During the renovation, you often have to choose not only furniture or wallpaper, but also finishing materials, thanks to which the walls will look harmonious. Putty is an indispensable element when leveling the side surfaces of a room with the aim of further gluing wallpaper or applying other decorative compositions.
The putty is designed to eliminate roughness and cracks in the wall, as well as to seal them.
If you choose a special putty with hydrophobic or antifungal polymer components, you can also protect the walls from destruction and swelling.
Features of the
Most often, the putty consists of one main element such as cement, gypsum or acrylic with the addition of fine particles for better penetration into the surface with any texture. A more expensive option is polymer-based composite compounds, which have a number of advantages, due to which the filling is much faster and more efficient. They are more expensive, but they will last 5 years longer.
There are separate compositions for interior work in residential and commercial premises, as well as for outdoor repairs. In order to choose the right material, it is necessary to clearly understand for which elements of the building the mixture is required. If you want to putty with the same high quality both inside and outside, both the facade of the house and the window opening, you can purchase a universal putty, which is the most expensive in its line.
Putty is sold in different states of aggregation - as in the form dry mix, which needs to be bred independently, and in the form of a ready-to-use creamy suspension … The dry version is stored longer, and also only it can be brought to exactly the consistency required to seal a particular wall. With the ready-made mixture, there is less hassle, there is also no risk of adding excess water and turning the putty into a liquid slurry. Also, there are no clouds of white dust, leaving traces everywhere when pouring the dry mixture into another container.
The disadvantage of the already diluted version is twice the price and less long-term storage. Another last option gives serious shrinkage when applied with a thick layer of more than 5 mm.
There are several stages of the putty process and different materials are required for each stage of application. Allocate starting putty and finishing. The last layer should be denser, so the texture of the coating here needs a viscous and plastic one. In any case, even if you didn’t like the result after finishing the puttying process, you can always redo it by reapplying one more layer.
Despite this clear advantage over other finishing materials, it is still not worth overdoing it with the addition of putty build-ups - with a layer of more than 30 mm, lagging from the surface or swelling may begin even under the wallpaper. To prevent shrinkage of the putty layer after a long work, it is better to apply it to the wall in several stages. Apply a rough coat first and let it dry for at least half a day. After that, you can leave a few more finishing layers one by one on the wall.
This technology will ensure the durability of the finish even in rooms with complex wall relief.
If you do not save on putty and purchase quality products from Western manufacturers, then it will be easy and convenient to work with it. Polymer-based formulations usually lie flat, dry quite quickly and do not have a pungent odor. The latter characteristic is important when decorating interior living quarters, especially a bedroom or a nursery. For rooms for special or technical purposes, putties with such qualities as the ability to withstand sudden temperature changes, as well as high humidity or steam generation, are suitable.
Possessing high plasticity, the putty allows you to apply several thin layers one after the other in order to achieve a perfectly smooth surface. Also after drying on putty you can walk with varnish, oil paint or acrylic on water, and do not be afraid that water will dissolve the top layer. Even under unfavorable climatic conditions, a good putty should not shrink or crack, then the wallpaper will not come off prematurely.
A slight discomfort can be caused by the fact that when sanding the wall after the putty has dried with a special grinder or other equipment, you can breathe in poisonous dust. Experts recommend working in the final stage of alignment wearing a protective mask so as not to injure the airways or burn the cornea of the eye.
Fine dust, which effectively creates a perfectly flat wall, spoils the sandpaper, quickly eating its particles into the structure of the skin. Given this fact, it is necessary to stock up on a sufficient amount of sandpaper, and the putty process will be productive.
Types of putty
The classification of putty mixtures is made according to the main active ingredient in their composite composition:
Oil and adhesive based putty considered the most economical option. At the same time, it resists very well high humidity and vaporization. It can also be painted over later, but only with a similar oil base. Such a mixture is more suitable for technical premises such as basements, warehouses or boiler rooms, where the aesthetic appearance is not important, but the hydrophobic functions of the putty are required
The wooden surface after plastering is also perfect for filling with an oil compound.
This material is not suitable for subsequent wallpapering or painting with enamels, varnishes and acrylics - it will begin to swell and quickly be absorbed into the base soil.
