Loggia (103 Photos): How Does A Balcony Differ From A Loggia And What Is The Difference And Difference Between Different Designs

Table of contents:

Loggia (103 Photos): How Does A Balcony Differ From A Loggia And What Is The Difference And Difference Between Different Designs
Loggia (103 Photos): How Does A Balcony Differ From A Loggia And What Is The Difference And Difference Between Different Designs

Video: Loggia (103 Photos): How Does A Balcony Differ From A Loggia And What Is The Difference And Difference Between Different Designs

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Frameless balconies, loggias and terraces glazing Vizyon EN 2023, January
Anonim

We owe the appearance of loggias and balconies to medieval fortresses. The very first can be found on the city gates or towers of the 13th century European fortifications. Over time, these successful architectural finds, acquiring grace and lightness, migrated to the walls of residential buildings.

Image
Image
Image
Image

A balcony is a platform that extends beyond the facade and is attached in various ways to the wall of the building. The outer perimeter is fenced.

Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image

7 pictures

Loggia - a room built into the building. In the classic version, one side remains open, in the latest projects - two or three. The front part can be decorated with a colonnade, arcade or parapet. The base of the loggia is always part of the supporting structures.

Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image

Like all new items, initially these structural elements were more decorative in nature, the owners did not skimp on their decoration and decoration. To amaze the neighbors with an unusual shape and decoration was a matter of honor, therefore such terraces were intended exclusively for relaxation and communication in the fresh air.

Image
Image
Image
Image

Massive construction made balconies and loggias accessible to all segments of the population. In addition to single models that are at a distance, there have appeared coupled, with partitions, designed for several apartments. They have lost in aesthetics and simplified the plasticity of facades, but gained in the possibility of more practical use. They arrange mini gyms, greenhouses, offices, combine with kitchens, store unnecessary trash.

Modern technologies and layouts have already practically erased the external signs between these two different types of structures. In this situation, the ability to distinguish loggias and balconies from each other is important when calculating the useful area of ​​an apartment, repairing, redeveloping, finishing, buying or selling housing.

Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image

Pursuit of style

Depending on the climate, the uniqueness of the national culture, balconies and loggias have acquired characteristics characteristic of their countries. The most successful became examples of style or urban planning norms. And all of them, with less or more success, have taken root in Russia.

Classic Italian loggia / balcony - it is distinguished by a variety of shapes, sizes, richness of decorative techniques. For fences, an elegant forging, complex in its motives, is used

Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image

French loggia / balcony - found in Soviet-built buildings. The loggia is distinguished by its small size and decorative, rather than functional, purpose. By analogy with the French balcony, which does not have a ledge, and the door is simply fenced off with a twisted lattice

Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image

In the Spanish style - the terrace has a small rectangular, in some cases square shape. The decoration and decor are strict and laconic. As a railing around the perimeter, a modest lattice or concrete parapet

Image
Image
Image
Image

In the American style - today it is more often used in individual construction or rather widely in the construction of tourist complexes and hotels

Image
Image

Loggias and balconies of this type are located almost along the entire perimeter of the building, sometimes they have light lintels. The railings are usually lower than in the classic versions.

In the Portuguese style (veranda) - a type of loggia, it can be an open or closed area on the ground floor of a building, it is used exclusively in low-rise construction, in the southern regions this room is part of an apartment. It is widely used in children's and sanatorium institutions

Image
Image

Swedish balcony - has a narrow rectangular extension behind the facade, railings - metal beams.The modern standard Russian balcony is one of the prototypes of the Swedish one

Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image

In the middle and more northern latitudes, there is a small ledge so as not to limit natural light, both on the balcony itself and in the room behind it. Indeed, in addition to the upper floors in an apartment building, above each balcony there is another, from which a shadow forms throughout the day. The loggias give even more darkening, so in houses in the north they are much smaller than in the south, where people are forced to flee from the heat.

