Every family has made repairs in the apartment at least once. The modern layout allows you to create any interior in the room and has a fairly spacious area. However, what about the tenants of small Khrushchevs? Someone only visually expands the space, while someone starts redevelopment. An excellent option is to combine a balcony with a kitchen or room. Especially if there are two balconies.
How and how to decorate the balcony and how to keep warm? Warm floors come to the rescue. Many people believe that such manipulations are only appropriate for bathrooms and kitchens. But no! Now the range of floors allows you to make flooring in any part of the room. One has only to decide on the type of heating.
See below for more details.
Features and Benefits
Heated floors are especially useful for families with children. You don't have to worry that your beloved child will catch a cold while playing on a cold surface. Also, such designs provoke air circulation, since heating occurs evenly. Therefore, allergy sufferers are also not in danger
- Heating systems differ in the type of system and each is good in its own way.
- Water floors are perfect for homes with individual heating, as the temperature can be adjusted independently.
- Electric floors are more popular, since the installation can be done independently, it is possible to adjust the temperature (including for each room separately). However, the biggest disadvantage is the cost of electricity services.
There are several types: with a cable system, infrared and mats
The simplest system is cable.
This type of heating is good for laminate flooring. A wire is used as a heating element. For the floor to have a comfortable temperature, a voltage of about 150 W per 1 square meter is required. After laying the wire, a cement screed is made, and after it has hardened, the floor covering is already laid.
However, the system has several disadvantages. One of the main ones is to ensure the waterproofing of the balcony slab, due to which the floor level becomes 10-15 cm higher. Sometimes a threshold may form at the entrance to the balcony. This is not always convenient.
In addition, due to the screeds, an additional load is created on the slab, which is not always acceptable for old buildings. Yes, and you can use it no earlier than a month later, so that the screed has time to harden. Otherwise, all the work was in vain, and the design will become unusable.
This type is especially relevant for small rooms with absolutely any kind of coverage. Heating takes place according to the principle of radiation of infrared waves in a certain range. It is worth considering the fact that all surrounding objects will heat up: walls, furniture and other things
- Installation of film floors can be wet and dry. The advantages of infrared heating are the possibility of using both carpet and laminate.
- The heating element consists of strips with carbon paste, interconnected with lavsan. The paste, in turn, consists of a slate with various kinds of additives. The role of a conductor of electricity is played by a 220-volt copper wire.
Prepare the floor before installing the film. A screed is laid, on which the infrared film is laid.
The sequence of laying the film is as follows:
- We make the warp;
- We lay down heat-reflecting substrates;
- We lay the prepared film with the copper side down;
- Installing a temperature regulator;
- We fix the power terminals to the film with special tools;
- Fill the contacts with insulating material.
When covering a structure with ceramic tiles or artificial stone, it is worth using a solid substrate.
Mats are a mesh with a cable fixed inside it, through which electrical energy is transmitted. The core of the cable is made of any high resistance material
- When insulating floors with mats, no thermal insulation is required. The net is usually 0.5 meters wide. It is enough just to roll it out and you can install the topcoat.
- If you choose tiles as a covering, then the mats can be built into a special compound. Moreover, for laying the heating mesh, it is not necessary to equip the balcony floor, and the structure is ready for use in a week.
- The operation of the mats is quite simple. The advantage of such a system is the absence of additional installation and start-up manipulations, as well as a minimal increase in the floor level. However, care should be taken when laying the flooring and do not allow heavy objects to fall, otherwise the structure may be damaged.
Heating of the flooring is carried out by a radiator built into the concrete screed
- It is believed that this heating method is the most acceptable for a balcony. In addition, the design is distinguished by a fairly low cost price and versatility when choosing a topcoat up to an artificial stone.
- Before starting the installation of radiators, it is necessary to prepare the floor. We free the surface from debris and old coatings such as tiles or linoleum.
- If there are irregularities, it is worth pouring in the cement screed. Next, we mark the location of future radiators. Now we start assembling the system.
- Immediately after preparing the base, you need to install mineral or basalt wool. This must be done in order to avoid freezing of the radiator during the cold season.
- Then we attach the heating pipe to the base with special fasteners for greater stability.
- The water floor can be laid out both in the form of a spiral and in the form of a snake.
For underfloor heating, you can use absolutely any coating: ceramic tiles, linoleum, laminate, self-leveling floors, 3D floors, porcelain stoneware, artificial stone, parquet and any wooden products.
