Once upon a time, the owners of apartments with balconies were very envious: the extra meters in the "Khrushchev" were priceless. Not everyone was able to decorate the space beautifully and not turn it into a warehouse. Today, it is possible to correctly dispose of the loggia and make it cozy with your own hands, but if there are no design skills, then step-by-step instructions are needed. And interesting ideas for finishing with eurolining will help not only create a unique and practical design, but also significantly insulate the apartment itself.
The best material for a balcony
Of course, you can simply sheathe a room from the street with a profile and stop there. Starting repairs on the balcony is not a task for the lazy. But the interior decoration with clapboard will transform the concrete walls, make them elegant and well-groomed. How pleasant it is to drink tea on such a balcony in summer!
Clapboard cladding will require some skills and costs, while many work can be done by hand and, in fact, it does not take so long. First of all, it is worth choosing the finishing material, the rest will depend on it. Clapboard is called any planks for cladding (because carriages were sheathed with wooden slats for cheapness). Today it is a common name for PVC panels ("plastic" lining) and wood.
Plastic is not so difficult to lay, it is light and easy to care for, resistant to temperature extremes, humidity, and household chemicals. It is better to choose light panels that almost do not fade over time (this is important if the loggia faces the sunny side). The cost of PVC and wood differs in different regions, this can also influence the decision to purchase a particular material. For some reason, the plastic sheathing does not impress compatriots, for many the most budgetary lining made of wood seems more interesting. Although there are much more difficulties with its preparation, installation and maintenance.
If you want to sheathe the loggia with wooden clapboard, then be prepared for the fact that:
- Before installation, the tree must be treated with special compounds;
- If you plan to paint, varnish the panels, then this is done after installation;
- The tree is afraid of water and cannot be wetted, washed with coarse sponges, abrasive chemistry;
- After a few years, it will be necessary to remove the protective layer (coating) and process the lining again with compositions.
There are no fewer people who want to sheathe different rooms with natural clapboard, so advice on choosing will be useful.
Varieties of lining
The lining is made from different types of wood. They can also differ in variety and processing. All this affects the appearance of the skin and its cost. Lumber is called eurolining if there are longitudinal shallow grooves on the back of the canvas, so that the tree breathed and did not change shape over time. Previously, eurolining meant a higher quality of wood, today manufacturers do not always follow this requirement.
Wooden panels are made from:
Spruce and pine Are the most accessible materials. They are resinous, so drops can appear on the walls in the heat, but such panels are resistant to fungi and many pests. The wood of these species is considered soft: a noticeable mark can be left from a strong blow
Cedar and larch - more dense, with an interesting wood pattern. They have less resin, so they are in great demand from conifers
Linden, alder, aspen - not resinous, a little harder than spruce and pine. They are loved for their amazing shades of color. You can choose hardwoods according to your taste
Of course, oak - durable, solid, hardy, but also more expensive
The cost per type of wood depends on its quality - the smoother, the more expensive and higher the grade … The more knots and defects, the lower the grade and the cheaper. There are 4 varieties in total:
- Extra - the cleanest and most expensive lining;
- Elite or grade A - almost even wood, without knots, marks and cracks (allow 1 minor defect per 1.5 sq. M.);
- Grade B may have small changes in the pattern (for the same area, no more than 4 knots, 2 resin formations);
- Grade C - everything else. Sometimes such planks create a special charm and originality. The main thing is that such traces are not completely black and rotten - then there is a possibility that the panel will collapse further or break during installation.
When buying wooden lining, give preference to an already dried material (chamber drying means 7-10% humidity, this is normal for finishing). Damp wood can dry indefinitely, which is why the panels can lead, gaps and gaps appear between them. And this is unlikely to add zest to the updated loggia.
On sale you can find lining of different sizes, but taking into account the place (we are not sheathing the inner room), it is better to use average parameters. The thickness of the lumber varies up to 25 mm, for covering the balcony you need to take 14-16 mm, in a relatively warm climate - 12 mm.
