Underfloor heating with water is quite an attractive solution. But if you want to install them yourself, without resorting to the help of professionals and without spending money on their services, you will have to thoroughly study the topic and learn all the subtleties. You should know both the principles of connection and the methodology for arranging the base. Laying will also have to be done using a special technology.
There are many varieties of warm water floor on the market. It is produced by dozens of leading manufacturers. But regardless of the specific make and model mandatory components are:
- boiler that heats water;
- pump that pumps water;
- ball valves (they are installed at the inlet to the boiler);
- a collector device that allows you to set up and regulate the heating of the floors at your discretion;
- fittings, by means of which the main route is mounted, starting from the heater, and also pipes are connected to the collectors.
Each of these building blocks has its own characteristics. So, pipes must be made of polypropylene with a reinforcing fiberglass layer, otherwise there is a high risk of excessive expansion in a hot state. Polyethylene has less thermal expansion. In this case, the optimal diameter of the pipes is from 1.6 to 2 cm. When buying, find out if they will withstand a pressure of 10 bar when pumping water heated to 95 degrees.
The collector, with the help of which water enters the pipeline, is sometimes called a splitter. One of these devices sorts hot water along the heating circuits, and the other collects it after passing through the entire system. Both devices are placed inside a manifold cabinet. High-quality performance of the collection group also includes:
- air outlets;
- devices that regulate water consumption;
- units for the accelerated outflow of liquid in a critical situation.
A manifold with a shut-off valve is impractical, so it is better to choose options equipped with control systems that provide a smooth change in the flow of the coolant to a particular circuit.
The exact length and installation spacing when installing pipes are calculated individually for all rooms (rooms). There are no uniform standards here. If you do not feel prepared enough for self-calculation using specialized software, use the services of design organizations. Designers will need to know what the size of the room is, how powerful the boiler will be installed, what the walls in the house (apartment) are made of, what are the properties of ceilings and partitions. The type of floor covering, the device of the insulation layer and the diameter of the pipes must be taken into account.
The project should indicate not only what is the length of the pipe, but also the installation step and the rational laying path. Additionally, heat losses and hydraulic resistance are calculated (it must be strictly the same in each circuit). It is undesirable to use large contours (100 m and longer).
It is better to divide each such into several smaller ones. All contours are strictly one pipe, therefore, joints and couplings when laying in a screed are prohibited. Verandas, attics and loggias are heated by an option that is separate from the adjacent rooms.
Remember that pipes should be laid starting from the outer walls, and the uniformity of heating reduction is achieved through the "snake" scheme.
In rooms where there are only internal walls, the underfloor heating structure should be spiral, directed from the boundaries of the room to its middle. In this case, a double step is maintained between any pair of turns.
For your information: you should select and buy a collector only after how the number of contours and their characteristic features will be calculated. The simplest solution, with only isolation valves alone, is relatively cheap, but the lack of flexible adjustment options will cause a lot of inconvenience. The other extreme to be avoided is an expensive manifold equipped with servos and pre-mixers.
Such equipment in a private house or apartment is completely superfluous, with the exception of giant cottages. When deciding which boiler to install, be guided, first of all, by its power, which, even when operating in peak design mode, should have a reserve of at least 15%.
To ensure the mixing of hot and cold heat transfer fluid, thermostatic mixers are used. They are two-way (paired structures are placed on the supply and return pipes) and three-way (with the addition of an electric drive, they are mounted on the boiler outlet). Take care of the presence of a servo drive, a thermostat: investments in these devices are justified by the fact that it will be more convenient to use the system. Servos are installed on the water supply combs.
Mechanical thermostats are relatively simple and reliable in use, so they are easy to use even for people who are poorly versed in technology. Electronic controllers are a little more complicated, and if you need to flexibly adjust the operating parameters of the warm floor, you will have to purchase a programmable device.
Having figured out in general terms with the device and the configuration of the floor heating equipment, now let's see how it works. From the boiler (in rare cases from a heated towel rail), water enters the pipeline. Passing through the thermostatic valve, it transfers a certain amount of heat to it. When a certain temperature is reached, the valve starts the process of mixing water taken from the return pipe. For this purpose, a two-way or three-way valve is opened, installed before the circulation pump (inside a special jumper).