The main rule that should be taken into account is not to install household appliances on the heated surface, as this can lead to its overheating and its further failure. Therefore, if the balcony is combined with the kitchen, then it is necessary to lay the heating elements selectively.
For example, a wooden floor automatically becomes warm without additional devices. But if a decision is made to cover the heated floor with wood, then there is a nuance - the wooden floor reacts strongly to changes in humidity. Therefore, not every breed is suitable.
Particleboard, plywood and board coverings are appropriate for a water heating system. Under such a floor, mainly metal-polymer pipes are carried out. In order for the coating to retain its aesthetic appearance for a long time, the temperature of the coolant (water) should not exceed 27 degrees. The most reliable materials are made from beech and oak.
True, wood is not the best conductor. Due to its insulating qualities, such a coating will block the flow of heat from the heater. And under the influence of a change in weather, the tree can delaminate, crack and even disperse (in the case of plywood boards and parquet). Therefore, when choosing a coating material, it is worth giving preference to denser rocks with a low coefficient of thermal conductivity.
Wooden coverings should not be thicker than 10 mm. These include cross-cut floors, parquet and mosaic parquet. They are also more resistant to drying out.
In general, natural coatings are good friends with infrared heaters. But, since the heating strips heat up to 60 degrees, porcelain stoneware and stone coverings will be most appropriate. In addition to their beauty, they have excellent heat-conducting properties.
Self-leveling floors, including those with a 3D effect, have long proven themselves on the good side. Now you can install them yourself. This type of cover is suitable for water heating and cable systems.
Any type of underfloor heating is ideal for tiles, since ceramics are an excellent heat conductor and the thicker the layer, the better. In addition, tiling is the fastest and easiest.
Recently, an all-glass floor has been gaining popularity. The cover is made of impact resistant glass. The structure consists of 3 layers, each with a thickness of about 8 mm, which are connected either with an adhesive base or with the help of thermal action.
Mosaics, aquariums and just drawings are built into such floors, or you can leave a transparent layer altogether. Despite their beauty and durability, glass floors are still not designed as a covering for heating structures. Although, as an independent element, it is quite appropriate, since usually the second layer of a glass unit plays the role of insulation.
In order not to be mistaken with the choice of material for the coating, it is best to consult with a specialist.
Before installing a warm floor, you must first glaze the loggia. Further, the walls and ceiling are insulated. And only after that you can start warming.
There is not much difference what type of floor to make. The only thing that should be considered some of the nuances depending on the type of insulation, on which the method of finishing depends.
How to lift with your own hands
First you need to check the concrete slab for irregularities, cracks and chips, which are eliminated by pouring cement. It may also happen that you have to replace the fittings.
It is also worth considering some factors on which the parameters of the balcony also depend.
You can expand the area by taking out the balcony along the floor. However, the law allows this to be done no more than 30 cm, otherwise the permission of the relevant organizations will be required. Floor expansion works should be provided by a specialist, as the structure will create additional load on the slab.
So, if a decision is made to make a balcony connected to the room, then it is just necessary to make the walls and ceiling insulation on the loggia. First you need to treat the cracks with polyurethane foam or cement mortar. After that, a vapor barrier is installed. For these purposes, penofol or liquid rubber is mainly used.
The lathing of the walls will help to insulate the loggia. It can be made of wood and metal. To preserve heat, of course, it is better to choose a wooden one.
But if the floor is made on logs, then, in principle, you can do without heating systems. As a result of the fact that the floor is raised to a height of 10 cm, or even all 20 cm, it will be equal to the level of the threshold, and even the wood will perfectly retain heat. When calculating the parameters of beams, do not forget that leveling with a screed will also create a rise in the floor level.
In general, installation is quite simple and is done in three main stages:
- The balcony slab is leveled with reinforcement and cement mortar.
- We make a screed to level the floor of the balcony and the room. This point is very important when combining rooms. The screed will dry for about a week.
- Laying the hydro-barrier.
- Laying the heat-insulating layer. A regular heat reflector will do.
- Laying pipes or electrical systems.
All materials should be chosen based on the calculation of the loads.
Installing a water system
- To begin with, it is worth deciding how to conduct the system: from a riser or from a battery. It is more budgetary and practical to make the supply from the battery.
- After the preparatory work, the installation of pipes begins. They are fixed on special rugs or brackets.