The width of the plank creates visual effects by increasing or decreasing the volume of the room. Narrow panels (6 cm) require more installation time, and wide ones (15 cm) can make a small loggia very tiny. If in doubt, purchase a lining with a width of 9-12 cm, it will be comfortable to work with and it will be pleasant to look at the result. The length of wooden panels can reach 6 m. Euro lining has strict standards: length - 0.5-6 m, width - 8, 10.11, 12 cm, thickness 13, 16, 19 mm.
The outer saw cut of the panel (face, front side) can create a perfectly flat surface with a woody pattern or have a relief needed to create a certain atmosphere and spatial effect … The most popular are called the following:
Standard - almost flat panel, sides are processed at an angle
Softline - a variant of the standard, where the corners are slightly rounded, the wood looks a little softer
American - the panel itself is cut at an angle (different thickness of the planks on the sides), the surface will be ribbed, with clear lines
Landhouse - even width with grooves on the outside to enhance the pattern and geometry of the space
Block house - the face of the panel is rounded, it is a relief imitation of a bar
You can always find interesting options, even place an order for a batch of unusual or non-standard profiles if you want something unusual. Remember that you will have to pay more for an exclusive.
How to sew with your own hands?
After choosing the lining, the work itself begins: preparation of the room, insulation and lathing, installation of sheathing, processing of the lining. It is assumed that the glazing of the balcony has already been completed. It is important to complete the steps consistently and carefully. This will make the repair of the loggia easier, of better quality and more durable.
How to calculate the amount of material?
To do this, you need to measure the area of the room, subtract the area of the window and door openings. Add 10% for scrap and joints, and then divide the resulting area by the area of one panel. This will give you the number of planks required for the sheathing. If the room has complex geometry, then calculate the area of its parts. A similar calculation will be made to you in a store or on the website of the lining manufacturer.
The consumption of bars for the lathing is calculated separately for the ceiling, floor and each wall: there should be 0.6 m between the slats, by this value we divide the height of the wall and multiply the length. Then we sum up all the numbers and get the total footage of the beams for the crate. This calculation is done in meters.
You will save time if you immediately take other consumables (antiseptic primer, varnish, insulation, moisture insulation film, putty and foam for installation, liquid nails, clamps or self-tapping screws, nails with a 3cm head, plinths).
In order for the panels to serve for a long time, you need to clean all surfaces from the old dilapidated coating (paint, plaster, tiles, other finishes). Cracks and depressions must be repaired or foamed, protrusions must be repaired. After that, the level is checked, with significant differences, they are leveled with a putty. After surface cleaning, remove the debris and prime the entire loggia (ceiling, walls, floor) with an antiseptic compound, in order to avoid fungus and mold, wood parts must also be treated with an antiseptic. When the composition is dry, you can proceed to the next stage.
The choice of insulation
You do not need to insulate the balcony, then the air temperature will be the same as outside. For a tree, it is better to do insulation - the drops will be less sharp, there is less contact with moisture and better protection. The lathing will be needed in any case, but with thermal insulation it will be necessary to take into account the thickness of this layer, the features of the material. How are loggias insulated?
Styrofoam - lightweight, inexpensive, functional. The disadvantages include the formation of toxic fumes during combustion, the creation of a greenhouse effect (does not conduct moisture)
Mineral blocks - it is mineral wool, fiberglass or cinder blocks. Provide high-quality thermal insulation. Slag and stone products are praised in the work, glass wool has its own nuances. Does not emit harmful substances when burning mineral wool, it is somewhat more expensive. The peculiarity of minerals to retain moisture forces the slabs to be well insulated from other surfaces
EPPS (extruded polystyrene foam) - modern material, creates noise and heat insulation. It fits unusually, so there are no gaps between the slabs. It is higher in cost, needs ventilation, but it is in demand in the professional environment for its technical characteristics
Foil polyethylene foam it is used for thermal insulation only in warm climates, however, it does not allow moisture to pass through, therefore it is used as a protective film and an additional material for insulation with mineral wool
Foam glass - another modern and natural insulation. From the pros: non-flammable, lightweight, can withstand huge temperature fluctuations, easy to install. Cons: price. European manufacturers have the best characteristics, but the cost will also be high; Belarusian companies have more affordable options with acceptable quality. But it is better not to take Chinese products
All these materials can be used for insulation of walls, floors and ceilings.