The mixed liquid, passing through the circulation pump, touches the thermostat, which ultimately gives commands to open and close the coolant supply from the return circuit to the main circuit. Thanks to such a scheme, the water temperature is maintained in the specified range of values and is instantly corrected when it deviates from it. Then the water goes into the distribution manifold (but only in a large room, where there is a need to distribute the coolant along several circuits and then pump it in the opposite direction).
By installing underfloor heating in several rooms at once, install a manifold that regulates the temperature. This is necessary not only because everyone needs their own degree of heating, but also because the completely identical length of the circuit cannot be maintained. The adjustment is especially useful if one of the rooms is internal and the other has external walls.
Thermostats can measure the heating of the air in the room, or the temperature of the floor covering. Focus on what is important to you and do not confuse these two types.
Make sure that there is a bypass in the heating system. It will allow you to keep the equipment in perfect order, if suddenly the water supply to all circuits is stopped at the same time.
Advantages and disadvantages
Water heat-insulated floor economical. A low temperature of the coolant (not exceeding 50 degrees) will reduce the current consumption of an electric boiler by 20% (in comparison with heating with radiators). Uniform heating of the entire area of the dwelling with a physiologically comfortable temperature distribution (22 degrees on the floor itself, 18 degrees at face level) can also be considered a positive side. The hidden location of the heating system completely excludes burns and mechanical injuries in direct contact with it and the coolant, which is especially important if there are children in the house.
A safe water floor is also serves for a long time. Properly executed installation and correct selection of components allows the system to be used for 30-40 years. Unfortunately, there are also disadvantages. For example, the increased complexity of installation (if you do not understand the problem enough or do not have the necessary experience, contact the professionals, or choose the electrical option). Incorrect installation will not only reduce the heating efficiency, but also increase the risk of leakage.
If, due to installation errors, normal wear and tear, or due to any other problem, water begins to leak, you will have to disassemble the floor, dismantle the heating structure, change it in whole or in part, and only then reconnect it. Finally, in private residential buildings it will not be possible to use water floors as the only sources of heat.
Long-term (tens of hours) heating cannot be considered a disadvantage: the more that significant thermal inertia will allow the floor to stably heat the air even with short-term interruptions. Be prepared that laying a water floor (even with your own hands) will be significantly more expensive than installing its electrical version. Some materials in terms of 1 sq. M can cost at least 1,500 rubles. When a team is involved, it will need to pay no less.
A good result is achieved if the floor is raised by at least 10 cm. Costs are also associated with the installation of control systems, manifold boxes and air vent valves.
Where is it used?
Such a heating system in an apartment room can only be used theoretically. The technical hurdles are very serious. The fact is that it is extremely dangerous and simply forbidden to feed the pipeline with ready-made hot water, and special heating of cold water is expensive and difficult. In addition, any efficient systems are bulky and heavy, that is, they take up a considerable part of the height of the room, exerting a significant load on the surface of the floor and ceilings.
In a private wooden house, the thermal loads on individual circuits, if they differ, are insignificant. Therefore, carefully consider whether it is worth installing expensive, complex automatic control systems in a small home. A large cottage or house with unheated rooms is another matter.
It is quite possible to put a water floor in a frame house, but its installation has an important difference - due to the foundation that is lightweight to the limit, you will have to abandon the use of heavy concrete screeds or cement-sand mixtures. It is more correct to use dry polystyrene styling. It was specially designed for frame dwellings. Keep in mind that in order for the thermal effect to be maximum, you will have to think about good insulation of external walls, which are usually made thin.
The water-based floor heating system also has its own specifics in the bathroom. If it is installed in an apartment, we recommend that you get advice from a design organization, as well as form and register an official project and obtain consent from neighbors. It is advisable to feed the circuit with a heating medium from a heated towel rail, and two-way valves at the inlet will not reduce the temperature of the water below and above the riser. Regardless of whether you need to heat the bathroom in an apartment or in a private house, pay maximum attention to waterproofing. It is worth spending money on a special kind of film or euroruberoid.
The base is poured using expanded clay or fine gravel. To exclude the appearance of irregularities, beacons must be installed. Please note that you cannot walk on the bathroom coverings filled with screed for 5-6 days. In this case, you will have to regularly wet the surface, otherwise it may crack. Since a rare builder will be able to independently make a cement mixture (which will not be covered with an intricate pattern of cracks in the next few years), it is better to purchase a completely ready-made composition in the store. And to do experiments another time, when thinking over the design of a heated bathroom, for example.
