it that many incompatible finishing materials are connected.
- Protects surfaces from many mechanical influences and helps to strengthen them.
- Many formulations to which manufacturers add special components have bactericidal properties. Thus, this coating prevents the spread of mold and mildew, as well as other bacterial influences on the decorative coating.
- Many primers also have a moisture resistance quality - in this way they prevent floors and walls from moisture penetrating deep inside. Each composition performs specific functions and is necessary for a specific result.
- Manufacturers also present compositions that differ in the elements included in them. That is why the specific purpose of the primer determines its type, as well as the base on which it is applied.
- Can protect surfaces from corrosion when working with metal.
- The material protects wooden surfaces from decay. Thus, regardless of which primer to choose, it will fulfill its protective function and improve the operating conditions of a particular material.
- Reducing the possibility of cracking on the coating, as well as peeling of the upper finishing materials.
- If you paint the walls with paint, then the primer will prevent it from shedding and peeling.
- When installing the tiles, the primer will prevent it from moving apart, and subsequently you will not have to restore the surfaces.
- Thanks to its properties, the wallpaper does not deteriorate or peel off.
Benefits of priming
Many advantages of surface priming are noted by those who are going to use paint as a decorative coating.
- First of all, a big advantage is the reduction in paint consumption due to the use of primer. On average, about one and a half times less of this finishing material is used than it would have been spent without the primer.
- The primer allows you to better apply any paint and varnish material. It fits well on the surface not only of walls, but also of the ceiling or floor. In addition, the paint adheres well to surfaces and does not chip.
- The big advantage of a primer when painting is also that it allows you to paint the surfaces evenly. In the process of applying the finishing material, gaps will not appear on the walls, the color will be as even and uniform as possible, the coating will look monolithic. The primer protects the painted walls from cracking. Thus, a person does not have to make additional repairs to eliminate them.
- The primer makes the painted surfaces smoother and more uniform. In addition, the applied primer changes the odor that appears during the staining process to a less harsh one. Thus, the premises can be returned to their residential purpose more quickly.
If you plan to apply glossy paints, then the primer will provide them with a brighter and more luxurious shine.
- Another advantage of this building material is that it prevents stains on many coatings, including paint. Indeed, often due to the incompatibility of the paintwork and the base, stains form on the surface. The primer completely eliminates this problem.
- An important advantage of the primer is that it simplifies the possibility of repainting the walls. For example, if it is necessary to repaint the surface from a dark to a lighter shade, in some cases it will be necessary to dismantle it. And thanks to the use of a primer, old coatings do not have to be removed - you can only apply a layer of primer and paint the walls again with paint of the required color. Therefore, we can conclude that the primer simplifies and accelerates the repair several times.
The advantages of a primer can be appreciated not only when using paint as a facing material
- If there is rust on the walls of wet rooms, the primer modifies it into a protective layer.
- Good primer mixes allow you to create waterproof films on any surface, thereby preventing walls from getting wet.
- If you plan to use wallpaper as a decorative coating, then the primer will also ensure the uniformity of their adhesion. They will not come off, and with such a finish, the joints will become less noticeable.
- If tile is used for decoration, then the primer adheres it to the surface of the walls or floor much better. Thus, it will not come off and crumble, because this is a rather heavy finishing material that not every adhesive will hold.
- The primer is capable of increasing the adhesion and adhesive properties of any material.
- The primer strengthens the microparticles of the bonded surfaces.
- The material does not collect dust on itself and, thus, provides a perfectly smooth base on which any glue and finishing materials, including paint, can be applied.
- There are compounds that are deeply absorbed and fill the micropores of any material thanks to the small particles that make up their composition. Thus, the advantage of these compositions can be considered the fact that they strengthen any work surface with the help of a special impregnation - special liquid compositions.
- Thicker formulations usually have a white tint, do not absorb, but, on the contrary, create a flat surface on which dirt forms. The primer evens out the walls. Its big advantage is that all materials fit better on it.
- Another advantage is the versatility of the primer as a finishing material. It must be used when finishing floors, walls, ceilings, metal structures, if you plan to plaster or putty them. Any materials for painting and surfaces for laying tiles are suitable for him. It is necessary for almost all finishing work.
- The primer also has a masking function. If there are stains or other visual defects on the walls, then it allows you to hide them in such a way that such imperfections are not reflected in any way on the outer surface.
- The primer also saves the consumption of glue during the finishing process - it does not allow this compound to be absorbed into the surface of the base, and, thus, the fixation and adhesion of the finishing material is improved.