Cement based putty it is used mainly for technical rooms where there is no constant heating, as it can withstand temperature extremes and high humidity well. These qualities are also irreplaceable when decorating a kitchen or bathroom, where water finely dispersed suspensions often settle on the putty surface
The main disadvantage of cement putty is poor elasticity, due to which, with repeated application of layers, the material shrinks. With the wrong technology, after shrinkage, cracks may appear on the walls or in the joints.
Plaster based putty - a very capricious material, since it is poorly resistant to a humid environment and temperature changes, it swells and flakes off from the base under such conditions. But gypsum perfectly evens out even the most textured wall, creating a soft porous film on the surface. This putty can be applied with the last decorative layer, because it is absolutely harmless after drying and gives a noble matte white shade
The undoubted advantage of this putty is its low price, therefore the gypsum base is most often used in the repair of residential and office premises. For environments with constant heating and moisture content within the normal range, gypsum plaster is ideal.
Acrylic or water based putty - the safest for use in residential premises, because water does not harm human health. It has good plasticity and toughness, so it ideally fills in small cracks and chips in the walls, leaving an even layer that is pleasant to the touch
On acrylic, you can stick wallpaper or paint a putty with a similar acrylic paint. It dries quickly and does not emit a pungent odor. The disadvantage of acrylic putty is reduced moisture resistance. Therefore, it is better to use it in rooms with a constant temperature and lack of water vapor.
Polymer-based putty - the most high-tech and at the same time the most expensive of all the above products. Thanks to the composite base, such a composition has collected the whole set of advantages for leveling walls. The resin base is highly elastic and is therefore often used as a topcoat to hide bumps and small cracks left after initial application
It dries quickly, is easy to apply and economical to use, which slightly compensates for its rather large cost.
The quality of the treated surface after polymer putty is much higher than after cement or oil, and it will last longer. Such a putty is used not only for wallpaper, but is also simply left without additional layers as a textured untreated surface with the effect of antiquity and scuffs. It is also used when, after the putty layer, it is necessary to apply a thin material, for example, decorative plaster or silk-screen wallpaper.
Another equally popular classification is the division of putties according to the order of application of layers:
Starter putty or a surface-leveling primary layer. The structure of such a putty is very rough, it itself is dense and highly durable. The first layer comes into contact with an untreated wall, on which, in addition to moisture, grease and dirt, particles of previous paint and varnish and paper layers, as well as construction debris, can remain. Even applying putty on top of the plaster layer, it is impossible to be sure that all of the above flaws were hidden by the plaster layer. The main task of the starting putty is to fill deep cracks and chips in the wall, so it is applied with a fairly thick layer - about 15-20 mm
Due to its granular structure, this material has good adhesion or ability to adhere to the surface. The starting putty is relatively inexpensive, so many decide to save money and leave the surface in this form, without applying unnecessary finishing layers. This is wrong, since the very structure of the starting putty does not allow the wall to be perfectly smooth, but only prepares it for the next layer with leveling functions. The longer you give each individual layer to dry before applying the next, the better the surface preparation will be for pasting the wallpaper.
Lighthouse putty - unfamiliar material for the Russian consumer, since he simply does not understand its difference from the starting one. In terms of composition and end result, the lighthouse and starting putties do not differ much from each other, but the first option can be used as an intermediate layer between the beginning and the finish
Wooden or metal slats are used as lighthouses, placed on the sides of the puttying zone in order to guide the evenness of the walls.
They are glued onto a plaster mix. After hardening, it hardens well, and then it leaves the surface just as well, leaving no traces. This material is less grainy than the starter putty, therefore it primes the surface better. The price of the lighthouse putty is significantly higher than the starting one, therefore, with a limited budget, you can do without this technology.
Universal putty - an option for the lazy, because it combines the properties of both starting and decorative mixtures. It is suitable for those who want to quickly complete the repair, and are sure that they will not understand the intricacies of applying different types of putty to each other. Despite the noticeably higher cost than the above options, in terms of properties, it is inferior to both starting and finishing putties. The universal mixture is not so grainy in structure, therefore its adhesion is not so great, and less plastic, due to which it can be used only for walls without obvious irregularities
To learn how to properly putty the walls in an apartment, you need to understand that The finishing layer is one of the most important steps in this process. For these purposes, it is better to buy a jar of finishing putty. It is not intended for leveling deep cracks and chips, because before that, layers of starting and lighthouse putties have already been applied.