Tools for work
In the process of installing water underfloor heating, you need to use 18 different tools. You will definitely need:
- Angle grinder;
- electric drill;
- construction hair dryer.
From hand tools you will need:
- ordinary saw;
- saw for metal;
- working knife;
Work with coatings is carried out with a spatula and a paint brush. You need to measure the required dimensions with a tape measure and a meter ruler, but besides them, you will also need a sanding mesh or sandpaper.
In addition to tools, you will also need materials:
- for thermal insulation, foil mats made of expanded polystyrene are most often used, or plates of the same material, processed by extrusion;
- damping self-adhesive tape should have a thickness of 0.5 to 1 cm. The pipes are fastened with brackets, mounting strips, pivoting arcs and some other parts.
Preparation of the base
The old screed according to the technology must be completely eliminated in order to expose the base overlap. Level the floor surface immediately if the deviation from the horizontal exceeds 1 cm. If cracks, chips and cracks remain after removing the old floor covering, use a cement or gypsum leveling mixture. Further, making sure that there is no dust, dirt and debris left on the surface, a layer of waterproofing is placed on top of it.
The perimeter of the base is occupied by a damper tape, which will help to compensate for the thermal expansion of the main floor covering during heating. It is important to take into account that when there are several contours at once, the tape should be placed in the intervals of contours close to each other.
To reduce unproductive heat loss, you will have to additionally insulate the floor. Only in rare cases is it initially ready in this sense. The choice of thermal insulation material is determined by the following considerations:
- if the warm floor serves only as an assistant to the main heating system, you can limit yourself to foamed polyethylene with a reflective foil layer;
- when the apartment is located above the heated parts of the building, it is required to use extruded polystyrene foam with a thickness of 2-5 cm, or no less durable substitutes;
- in apartments located above a cold basement, more serious protection is required - expanded clay is poured and expanded polystyrene is laid with a total layer of 5 cm or more.
Modern manufacturers offer special insulation materials for warm floors. One side of such heaters has channels for installing pipelines. It is recommended to use mineral wool, expanded polystyrene and special mats. To strengthen the screed layer, a reinforcing mesh structure is used to which pipes can be attached. Their attachment is provided with plastic ties, so there is no need for fastening strips and special clips. When the base is ready, there is no point in waiting for something else - it's time to start installing the floor heating equipment itself.
Installation of a water underfloor heating always begins with the installation of a manifold cabinet. They put it in such a way that the distance to the pipelines going to and from all rooms is approximately equal. You can hide an unsightly-looking cabinet by building it into the wall (load-bearing walls are not suitable for this). Please note that the drawer is located above the warm floor, otherwise the air outlet will be blocked.
In a modern system (with rare exceptions), circulation is provided by pumping equipment. The pump that is installed inside the boiler is enough to pump water over an area of 150 sq m, even if the building is two-story. If the total area of the building is larger, you will definitely need to install additional pumps with advanced functions.
In order to be able to service the heating system without draining the water, the boiler inlet and outlet are equipped with shut-off valves. Using them, you can disconnect the heater for repair and maintenance at any convenient time. In the presence of two or more collector cabinets, the main supply line is equipped with a splitter, immediately behind which narrowing adapters stand.
The connection of pipes to the manifold involves the use of compression fittings or Eurocone devices. If necessary, you can pass such pipes through the walls, close them on all sides with an insulating layer of foamed polyethylene. When all parts are stowed and each unit is connected in its proper place, the system must be tested. After supplying water to the pipes, they are kept under a pressure of 5 or 6 bar for 24 hours (depending on the design operating value). If such a check did not lead to the appearance of visually noticeable extensions, you can safely proceed to pouring the concrete layer.
It is allowed to fill the screed only when supplying fluid at the planned pressure. Drying time to readiness is at least 4 weeks (under ideal conditions). If tiles are laid on top, the screed should have a thickness of 30-50 mm, and the pipes are distributed at a distance of 100-150 mm from each other. Failure to comply with these rules, even if the connection of all elements is correct, will lead to uneven heating of different parts of the surface.
Under laminate or linoleum, the screed can be thinner. Then a reinforcing mesh helps to compensate for the decrease in its strength. If the underfloor heating is placed under the laminate, it is not necessary to install thermal insulation, otherwise the energy efficiency of the heating will be reduced.