- The material does not allow the surface to deteriorate and mold. Many compounds protect walls well from moisture, which can negatively affect the bases.
Types and properties
Each type of primer has its own properties, which depend on its composition. Below are some of the primer types.
Acrylic primer… This composition is based on water. It is suitable for many surfaces, including bricks, concrete, plywood, foam blocks, plaster, drywall. Acrylic primer is easy to use - almost anyone can apply this mixture. In addition, it practically does not emit an odor during application and dries in no more than 4 hours. Acrylic compounds are both surface, that is, protective, and deep penetration soils
- Alkyd primer … This type of soil is most often used to prepare wood substrates for painting. As a rule, this type of soil dries up in up to 16 hours. It loosens the wood and improves the adhesion between the paint layer and the wood surface. Paint on an alkyd primer lasts several times longer than without it. Alkyd soils are also often used for treating iron surfaces. But they are completely unsuitable for finishing mineral substrates.
- Epoxy or polyurethane primer. Outwardly, such a primer resembles paint; in the process of use, it is diluted with a solvent. Usually, the manufacturer presents his own recipe for the preparation of this composition and separately offers to purchase a suitable solvent. Typically, polyurethane primers are commonly used to treat concrete substrates.
They are ideal for subsequent coating with enamel paints.
- Polystyrene primers. These compounds are used for the treatment of plastered and smooth wooden surfaces. But they are usually used for outdoor work, since they are considered toxic and release harmful substances during the drying process.
- Shellac. This type of soil is used to treat softwood cuts, as well as to cover cut knots. Such a primer prevents the release of resins. It is ideal for use with waterborne stains.
Specialized primers for metal
There are several types of this type of primer:
The insulating soil contains zinc white, as well as red lead. They do not undergo a chemical reaction when interacting with the metal and protect it from moisture penetration, creating a mechanical protective layer.
Among the insulating primers, manufacturers also present glyphthal and phenol-formaldehyde compounds. Such mixtures dry much longer. Sometimes the period of complete drying is about two days.
A protective and passivating primer for metal is much more reliable than an insulating one, therefore its cost is several times higher. These primers are used only for coating ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Most of the composition is zinc. That is why they can be used even in the most aggressive environmental conditions.
A phosphating primer for metal increases the adhesion of metal and paint. At the same time, it fights against the formation of rust. The soil has a special preparation technology.
Before using it, the manufacturer recommends using an acidic thinner. Phosphate primer is applied in several layers. As a rule, it is subsequently painted only with persistent enamel paints.
Also, all primers are divided into types according to their purpose:
- moisture resistant;
- electrically conductive;
- deeply penetrating;
- concrete contact and many others.
For interior work
An interior primer has one important function - it increases the adhesion of the substrate to other finishing materials. As a rule, acrylate primers are mainly used for interior decoration. They can also include in their composition, in addition to acrylic, also latex.
Each such composition for interior decoration has a base in the form of an aqueous dispersion, a film former, components that accelerate drying, pigments, and other auxiliary components.
Manufacturers may add special substances to improve the performance of the interior furnishings. For example, if you are decorating a bathroom or kitchen, as well as other damp rooms, then purchasing a model with fungicidal and water-repellent components will be an important point.
As a rule, mixtures for interior decoration do not contain organic solvents, which is why they do not have an unpleasant odor. In addition, interior coatings can dry much faster than facade coatings.
For exterior decoration
In this case, specialized compounds intended for outdoor work are usually used. They include solvents and have some properties.
Basically, these are coatings that increase the wear resistance of surfaces. They are excellent for use on concrete, plaster and brick.
Weatherproof primer mixes are used for exterior finishing. They tolerate well the effects of any precipitation and temperature extremes. They can be used even in the most aggressive conditions, including at subzero temperatures. In addition, such a soil is not afraid of exposure to direct sunlight. It is also worth noting that mixtures do not deteriorate from a large number of cycles of defrosting and freezing.
Primer mixes intended for outdoor use have a higher content of a film former and adhesive components. This is due to the peculiarities of the conditions of their operation, which imply the need for more reliable strengthening of the foundation.
This type of primer is characterized by being compatible with almost all types of substrates and coatings. Its main purpose is dust protection and bonding of two surfaces. As a rule, the universal primer is presented in the form of deep penetration formulations.
This type of primer is made on the basis of alkyd or epoxy resins in the form of an aqueous solution. It both impregnates the walls and increases adhesion.