- We mark the pipe laying. In order to save space, the styling will be a snake. The distance should be made about 20 cm. We distribute the brackets taking into account the bend of the pipe. That is, for a straight pipe, we place the fasteners at a distance of 50-70 cm, and more often at bending points. After laying the pipes, pour the screed over the structure.
Installing an electric floor
- We put thermal insulation on the prepared screed. Next, we attach the mounting tape.
- Mats or a conductive cord are laid on top. We install the thermostat on the wall for easy access. The screed is poured.
What to cover
It is equally important to choose a finishing coating when installing a warm floor.
In general, the simplest and most economical option would be to paint the screed. The paint lies flat enough and looks good. But! Such coverage will have to be renewed approximately every 3 years. And this is an extra expenditure of time and effort to cleanse the old layer and cover it with a new one.
You can cover the screed with parquet or chipboard. A minimum load on the slab will be created, but the tree must either have certain parameters. If waterproofing was previously installed, the wooden flooring will last long enough. In addition, it can also be varnished or painted.
An excellent option would be to put PVC tiles. The tile consists of modules measuring 30 by 30 cm, which are easy to assemble without the use of glue bases and fasteners. It can be cleaned with a regular vacuum cleaner and can be easily washed off with water. The material is produced, including colors like marble, granite, wood, etc.
Self-leveling floor has long established itself as a covering for balconies. It is appropriate even on an open balcony. Aesthetic appearance, ease of maintenance, the ability to pour on any type of warm floor. In addition, such a coating will retain its integrity for a long time, provided there is a slight temperature difference. Therefore, it is necessary to do the insulation of the room before the filling is done.
Most owners in the old fashioned way prefer to lay laminate or linoleum. Moreover, what could be easier than tossing a piece of material and sewing up the edges with baseboards? This choice is also practical and simple, but a little boring for modern original interiors.
Ceramic tiles are the most common type of coating for all occasions. Excellent thermal conductivity, the ability to lay out on your own, the variety of colors and textures gives undeniable advantages to such a coating. The only thing that you should not drop heavy objects onto the surface.
The glass floor will help to impress the guests, and just show the sophisticated taste. Thick laminated glass, if damaged, will not scatter into fragments and is suitable as an independent thermal insulation. The glass floor allows you to divide the room into cold and warm zones, and even with a combination of different types of coverage.
Which is better
Which gender is better to make a purely individual choice. It all depends on financial and technical capabilities.
It is more convenient for an apartment to install an electric underfloor heating due to the convenience and sufficient ease of construction. Moreover, the water type directly depends on the heating season. But any coating is acceptable, since for the most part all loggias are made closed and the coating will not be exposed to negative weather influences.
In a wooden house, it is more relevant to conduct a water floor heating system. The temperature will be regulated at the discretion of the owner, since the heating is individual and does not depend on utilities. In addition, such a warm floor will significantly reduce the financial costs of heating, as opposed to electric.
Floor covering can also be done at your discretion, only the scope of imagination is wider and you do not need permission from third-party organizations for redevelopment. For private houses, rubber coverings are often installed, since in summer the balconies are mostly open and it is necessary to avoid slipping the surface.
Should I install or not?
The majority of members of the forum vote "for"! Why? Because it's just cold in old apartments in the off-season. Additional heating is often installed for families with small children. After all, they always play on the floor and do not like slippers.
Particularly flattering reviews about infrared warm floors. They fully recoup their cost and serve for many years. And the most popular coating has become everyone's favorite tile. It turns out cheap and cheerful.
The only negative found by users is the increase in unpleasant odors during the heating process. Therefore, when installing such floors, cleanliness must be observed. Especially with pets.
Interesting solutions in interior design
Despite the simple and economical tastes of buyers, manufacturers do not give up. Every year, more and more coatings are released.
A very practical and inexpensive solution has become a rubber floor and rubber crumb. The coating has all the necessary qualities, plus the absence of slipping. And the variety of shades and patterns is amazing.
For wealthy owners, designers offer glass floors. Floors with a division into temperature zones look elegant and solid. For example, a heated area, and in one of the parts of the room there is a glass floor with an aquarium or a living plant area. Moreover, it is not at all necessary to install completely transparent floors.
Floors are made of stunning beauty by combining glass and a self-leveling coating with a 3D effect. And also specialists can install multi-level structures.
If we weigh all the pros and cons, then the choice is obvious. Because there are no restrictions in the choice of both the type of floor heating and the method of finishing.