Image
Image

It is no coincidence that in the Soviet period, at the beginning, high-rise buildings of the southern republics were equipped with loggias. In the 70s, such a planning solution became one of the mandatory components of apartments with an improved layout throughout the USSR. Now these buildings are called houses of the Brezhnev period.

Interestingly, depending on the climatic zone in the Soviet Union, a room was also determined to which a balcony or loggia should be attached. And now, in a temperate climate, they coexist with a common room or kitchen, in hot regions - with a bedroom. Nowadays, with the advent of climate control equipment, the shapes of balconies and loggias have become more diverse and less dependent on the place of registration. They can be in the form of familiar rectangles, rounded, corner, side. Elongated and triangular, arched, polygon, or arrow-shaped.

Image
Image
Image
Image

Design differences

In modern mass residential development, the base of any balcony or loggia is reinforced concrete slabs (GOST 25697-83). Depending on the project, they can be solid, hollow or ribbed; cantilever or beam. The difference in application is that for loggias, plates with reinforcement, an increased margin of safety, are used. Hollow-core ones are not used for balconies.

Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image

The upper front surface of slabs for open structures provides for a slope (from the outer walls) of at least 3%. This is necessary to drain water during precipitation. It is allowed to use slabs without a slope of the upper surface if its creation is provided already at the construction site or glazing is initially planned. By the way, in Moscow since 2001 all new houses built by the city are being commissioned with glazed balconies and loggias.

Image
Image

It is worth considering that when glazing, the illumination is reduced by an average of 15-20%.

Table of standard sizes of balconies and loggias, depending on the type of building:

Building type "Khrushchevka" "Brezhnevka" Panel Blocky Loggia 3 m Loggia 6 m
Length, m 2,8 - 3,1 2,4 3,1 5,640 3,0 6,0
Width, m 0,65 -0,8 0,65 - 0,8 0,7 0,7 0,7-1,2 0,7-1,2
Minimum parapet height, m 1,0 1,0 1.2 (height from the parapet 1.45) 1.2 (height from the parapet 1.43) 1,0 – 1,2 1,0 – 1,2

The difference in values ​​reflects the climatic zones. According to SNiP 2.08.01-89, the size of balconies and loggias in the Far North is only 0.6 m wide, in the southernmost regions of Russia - 1.2 m.

Image
Image

Loggia designs:

built-in - has deaf bearing side rails - "cheeks" on which the panels of the loggia rest (fit):

Image
Image

outrigger - located completely behind the facade of the building. Side walls perpendicular to the facade can be load-bearing or hinged

Side walls are load-bearing at loggias only in mid-rise buildings. To ensure uniform and simultaneous settlement with the entire building, they are fixed behind the facade line on the bearing floor slabs. In the modernized series of houses, for example, P-44T and P-44TM, bay window-type loggias are based on only one facade plane, which reduces the load capacity of some of the slabs. In terms of their characteristics, such loggias are comparable to a balcony.

Image
Image

loggia-balcony - usually most of it is "buried in the building", the second, open on three sides, protrudes beyond the ends of the side rails. The ceilings are attached, as in the outrigger structures of loggias

There are increased requirements for the base of loggias-balconies, therefore, panels or balcony slabs with a reinforced front edge are used as ceilings.

Image
Image

In the modernized series of houses, for example, P-44T and P-44TM, bay window-type loggias are based on only one facade plane, which reduces the load capacity of some of the slabs. In terms of their characteristics, such loggias are comparable to a balcony.

Unlike a loggia, the fastening of balconies is distinguished by a variety of options:

  • on girders (brackets or beams) - girders mounted in the front wall hold the balcony panel on them;
  • with cantilever mounting - the principle is similar to that of a beam: the cantilevers are fixed into the wall and hold the balcony slab. The visible part of the consoles can be in the form of a simple beam, curl or sculpture.
  • on reinforced concrete slabs (one of the most common types) - pinching the balcony slab into the structure of the outer wall (up to 40-50 cm). In brick houses, welding with steel anchors is added to reinforced concrete lintels.
  • on supports or columns - the name speaks for itself: the ledge is supported by supports made of wood, metal or reinforced concrete. They are also found today. In modern buildings, such balconies are usually spacious.