Today, primer from the brand is especially popular. "Lacra". These are anti-corrosion water-dispersion compounds, as well as specialized primers from this brand. Customer reviews show that the latter are perfect for structural, textured and decorative plasters. Among the brand primers "Tex" Customers are most attracted to the universal impregnation mixes, as well as the waterproofing latex compounds.
Among the brands of the brand Volma popular compositions "Volma-Interior" and "Volma-Universal". They are characterized by excellent value for money and good adhesion.
Scope of application
A primer is needed for any substrate in the room for interior decoration. It is ideal for wet rooms. According to the spheres of application, the primer compositions are divided into some groups.
Primer for mineral surfaces
This composition is used to cover bricks, cinder blocks, concrete, aerated concrete, plaster, and other materials that are the base of walls and ceilings. In this case, a deep penetration primer is used. It impregnates the base with the highest quality. Thus, the polymer components of building materials are well connected to the structural elements of the base.
At the same time, the surface to be treated remains porous. That is why the soil penetrates much better into the mineral compounds, and the finish better adheres to the material. In addition, deep penetration impregnating mixtures often contain fungicidal additives that protect walls and other surfaces from mold and mildew.
But if the mineral surface is too loose and has large pores, then their strength becomes questionable. In this case, hardening primer mixtures are usually used. They include adhesives that penetrate and fill wide pores, thereby strengthening the crumbling surface. But in this case, the consumption of this type of primer mixture increases.
Reinforcing compounds are most often used when decorating the walls of old buildings, which consist of low-quality plaster. But even such protective materials will not save crumbling material.
Anti-alkaline primer mix
It is used only if it is planned to apply solvent-borne paints to mineral substrates, and the surfaces contain alkali in their composition. Typically, this mixture is used when processing concrete, cement screed, as well as surfaces that have been treated with fire safety agents.
Primer concrete contact
With its help, they process hard surfaces that are distinguished by smoothness. It is excellent for finishing concrete slabs, plasterboard substrates, as well as walls and other surfaces that have previously been painted with oil paint. The composition of the concrete-contact primer mixture in accordance with GOST includes sand and cementing elements. Thus, due to its composition, the surface becomes rougher and its adhesion properties are improved.
It is no secret that putty, plaster, and ceramic tiles do not fit well on smooth surfaces. It is thanks to concrete contact that all these materials can be used instead of specialized compositions for finishing any bases.
Primer mixtures for wood
Wood processing requires some subtleties, including the use of certain primers. All of them help to protect wooden bases from decay, fungus, algae, mosses, as well as from the effects of some insects and rodents. As a rule, priming impregnations are used for this, including antiseptic, fungicidal, pesticidal, insecticidal and other types of soil.
This type of impregnation is applied to wooden surfaces in several layers. Conventional primers are applied to wood surfaces prior to painting. They allow you to make surfaces smoother and remove some irregularities and roughness.
There are also mixes for wood, which, on the contrary, make the base more embossed. But in both cases, the paint falls on the wood much better and smoother, it is less absorbed into the surface and, thus, the number of layers applied will be less, as well as the consumption of the product.
Special primers are also used to treat softwood. They perform a de-greasing function, providing high-quality preparation of surfaces. But after using such a primer, it is necessary to additionally process wooden surfaces with tools in order to completely remove all resins.
Primer mixtures for metal surfaces
If work is done with metal, then there is always a problem - its corrosion. This is especially true for ferrous metals, where traces of rust are most noticeable. In this case, the primer is a necessary finishing element. As a rule, mixtures are chosen - rust converters and then the surfaces are subjected to mechanical treatment.
After that, the metal surfaces are again treated with other types of primer. Thus, you can restore the original appearance of any metal surface and make it more presentable. That is why manufacturers present separate mixtures for both ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Many of these include phosphoric acid, which protects them from rust.
Primer mixtures for other surfaces
Since the purpose of the primer is very wide, it is used for painting many materials. After all, paints and varnishes do not always fit well on the surface, in some cases they even corrode finishing materials. This is especially true for coatings such as tiles, glass, plastic surfaces. In this case, manufacturers recommend using formulations with an increased level of adhesion.
Also, for many such surfaces, a primer is used, the main purpose of which is to block the appearance of stains and other manifestations, such as grease or soot. Thus, it reliably masks all these defects and does not allow them to appear even after a long time.
How to choose?
Since the primer affects the surface microrelief, it is selected depending on the materials to be bonded. For wood, metal, plaster and other materials, different types of primers are chosen. It is important to take into account the purpose of the composition, which is often indicated on the packaging.