If the first few applications were performed poorly, then the finishing putty is unlikely to correct the situation. Its main purpose is to create a smooth surface on which it is then convenient to glue wallpaper or attach other decorative elements. It is necessary to apply such a composition in the thinnest possible layer - no more than 5 mm. The strength of the finishing putty is much lower than the starting one, so it must be applied very carefully, filling it with only small recesses and chips in the wall.
The second name of the finishing putty is decorative, which means that it can be used as a final element of surface finishing. It gives texture to a perfectly smooth wall, especially if gypsum or polymer fillers are used. In modern loft interiors and art spaces, this technique is not uncommon.
The walls there are often left in a layer of uncleaned and unaligned putty, sometimes even deliberately hollowing out chips in it.
Criterias of choice
In order to choose the right putty and not to redo the repair then, it is necessary to clearly understand for what purposes and types of work it is intended:
- It is better to purchase products from trusted manufacturers of putty, for example German. It is in Germany that all building materials undergo an increased degree of safety testing in domestic use and compliance with environmental standards. Recently, more and more worthy domestic representatives began to appear in stores - they are several times cheaper than foreign counterparts. And the instruction in Russian is easier to understand.
- Buying at the same time putty and related materials that will come into contact with it, for example, a primer, check that the composition and manufacturers are similar or identical. If it is wrong to pick up soil, putty and plaster in tandem, then their incompatibility in composition can ruin the entire repair.
- Read the instructions carefully, because it should indicate for what area and for what purposes this or that modification of the putty is intended. It is necessary to clearly distinguish in composition the starting, lighthouse and finishing putty and choose at least two different options for layer-by-layer application. Mixture for interior rooms, such as bedrooms or offices, is not suitable for treating the facade of a house or sauna.
- Think in advance what needs to be done with the wall after filling, because the choice of material depends on this. For a putty for wallpaper, it is better to buy a dry mixture and dilute it yourself with water in proportions corresponding to the texture and thickness of the wallpaper. If you dilute the putty strongly with water, it may not dry completely, and then just wet the wallpaper. When there is an intention to paint the wall after the putty, it is better to use the ready-made formula, because it is better compatible with paints and varnishes.
- If possible, you can carefully open the container with the ready putty mixture and check the composition for the absence of bubbles or foreign large particles and suspensions. Smelling the putty will also not be superfluous, because it tends to deteriorate, and with it the smell worsens.
- To apply the putty in extreme conditions of temperature extremes or high humidity, make sure that the the instructions contain all the necessary conditions.
You need to understand what kind of temperature jump the putty will withstand, as well as for what class of work it can be used.
Instead of several topcoat options, you can buy one container of universal putty… This will be more economical in the case when a finishing layer is required both inside the building and on the external surface
You do not need a huge amount of expensive professional tools to putty the walls, so this type of repair can be easily carried out on your own. Most of the elements are in every hardware store, and their total cost should not exceed 3000 rubles.
- Directly for applying the putty it is necessary set of spatulas - three pieces are enough. Medium size - about 20 cm in length - is suitable for small areas around door slopes and window openings. It is convenient to use a large fifty-centimeter tool when putting putty on the main surfaces of the walls. The smallest spatula in the set is simply indispensable for hard-to-reach areas and corners.
- Primer mix, as well as rollers and brushes for priming walls, after all, for high-quality surface preparation for putty, you cannot do without the above tools. The principle of the ratio of the primer zone to the roller size is the same as for the spatulas.
- The rule - a special tool, like a large metal rail with a corrugated structure, so that you can hold on to the ledge and guide the tool along the wall. The rule is used to level the surface when applying a very large layer of putty.
- Sandpaper or sandpaper. It is also better to take a set of two or three different sizes, because here the skins will differ in the degree of surface corrugation. Each layer of putty needs its own skin to achieve the smoothest possible wall.
- For convenience, you can buy skinner - a device with a handle where a piece of sandpaper is inserted. This tool is inexpensive, but it is much more convenient for them to sand large wall surfaces.