Shrinkage seams are necessarily equipped in a screed if:
- the area of the room exceeds 30 sq m;
- there is at least one wall longer than 8 m;
- the length is less than 50 or more than 200% of the width of the room;
- the configuration is complex and bizarre.
For the design of screeds, it is allowed to use a cement-sand mixture based on Portland cement (at least M-400, and even better, use M-500). When ready-made concrete is used, its grade should be M-350 and higher. In addition to laying the damper tape, the reinforcing mesh is divided where the seam passes. The thickness of each seam is 1 cm, and the upper part is treated with a sealant. When passing pipes in these places they should only be placed in the outer corrugated pipe.
The start-up of water floors should take place at the onset of the first cold weather. Please note that the thermal inertia of the floor covering is high and it will take a few days, when it is overcome, that optimal conditions will be created.
You must not connect the underfloor heating to the battery (as well as to the existing central heating and hot water supply system)! This will not only cause sanctions from the regulatory authorities, but will also lead to disruption of the normal operation of communal systems. Be sure to install an autonomous heating boiler, which will become the source of hot water in the system. In addition to manual adjustment, you can control the warm floor by means of a servo drive and a sensor, or weather automation.
Since the system must have control and regulatory components, it must be connected to electricity. Underfloor heating in different rooms can be controlled by one thermostat only if the thermal conductivity of the floor covering completely coincides. Such a scheme requires the same or slightly different contour lengths. Thermostats can be connected to power grids directly or through an RCD, which is much safer.
To lay power cables, either a groove in the wall or an additional protective corrugation is used.
It should be borne in mind that at the time of the initial connection the machines must be in the off position. Carefully look at which wire to which phase should be connected. An alternative installation scheme (without a concrete screed) will be disassembled a little further. For now, let's just say that its main options are placing pipes in polystyrene foam grooves, or in grooves made of wood. It's time to see how the pipes of the water-heated floor will be laid.
Modern technology for installing underfloor heating involves laying pipes with special fixing profiles. The profiles themselves are attached to the base with dowels or screws. The advantage of this solution is that the profile is supplied with clamps during production. You do not need to carefully measure the step from one turn to another and carry out its careful calculation. A simpler option is fastening with plastic ties, pressed against the reinforcing structure.
However, the simplicity of such a scheme requires the elimination of unnecessary pulling force. Make sure that the loop is free. The coil of pipes is carefully unwound, and not immediately, but directly in the process of work. The manufacturer's instructions always dictate that the bend is gentle b along the smallest possible radius. When using polyethylene structures, it is most often 5 pipe diameters. Do not pinch the product if a whitish streak appears on it., since this means the appearance of a crease, which subsequently will easily break through and lead to flooding.
Installation according to the "snail" or "spiral" scheme is recommended for large rooms, and makes heating more even. The classic "snake" works best in small rooms, and if you want to supply heat to the floor covering in a medium-sized room, it is advisable to prefer the "double snake", in which the hot and return pipes are directed in parallel.
Whichever methods are chosen, try to reduce the number of joints between the pipes, as well as the number of their turns. Such areas, despite all the perfection of modern technology and careful execution by professionals, dramatically increase the threat of leakage. Ideally, connections should only be made at the inlet and outlet of the boiler.
Joints on bends and turns are strictly unacceptable. Attaching the laid pipes to the screed, place the retaining elements on each meter.
For connecting pipes, in addition to the options listed above, there are also such devices:
- attracting clamp made of polyamide (2 pcs per meter);
- steel wire (similar consumption);
- stapler and 2 clamps per meter;
- fixing tracks, or PVC-based strips;
- polystyrene mats;
- aluminum distribution plates.
The rules of operation indicate that regardless of the method of holding the pipes, their fixation is provided by nets with a square cell of 15x15 mm, the wire diameter is maximum 0.5 cm. human factor, but also remote.
The final choice of the installation option should take place taking into account the private properties of the premises and the functionality of their individual parts. The "snake" system is designed to supply water initially to a cold area, and only then throughout the rest of the floor, for example.
When the screed under the laminate or linoleum is thinner than usual, an additional reinforcing mesh is placed directly under it above the heating pipe contour.
How to do it correctly without a concrete screed?