It is considered that the most versatile is an acrylic primer. It is the most popular and is often used for home use. It is suitable for almost all materials except metal. Acrylic compounds simplify work and penetrate into the material to a depth of 1 cm.
If the bases on which you plan to apply the primer are made of wood, as well as when using fiberglass, tiles, PVC or any type of tile, then it is better to give preference to an alkyd primer composition. It holds such finishing materials better.
If finishing metal surfaces occurs, then only specialized types of soil must be purchased for them. Conventional universal primers will not work for this.
If concrete is processed during the repair, then it is necessary to pay attention to the penetrating ability of the mixture. This is especially true when self-leveling finishing mixtures are used.
When choosing a soil for wood or gypsum, experts recommend paying attention to its water-repellent properties. These materials are capable of deterioration from exposure to moisture, they quickly lose their quality characteristics and presentability - which is why it is important to use water-repellent compounds that create a protective film.
Particular attention is paid to the processing of smooth surfaces, because any, even the most reliably fixed, finishing materials quickly disappear from them. When purchasing primer for smooth surfaces, it is better to look at products with special additives, for example, quartz sand. They hold the finishing material and make the surface less smooth.
The primer is also selected depending on the condition of the surface. If the walls are in a positive state and no additional reinforcement is required, then a strengthening soil can be used for processing. It allows you to remove dust from the surface and fix the finish layer well. In addition, such a composition forms a protective film.
If additional wall strengthening is required, it is recommended to purchase a deep penetration primer. It impregnates the walls to a layer up to 10 cm, which cannot be said about the reinforcing type of soil. But this composition has a rather high cost, so it should be used only if absolutely necessary.
If paints and varnishes are used for finishing, then the primer should be selected depending on its type and the components included in its composition. For example, water-based paint requires the use of water-soluble acrylic primers, and if oil-based paints are used, it is better to purchase the same type of primer - this way you can increase the adhesion of the surface.
When choosing, it is also necessary to take into account the volume of the primer in advance so that it is enough to cover the walls. If the materials are porous, then several times more soil will be needed, because in order to increase the adhesion of these materials, it is necessary to cover the walls with several layers of soil.
For a medium-porous surface, a universal primer is ideal, since it fits well on the surface and is consumed in moderation. When buying a primer, it is recommended to study the instructions for use of this building material, as well as its specific purpose. All manufacturers indicate on the label with the primer the components included in its composition, as well as detailed instructions for its application. It is also better to take a closer look at the part of the characteristics on the label that describes its compatibility with a certain material.
When choosing, it is also recommended to pay attention to the thickness of the primer. If the soil is thick, then it will not be able to penetrate deeply into the walls. But on the other hand, such compositions provide a good level of sealing. In addition, when buying a thick primer, it is easier to calculate its consumption.
If you need to save on the purchase of soil, then you can purchase this composition in a dry bulk form. But because of its consistency, you will have to prepare the composition yourself at home. But in a loose form, the composition will be stored for quite a long time, and it costs much less than ready-made mixtures. Most of these formulations are sold in large bags, and even in this volume, they are cheaper than ready-made primers.
If you need to protect the surface as much as possible during finishing, then it is better to purchase both a thick and a liquid primer. Thus, it is possible to ensure the strengthening of the base, and then, after waiting for it to dry, a thick type of overlap material should be applied to level the surface.
If you need to purchase primers for painting, then you should pay attention to the compositions of a shade similar to paint. They should be the closest at least in color, and not in the exact shade. Some surfaces require additional waterproofing - for this it is better to purchase a bituminous primer.
Also, a passivating primer can protect against the harmful effects of water. This is especially true when it is planned to use it to process metal surfaces. To protect substrates from electrolyte, it is best to use a protective primer. All factors should be considered when buying. In addition to the type of base and finishing material, it is necessary to take into account the operating conditions, as well as the age of the base material.
It is recommended to weigh all the advantages and disadvantages of each type of primer in order to determine which one is most suitable, because the durability of the repair will depend on the quality of the primer.
Before applying the primer, it is necessary to prepare and acquire all the tools and materials. In addition, it is important to comply with all safety requirements. First of all, it is recommended to protect your eyes with special construction glasses, and your hands with gloves.
Make sure that there are no allergic reactions to the components of the primer and all its components. Otherwise, it is better to abandon self-finishing and resort to the help of specialists. When applying the primer, you should try to avoid getting it on the body. This rule is due to the fact that it will be quite difficult to wash it off yourself without using specialized tools.