- If you purchase a dry mixture for puttying, then it is better to take care of large capacity, in which you can dilute the putty with water. It is not necessary to specially buy containers in the store - any old unnecessary jar will do.
It is better to choose a plastic container, because it will be disposable.
- Drill with a special mixer attachment for stirring a dry putty mixture is not included in the minimum set of necessary tools, and it is not cheap. If the house does not have such a device, you can rent it. Of course, you can try to knead the putty by hand using a stick, but you will have to mix it for a long time, and the result will leave much to be desired. For high-quality application of the putty, it must be diluted to a state of a homogeneous creamy mass without lumps.
- Laser level - also an additional convenience that is not included in the inexpensive minimum set. You can either borrow it from your neighbors or buy it for future use, as it will come in handy for subsequent repairs. The device is installed in a corner like a beacon, and then the beam shows even minimal irregularities on the surface due to the application of a too thick layer of putty.
The wall does not need to be prepared in a special way for a putty, the main thing is that it is clean and as smooth as possible. First, it is necessary to mechanically clean it from previous layers of wallpaper, newspapers, paintwork or plaster. If you cannot clean everything with your hands, use sandpaper. Separately, you should pay attention to stains of grease or soot and wipe them with white spirit.
To apply the putty, the wall surface must be at room temperature. If an unheated temporary house or other technical room is being repaired, then it is better either to wait until summer, or to heat or warm up the walls with a burner.
You can apply the putty directly to the cleaned wall, but for better adhesion of the materials, it is advised to lay a primer with an intermediate layer. You can dilute the soil in the same container, which will then be used for the putty solution. With a roller, the wall is completely covered with soil, applying it in one dense layer of about 5 mm. You can let it dry for 6-8 hours and repeat the procedure, or you can limit yourself to one application. A multi-layer primer is good only for finishing open-air premises with unstable climatic conditions.
How to level the walls with putty?
You need to prepare for puttying. Before starting work, prepare all the tools necessary for this process, because the mixture tends to harden and deteriorate, so you need to work extremely quickly:
To start you need to make a ready-to-use putty from a dry mixture. The technique here is simple, but if you do everything inaccurately, the wallpaper will begin to move away from the walls in a month. It is better to dilute the putty composition in small portions for each section of the wall or ceiling separately
Otherwise, the mixture may dry out in places, and solid particles will fall unevenly on the surface.
First, a little water is added to the container with putty and mixed with a simple spatula. The next step is to bring everything to a homogeneous consistency using a drill with a mixer attachment. Her blades are made of special steel, and they spin with a certain force, which helps them not to get stuck in the viscous composition of the putty.
The ideal consistency of the putty mixture is an elastic mass that adheres slightly to the trowel. If the composition is liquid and flows down, and does not stick, then gradually add the dry mixture there. When the surface is covered with lumps or bubbles, it is too thick and water must be slowly poured into the composition in small portions.
The first layer of putty - starting, is a separate species, so carefully read the names on the cans of the mixture and do not confuse it with the finish. At this stage, you can safely use the largest spatula from the set, without fear of leaving uneven stripes or joints, because the finishing layer will easily close all the flaws
It is better to apply the mixture in small portions and distribute it evenly over the area., and not throw a large lump on the wall, and then smear it on different ends. The spatula should be held at a slight angle - no more than 30C, then the material lays down more evenly. The strip of mixture itself is usually applied diagonally in one sharp motion. Separate strips are overlapped to avoid bumps and uneven joints between the layers.
Slopes and joints are processed with a special trowel or angle… The main thing here is not to make unnecessary movements. Remember that the less putty you apply in the corners, the smoother the surface will be. First, with a small spatula, the mixture is applied along the entire slope or corner on each side, and then the wall is simply leveled with an angled spatula. The corners are usually processed last, after which the wall must be allowed to dry for at least a day before applying the next layer of putty
For a perfect grip and reliability of all repairs, some craftsmen a layer of soil is laid between each layer of putty… This method is more laborious, it takes 2 to 4 days, since each layer of putty and primer dries for about 12 hours
But the wallpaper on such a wall should last longer, and the fungus should form less.