Mixed mounts are sometimes used. For example, a beam-cantilever or beam-post structure is being laid.

Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image

Of the relatively new ways of fixing a balcony, one can single out:

  • attached - is attached using solid side supports for all floors. Front pillars relieve stress on the facade of the house. A foundation must be erected under the supports;
  • attached - the most economical, fixed with the help of support girders or load-bearing consoles, and part of the load is transferred to the racks resting on the "point" foundation;
  • hinged - a special structure is created, which seems to be hung on the wall. No need to worry about the foundation.
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image

The most "fragile", judging by the discussions on social networks and blogs, is the console balcony in panel "Khrushchev" buildings with thin walls. Most of them today require either major repairs or replacement. The ideal option for reliable fastening is the location of the balcony slab strictly in the center of the load-bearing wall.

Image
Image
Image
Image

There are also ultranovye - combinatorial solutions. Their distinctive feature is that the balconies are a removable cell with railings or glass blocks, completely ready for use. This facilitates not only the process of building a building, but also very convenient for repairs and restoration, which can now proceed without evicting the tenants.

With the help of this technology, you can easily transform the look of the whole house by changing balconies, for example, rectangular in shape to semicircular ones.

Image
Image

Wooden version

In timber frame, cottages and houses made of rounded beams, similar technologies and balcony designs are used: beam-post or beam-cantilever.

With beam-cantilever for load-bearing beams, solid wood species with an impressive diameter are used, which will be able to hold a heavy structure for many years. To increase the rigidity of the console part, struts are installed. They can be either wooden or metal. Forging works well with wood, but dark rust spots may appear after a while where metal meets wood.

Image
Image

The beam-cantilever mounting method is available in two versions. At the first, the balcony is supported on the floor beams passing through the outer wall. However, according to SNiP 11-25-80, it considers this a prohibited technique. And all because the junction of the beam and the wall in the open structures of the balcony can begin to rot due to guaranteed getting wet. Over time, this can become a threat to the destruction of the house. Sealants do not provide reliable protection of these components during long-term operation.

Image
Image
Image
Image

The best solution is when cantilever logs or beams are a continuation of the outer walls, the inner ones, experts warn from time to time, cannot be used for these purposes.The outlet beams must create a monolithic base structure. In the usual rectangular shape of the balcony, the consoles are connected with a beam, the rough flooring is laid and fixed. The extreme floor beams are attached to the frame uprights of the walls, and the rest to the floorboards - batens.

Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image

A successful and beautiful solution with a cantilever beam, from which the crowns descend downward. Such a balcony design, in addition to aesthetics, gives additional rigidity.

Image
Image

To protect the places of the main anchorages and the terrace itself from precipitation, a canopy is erected over the balcony. Sometimes its role is played by the roof protruding above the site. If it is necessary to do this between two roof slopes, in the pediment part, then the ridge is lengthened. When the balcony is located under an extended overhang, rafter legs are installed.

Image
Image

Beam-post fastening is used for the construction of large balconies, since the standard length of cantilever logs, beams and beams is no more than 2 m. The role of posts in this design is usually performed by log posts or beams.

Image
Image

A wooden house inevitably shrinks, these processes occur especially quickly in the first years. Due to the difference in weight and loads, the balcony racks sag much more slowly. To avoid skewing, screw mechanisms are installed in the upper or lower part of the supports. With the help of them, you can adjust the height of the balcony, adjusting it to the current position of the house.

Sometimes a veranda, a parking lot, a porch are placed under the balcony, while the balcony can serve as a visor - in this case, the flooring is dense. If there is free, unoccupied space under the open balcony, decking boards can be laid at a short distance from each other to drain water.

Image
Image

Loggias in wooden houses are most often built using part of the attic. Therefore, all work to one degree or another is associated with the construction of the upper floor, the floor of which will serve as the base, and the roof, the slopes of which will serve as the side rails of the loggia. Railings are provided only along the facade line. Their height must be at least 1 m.