In order to thoroughly prime the walls, you need to acquire the following tools:
- roller on a long handle;
- fine-grain sandpaper or sander;
- a bath for a primer;
- chemical remover;
- protective elements (glasses, gloves).
Of course, it is also necessary to purchase a primer suitable for the finishing work.
Even an inexperienced builder who first encountered this can handle the priming of walls. Before proceeding to this process, you need to thoroughly clean the surfaces from dirt, dust and debris. If there are cracks on the surface, then they must be cleaned with sandpaper and putty. Under no circumstances should so-called breathable areas be left on the walls.
If the primer is applied to wooden surfaces, then you need to get rid of all roughness and irregularities. All rusty areas are cut from metal surfaces.
Before priming, first of all, it is necessary to grind the working surfaces. To do this, it is better to use a sander or sandpaper. But initially, the surfaces are cleaned of old finishing materials such as paint, wallpaper, as well as a layer of rust. Pills are removed from surfaces, if any. To do this, you can use a wash or spatula, as well as a scraper.
If there are irregularities on the walls no more than 2 cm thick, then it is necessary to use a putty or a primer with a thick texture to level them. Thus, coatings in the form of a primer can be applied only after a week, when the previous finishing coat is completely dry.
You can proceed to the use of a primer even if the old coatings are completely sanded.
The finished primer must be poured into a special jar to the desired level. Do not pour the full container, otherwise there will be a chance of spilling it. It is recommended to shake the mixture thoroughly before priming, even if it appears homogeneous. In this container, evenly moisten a brush or roller so that the soft elements of the instruments are well saturated.
It is important to distribute the primer evenly over the entire surface - no gaps should be left. The roller must be rolled slowly and carefully over the entire surface to completely saturate it with the primer. It will be noticeable how it is saturated with soil. That is why the priming process must be thorough and accurate. This procedure will take quite a long time.
Work usually starts from the window of the room. It is better to divide the room into sections of about one and a half square meters and apply the mixture in stages.
To apply a primer, you can use a spray gun - it allows you to paint the walls most evenly and leave no gaps. But not everyone can handle such a tool. In addition, if you decide to use a spray gun, it is recommended to wear a respirator on your face, since the composition will saturate the air.
Particular attention should be paid to wall joints, as well as surfaces near batteries and other difficult areas. The primer is usually applied in several layers. Their exact number depends on the looseness of the base. If it consists without foam concrete, then it must be covered with soil at least three times - only after that a reliable film is formed on it, which improves adhesion.
Each layer applied must be completely dry before applying the next. It is sufficient to dry the first layer for an hour while the wall absorbs moisture. Then you can move on to applying the next layer. But if the moisture absorption at the surface is poor, then you need to wait a little longer.
The final drying time of the primer depends on the temperature conditions in the room. If the room is colder and the air humidity is higher, then the primer will dry much longer than under normal conditions. If the air temperature is below 10 degrees, then it will take about four days for the primer to dry. But if the temperature in the room is about 20-25 degrees, then the primer layer will dry out in less than a day. After the primer is dry, it is important to move quickly to decorative coatings.
If you need to prime the walls before applying the plaster, it is better to use a concrete contact primer - it protects the surfaces from dampness and moisture and impregnates concrete walls better. For fine porous surfaces, it is best to use a polyurethane or epoxy primer. They are capable of leveling and strengthening almost any standard base base.
It is imperative to store the primer in a tightly closed container. Moreover, it is necessary to place it in a dark and not too humid room, excluding direct sunlight on the container with the composition. Ensure good ventilation in order to prolong the shelf life of this material. Its location is not allowed near sources of open fire, as well as heating appliances. It is better to exclude the presence of nearby electrical equipment.
It is important to pay attention to the expiration date of such a composition. If suddenly the primer is expired, then it must be replaced with a new one. Otherwise, this can lead to delamination of the material and a decrease in its properties. The primer is best stored at standard room temperature. If you place it in an unheated room, then large lumps will appear in it and the composition will become not so uniform, which will affect the quality of the finish of many surfaces.
A leaky composition will be susceptible to the formation of a thick film on the surface and deterioration, therefore it is important to close the composition tightly when using the mixture once.
Most manufacturers indicate an expiration date of 12 months. But subject to the necessary rules and storage conditions, the period can be extended by about six months.
If the soil has not been used for a long time, then it may stagnate and become a little thicker. In order to avoid difficulties during application, it is recommended to bring it to the desired consistency using solvents.
Learn all about priming and priming in the following video.