- A layer of finishing putty is the most important, because it is responsible not only for evenness, but also for the smoothness and even glossy properties of the surface. It is applied in several thin layers of no more than 2 mm each, allowing each layer to be evenly absorbed into the soil and dry. During work, a large and a small spatula are constantly used in pairs. The finishing putty is more dense and viscous than the starting one, so it is applied first with a small spatula on a large one, and then on the wall.
- The final stage is considered grinding dry surface with sandpaper. It will eliminate even the smallest irregularities.
How to apply?
Puttying walls and ceilings with your own hands is not a very difficult task that a person who does not have professional skills in the field of construction and finishing work can handle it. The main difference between this kind of finish is the number of layers applied. For filling under the subsequent wallpapering, one starting and one finishing layer of the composition is enough. If the wallpaper is very thin, then it is better to play it safe and lay a third layer of putty or soil.
When preparing a wall for subsequent painting, you need to be more careful and leave the surface perfectly smooth, because a painted wall will not be able to hide even the smallest irregularities. In this case, after each layer of putty, it is necessary to walk with a roller with a primer to avoid folds and air bubbles.
The most effective method of application is recognized as a mechanized method, when the putty is applied using a special apparatus. This technology can significantly save both the time and effort of the employee. A mechanically treated surface is smoother and of better quality. And the solution inside the device is constantly mixed during operation, so it does not freeze until dry lumps are formed and with such a fine-grained structure it adheres better to the surface.
The application itself in a continuous stream under strong pressure allows the putty to be distributed evenly over the entire wall, due to which the surface is smooth. A special dispenser distributes the putty mixture in a very thin layer, which is almost impossible to achieve manually. Yes, and the joints between individual strips when working with an ordinary spatula are visible even to the naked eye, while the hardware method creates a solid surface.
The filler material is also saved due to the strict dosage.
The device itself for mechanized putty is quite cumbersome, so in a small fifteen-meter room you simply cannot turn around with it. It is more often used either for large industrial and office premises, or for rooms in a house with an area of at least 30 square meters. Its main convenience is the presence of an automatic mixer for mixing the putty and a compartment for water supply.
You don't have to worry that the mixture will be too liquid or dry, because the automation will bring everything to the desired consistency. Some models are equipped with a powerful compressor that blows air into the agitated mixture compartment so that the mixture is saturated with oxygen and has better adhesion.
The control panel sets the speed and intensity of the spray with the putty mixture, as well as the speed of the mixing process. However, even a mechanized system requires compliance with basic rules:
- The jet must be sprayed from a distance of at least 30 cm from the surface, otherwise with such force it will simply splatter in different directions when it hits the wall.
- Apply a layer of putty from the corner of the room to create a uniform, smooth surface without joints or gaps.
- The resulting solution is distributed at right angles to the wall, otherwise the jet will not cover the surface to be treated, but the worker.
- It is necessary to putty in protective clothing and a mask or respirator, because from any careless movement, a jet with a rather caustic composition, pushing off the wall, can get into the eyes or respiratory tract.
- A mechanized putty machine is a powerful enough equipment that requires a lot of energy consumption. It is better to connect it to an outlet securely fixed in the wall with wiring without sudden changes in electricity.
- The water supply hose involves connecting the device to a stationary water supply. Such an opportunity is not always available, for example, it is not available at a summer cottage, where water can only be in a barrel. In such cases, they try to use just a large tank of water, but this is not the most convenient way.
The device requires a fairly large amount of water, therefore, it is often necessary to interrupt the putty process for the next replenishment of the container.
Also, the vat with water is not so mobile that a person can move around with the apparatus around the entire perimeter of a large room.
Even when using an automated system and obtaining the smoothest putty surface, you should not neglect fine emery paper when finishing sanding after the main layer of putty has dried. If the room is large enough, purchase a sander to minimize mechanical labor. However, the manual sanding process should be of the same quality as with a machine
The main and only drawback of mechanized equipment is its high price. Usually such a machine is in the arsenal of teams that are constantly engaged in repair work. One-time use is not worth such a waste, and then you will have to allocate an entire pantry to store such a large car. The best solution is to hire a third-party team of craftsmen or take the device for daily rent.
Another alternative to expensive equipment can be a conventional spray gun. Of course, the speed and pressure of its jet are not as strong as that of a mechanized apparatus with a powerful motor, and the surface will not turn out so smooth. In any case, even a spray gun will apply the putty much better than a regular spatula.