A long wait (about a month or even more if the weather conditions are unfavorable) does not suit everyone. A floor covering can be used instead of a concrete screed. Once you have laid the pipes, you will need to form a backing for the finished floor. If there is a laminate on top, use cardboard and polyethylene foam. Pouring under the tiles is also optional. For it, as well as for linoleum, a special structure is prepared based on cement-bonded particle boards.
A warm water floor on a wooden floor is mounted using aluminum distribution plates. The boards are preliminarily prepared, in which the necessary grooves are formed. You can make the most flat surface in the bathroom with your own hands if chipboards, plywood or gypsum fiber sheets are laid over the pipes. Always check carefully to ensure that these materials comply with health standards.
You can connect a warm water floor without a screed by laying pipes, both between the logs and on the surface of the subfloor. The modular variation (wooden blocks with milled grooves) can be replaced by a strip, in which the plywood sheet is covered with strips. The intervals between them are for the installation of pipes. Laying between the logs necessarily requires the use of waterproofing, insulation, reflective plates with holes for the passage of pipes, the pipes themselves, a sheet of plywood and the final coating.
The imposition on the flooring also implies the placement of insulation in the breaks of the logs on top of the waterproofing, and plywood or draft boards are placed above. Nuance: grind the boards so that channels for laying pipes appear. The reflective layer is made of foil attached to the boards using staples. The pipes in the channels are held by narrow metal plates placed on top, the plates themselves are also attached to the boards.
Instead of boards, you can use polystyrene mats of standard dimensions 1x0.5 m, attached to each other with a fastener in the "lock" format.
Always (regardless of the installation method of the underfloor heating) maintain a distance of 0.1 m to the wall, as this will significantly dampen the effect of thermal expansion of the floor materials. A hydrophobic coating is placed over the deck or joists. Only after this comes the turn of the formation of the final floor.
In addition to the two described options for forming a heated floor without a screed, it is allowed to use a foam or wood substrate, chipboard. Lightweight, relatively thin floors are more expensive and not very durable, but they are recommended for use:
- if necessary, lay a new coating over the old one without dismantling;
- if the height of the dwelling is limited;
- if installation speed is critical to you;
- if it is impossible to arrange the delivery of concrete properly;
- if the floor is wooden;
- if the structure is high and the load cannot be exceeded.
In addition to lightening the structure, the underfloor heating system without a screed has another indisputable advantage - it is easier to repair. Even the best pipes, laid correctly and handled with care, can suddenly burst. If you still want to use a full-fledged screed, but do not wait 28 days for complete drying, it is worth applying semi-dry mixtures. Special additives in them allow you to reduce the required amount of water, but the cost of such building materials is higher than in a simpler version.
Keep in mind that the installation of underfloor heating without a screed is permissible only if the floor level drops are 0.2 cm for every 2 square meters of surface. If it is less even, the tightening layer, albeit the thinnest, is still necessary to create.
Even experienced home craftsmen, who for the first time undertake the installation of underfloor heating, can make serious mistakes. Often the dried concrete screed is covered with a network of cracks. The reasons for this defect are varied. You can avoid its appearance if:
- take care of the optimal density of the insulation;
- make high-quality shrinkage seams;
- do not overstate the recommended screed thickness;
- do not try to dry it too quickly, speed up the normal hardening process;
- thoroughly compact the solution and strictly observe the proportions during its formation;
- add plasticizers according to the recipe.
The minimum density of the insulation is 35 kg per cubic meter. Covering it with a polyethylene film will help prevent the concrete from drying out too quickly.
Eliminate assembly errors by 95% (except those caused by carelessness, haste and manufacturing defects) will help drawing up sketch projects. Having thought over the implementation of the system, "seeing" it on a sheet of paper, you can detect shortcomings in advance and avoid their manifestation. It is better to mark on the sketch the areas for the placement of furniture and other places where for some reason the circuit with the coolant should not pass.
The entire area to be heated is divided into sections of 15 sq m each. At any site, the step of installing the pipeline is 10 cm. A common mistake is that people do not think in time which wall is better to install the collector, or they bring it too close to some heating circuits, moving it away from others. Choose the right heat source that connects to the underfloor heating.
Comfortable life is ensured at a coolant temperature from 40 to 45 degrees, which allows you to warm the floor up to 26-30 degrees. Such heating is provided by condensing boilers, while other heating devices are not able to heat water less than 60 degrees.