How to make a crate?
Balcony cladding with clapboard essentially begins from this stage. To do this, we create a frame of beams around the perimeter of the walls, the thickness of each plank by 1.5-2 cm should be greater than the thickness of the thermal insulation in order to provide ventilation for the lining. With a "budget" approach, this rule is slightly violated: the materials for the lathing are taken of the same thickness as the insulation or a little wider, and then a counter-lattice is attached to the primary frame - the same slats, but perpendicularly. This creates the necessary air pocket, but there will be more work.
The direction of the lining can be chosen horizontal or vertical (even diagonal), and the frame under it is made opposite in direction. Therefore, when using a counter-lattice, the primary row of beams is laid in the direction of the lining, and the secondary (the lining will be attached to it) is perpendicular. With a simple laying of the lathing, the first guide is laid horizontally 1 cm from the bottom (if the lining will lie vertically or diagonally) or vertically 1 cm from the corner of the wall (horizontal arrangement of the panels).
It is important that the first plank is perfectly horizontal (vertical), the rest of the planks will align with it. Cut the bars of the required length (reducing the original parameters by 1-1.5 cm for seasonal changes), mark their placement (60 cm from the top of the bar), checking the level. Next, proceed with the installation of the lathing: we lay the timber along the marking line and drill it with a perforator along the length, leaving holes every 50-80 cm. In this case, the drill should enter the wall to a depth of 6-6.5 cm so that the dowels can be inserted.
We unfold the vapor barrier material and fix it with mounting glue, lay the lathing on top of it and fasten it with nails, aligning it with the first bar. We put insulation between the "ribs" of the frame. It is convenient to adhere to this order - walls, ceiling, floor. The lathing on the floor is called "logs", after warming on top of the logs we lay moisture-resistant plywood (not thinner than 12 mm), securing it with self-tapping screws.
We also begin to sheathe the lining from the walls, then we finish it. The panels can be mounted on clamps, nails or a construction stapler. We work from an inconvenient angle: we install the bar with a spike (protrusion) inward, align, and then nail it at a distance of 1-2 cm from the edge of the face of the plate into the prepared holes so as not to split the panel. On the open side, where the groove is, we drive in nails under 45 grams. (brackets can be used). We will close this fastener with the spike of the next panel, so it will not be visible. For installation, it is better to take light nails with a small head so that they are masked by the color of the wood.
Cleamers perfectly hold the lining (spikes are stronger), they are fixed on the ledge, the other side is equipped with holes for nails to mount in the crate. We attach the first panel to the crate, the second - just insert it into the groove. We install the third plank with a spike in the groove, using a mounting plate and nails, nailing it to the crate. This is how - through one kleimer - we mount all the elements, driving them with a hammer through a wooden block, if they sit loosely. Tapping through the block, we do not leave marks on the lining from the hammer, and the panels sit smoothly and firmly.
The last plank is trimmed in width, fixing with nails directly in the plank. Now let's move on to the next wall. Having installed the lining on the entire surface, we close the horizontal joints with plinths, and vertical joints with corners.
In order for the tree to retain its beauty longer, it must be processed.
Before installation with an antiseptic, you need to walk along the beams of the sheathing and along the lining strips
Different formulations can significantly save time and effort, the choice depends on your idea. For example, are very popular:
Tinting antiseptics protect against fungi and insects by painting the strips in the selected shade. They do not require final painting after installation
An antiseptic primer is useful for pretreatment. Does not change color and prepares the planks for subsequent coating (paint or varnish)
Polymer impregnations protect the lining from insects and microorganisms, creating a barrier on the surface. Facilitate maintenance, preventing dust and dirt from settling on the tree itself
Stain changes the color of wood, additives help fight pests, but do not protect against dirt
Before applying the solution, lightly sand the lining to level and remove the top layer. Detailed instructions for the formulations help you to navigate, and the combined properties save time on panel processing. Tinting compounds usually do not give gloss on the lining, for this you need a finishing varnish. Whether to use it or not is a matter of taste, but it's better not to mess with paint (it turns out long and expensive). Treat wood regularly with protective compounds to maintain its beauty.