Unfortunately, the spray gun does not mix the putty itself, so you will have to take a drill with a mixer nozzle. This option does not differ in mobility, because the putty is fed through a hose from a heavy container standing on the floor for mixing the composition. But the spray gun is not so expensive, it can then be used for many other types of repairs.
Plaster lends itself to completely different materials, and not just standard concrete or gypsum boards. If you choose the right mixture, then such a rough surface as foam blocks, penoplex or OSB plate will become completely smooth. In fact, OSB is a composite material made of pressed multilayer wood chips glued inside with artificial polymer resin. OSB board is made on the basis of wood, therefore it has the properties of wood. After getting enough moisture, it swells and decays.
Although the multilayer OSB material gives it increased strength and resistance to deformation, it is better to choose a ready-made mixture that does not contain water for its putty. This fact scares many and makes them think about the need to putty the walls. You just have to carefully study the range of putty mixtures and find a special variety for woodworking.
It is made not on water, but on an adhesive base with the addition of drying oil.
The larger the layer of pre-primer on the OSB board, the better the putty will lie. The primer should also be chosen without water in the composition, but with the addition of varnishes, for example, glyphthalic. There is a separate type of special acrylic putty for OSB boards and other chipboard surfaces. To achieve the desired viscosity, they are simply diluted not with water, but with solvents. As for the oil-glue putty, it will also work well, but it is better to dilute the mixture with linseed oil.
The process of filling such material is not very different from the usual one. It includes priming and cleaning the wall, and then starting and finishing layers. The main action is to reinforce the surface with non-woven at the last step., which is glued with an overlap, preferably without joints between the strips.
If the roughness cannot be avoided, it is possible to cut holes at the joints of the sheets and fill them with a sealant or an additional layer of finishing putty. A prerequisite for carrying out all stages of the putty is the room temperature of at least 20C and low humidity within 60%.
Fiberglass is a thin fiberglass material that tears quickly by itself, but when glued to the wall creates a reinforcing effect that prevents the surface from deforming. Fiberglass is putty according to the same algorithm as GVL or gypsum fiber. This means that the wall is first primed, only you need to choose a mixture suitable for the required material. So, the primer for penoplex is completely unsuitable for finishing GVL.
A starting layer of putty is necessary for any part of the room, be it a slope or a window opening. If decorative plastering of the wall is supposed, then the finishing layer of putty can be avoided. When the surface consists of foam blocks, then there should be as many layers of putty as possible, because the main component - foam - strongly absorbs any water-based finishing material.
Tips & Tricks
There are many nuances in the process of plastering walls and ceilings, and if you know them, you can get a much better and more durable result. This is a list of basic helpful guidelines:
When there are very noticeable cracks and chips on the wall under the putty, it is better to use gypsum-based mixtures for putty, especially the santegypsum modification, which is characterized by increased elasticity and viscosity even at low room temperatures
This property is also expressed in a disadvantage, because santegypsum hardens rather slowly, but the wall is plastered with high quality.
To completely remove cracks from the surface, it is better to first expand them and even pick them open with a knife both in length and in depth. The resulting grooves and all adjacent surfaces must be carefully treated with a primer, and after it has dried, a starting layer of the above putty should be applied.
For high-quality application of several layers of putty, a masking net is often used. It is inexpensive and is sold at any hardware store. With the help of self-tapping screws, it is fixed on the surface of the wall and covered with a continuous layer of overlap with a putty mixture, because this way it adheres better to the surface. Surprisingly, the coarser and untreated the mesh is, the better and smoother the layer of putty lays down. This technique works only for walls, and on the ceiling, the mesh will always sag slightly and lag behind the surface
The choice of sandpaper for the final sanding stage is very important, especially before wallpapering or painting. For example, # 240 all-purpose sandpaper will make the surface much smoother at any stage. According to general rules, for the starting layer of putty, grout is used with coarse sandpaper with a large pile. Fine skin is only suitable for the finishing layer. The work is more painstaking, but the result is obvious, because this sandpaper is the last tool, after which the wall is decorated
See the following video for the secrets of do-it-yourself wall putty.