Image
Image

Loads

Reinforced concrete slabs without additional supports (pinched) best withstand compression, bending or stretching a little worse, do not tolerate torsion and shear. Therefore, the structures, subject to all norms and technologies, are durable, but react poorly to impacts or long-term storage of heavy objects near fences. This property should be taken into account when choosing glazing.

When arranging and insulating, a loggia can withstand greater loads than a balcony.

Image
Image
Image
Image

The permissible weight for slabs in apartments is 150 kg per square meter. At the balcony, this figure in any case should be less, because its plate is fixed only on one side, and not on four, as in any room.

The norms SNiP 2.01.07-85 * indicate the permissible loads:

  • uniform along the outer perimeter of the balcony - 400 kgf / m²;
  • uniform over the entire area of ​​the balcony slab - 200 kgf / m².

If we subtract the weight of the fences from these figures, take into account the wear of the slab, facade wall and fasteners, then a little more than 100 kg will be typed. It may turn out that the balcony in its original form can only bear the weight of the residents, it was not designed for more.

Image
Image

The calculation of permissible loads determines the prohibitions on changing the configuration of the balcony opening, carrying out work to combine the balcony with the room. For example, when cutting down a balcony opening to a rectangle in panel houses with thin walls (350-510 mm), the slab of the balcony itself inevitably begins to sag, for a firm fixing it does not have enough weight from above.

Image
Image

The collapse of the facade is fraught with the expansion of living space due to the balcony in "Khrushchevs" with load-bearing walls 300-350 mm thick. As a connecting element, they use tongue-and-groove fastening, which has a minimum margin of safety.

However, balconies are equipped and they do not collapse.This is because there are safety margins for the supporting and additional structures of each series. Reliability factors take into account the possibilities of floors, number of storeys, type of buildings.

Image
Image
Image
Image

Exact calculations can only be provided by specialists from design organizations and BTI. Moreover, glazing and redevelopment are possible only with the approval of the Bureau.

Image
Image
Image
Image

Property for two

The ownership of the balcony is divided by law between the housing and communal services and the owner of the privatized apartment. Housing and communal services owns load-bearing walls and a slab, a tenant owns everything that is on this slab: a parapet or railings, a canopy, a glazing system, etc. In the event of the destruction of the slab, the homeowner has the right to apply for a major overhaul in the housing and communal services, at their expense (except in cases of improper operation). The basis is the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of 13.08.2006 N 491.

Image
Image

The law provides for any permitted changes in the layout or appearance of balconies and loggias. The principle of prohibited actions boils down to three points:

  • not to destroy the structure of the load-bearing walls, so as not to lead to the destruction of the facade;
  • not to violate fire safety standards (associated with the use of combustible materials and heating systems);
  • do not create inconvenience and danger for neighbors or passers-by (especially important for glazing and an extension).

For unauthorized glazing or redevelopment (Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation Article 7.21), a fine and an order for dismantling are imposed on the owner, in extreme cases - the sale of an apartment. In case of social employment in accordance with the Housing Code of the Russian Federation, in addition to a fine, eviction is threatened.

Image
Image

Today, with unified solutions for urban development, the exterior is taken into account, but people are more worried about square meters. Real estate sellers and the Bureau of Technical Inventory (BTI) are interested in their formal increase, buyers and tenants - in a decrease. And all because the price of apartments, taxes, payment for heating directly depends on the usable area, which includes loggias and balconies:

  • the area of ​​the balcony is added to the total with a reduction factor of 0.3;
  • the area of ​​the loggia is calculated with a reduction factor of 0.5
Image
Image

In the case of an official combination of a balcony or loggia with a room, their area is added completely, without a reduction factor. When installing central heating on a loggia, it will be taken into account as part of the total living space.

Image
Image
Image
Image

It is strictly forbidden to take out heating to the balcony! All changes must be reflected in the BTI documents and the certificate of ownership.

Popular by topic