Never put a heat-insulating layer on top of a warm floor and do not use carpets indoors., because these solutions will only worsen the quality of heating. Remember that polystyrene thermal insulation is dense, and it is not able to correct the unevenness of the rough screed, so from the first steps you need to do everything as accurately as possible. As for the thickness of polystyrene, contrary to the recommendations of most manufacturers, it is not required to withstand 10 cm (as a rule, even on the first floors, 8 cm is enough).
On top of the layer of thermal insulation, you should not just lay a reflective film (this is a mistake), but it should be laid out evenly and wound up behind the polystyrene around the edges … The lower material itself should be pressed more tightly against the walls through the damper tape. Do not tape the parts together, as they are intended for a completely different purpose. It can be harmful to health.
It is more correct to grease the edges of the blocks with glue. Another mistake that often occurs in the work of non-professionals and "shabashniks" is the different indentation of pipes from the walls. Real craftsmen make it at least 100 mm and uniform in all rooms.
If it is necessary not only to lay pipes, but also to organize the turn of the pipeline, it is imperative to bend the metal-plastic structure manually (and not with the help of springs and other auxiliary tools). Please note that the reinforcing mesh should not touch the surface of the pipes, as this is considered a gross mistake. The contours undergoing thermal contraction and expansion will constantly push the network, and it will soon be deformed and out of order.
According to experts, in the coldest parts of the room it is necessary to compact the step of laying the "snake" to 0.1 m. First of all, this is done by laying a warm floor near the outer walls. Do not try to heat more than 40 square meters of floor with one circuit. It is also worth organizing separate circuits for neighboring rooms with different temperature conditions. Installation of metal-plastic pipes under a screed is preferable to installing a pipeline made of other materials. The temperature of the coolant should increase systematically with the exit to the level you require 70-72 hours after connection.
The best installation point for the pump is the return pipe just before the boiler. Most often, expansion tanks are mounted in the highest section of the circuit, however, closed membrane systems can be performed in any other way. If you are supplying a gas boiler from a main pipeline and not from cylinders, you should obtain the approval of the local authorities. Only specially trained personnel working in licensed organizations should be involved in the work.
Loops from a single pipe with a cross section of 1.6, 1.7 or 2 cm have a minimal risk of leaks at the joints.
The average temperature of the floors of residential premises is 26 degrees, according to the current standards, and in those places where people are periodically, and a special thermal regime is required, it is 31 degrees. The highest permissible difference in heating of individual parts of the floor and coverings in different rooms is 10 degrees.
In order for the heat output to be optimal and not to force the system to work beyond measure, it is necessary to carefully level the floor.
Deviations from the plane by more than 5 mm are inadmissible … Their presence leads to overfilling of the circuits with air and unstable, ineffective heating operation. The functions of vapor and waterproofing are often performed by a polyethylene film, and its minimum thickness is 0.02 cm, otherwise it will not be possible to guarantee full protection of the insulation from dampness.
Laying of the film should be carried out with an overlap of up to 100 mm, and its borders are held by adhesive tape, which is used to cover the intersection of the floor and walls. When all the lower layers have been laid and even the pipes themselves have been installed, they need to be pressure tested in different ways, depending on the material. Thus, metal-plastic structures must be subjected to an internal pressure of 6 bar for 24 hours. Before this, the circuits are filled to 100% with water, and the air is exhausted to the end through the drain taps.
There is another option: the coolant is filled in, its temperature is brought to 80 degrees, it is kept this way for 30 minutes, after which, while maintaining the pressure pressure, a concrete screed is placed.
If the piping is made of XLPE, you will need to add water by reducing the pressure, and then repeat the test after 30 minutes. Then they wait 90 minutes, restore the previous pressure and leave the heating circuits alone for 24 hours. At the end of this pause, the pressure drop should be at most 1.5 bar.
After installing and inspecting all piping parts and accessories, take a photograph of their location and write a description with reference to landmarks. Subsequently, if it is necessary to repair the warm floor, such information will greatly simplify and speed up the work.
When you need to heat a very small area (the area around a sofa, armchair, table and other furniture, for example), flexible rolls with built-in plastic tubes are preferable. The technology allows cutting off the desired part of the roll, bending it at any angle - the main thing is that the channels for the passage of the liquid remain intact.
Compliance with these points will allow you to achieve complete success in the installation of a warm floor and enjoy its stable operation for several decades.
For information on how to make a water-heated floor with your own hands, see the next video.