Decorating the facade of the house involves the installation of fences on the balcony openings. When performing such work, it is very important to use materials that can withstand significant loads for a long time. Therefore, before installing the balcony railings, you must carefully evaluate all the characteristics of the material used for this purpose.
How to choose
Balcony-type railings, first of all, are protective structures, and only then they perform a decorative function. Quality products must meet several requirements:
- The height of the fence should be selected taking into account the height of the person. According to the rules, the railing should be located above the navel line of an adult resident. The standards regulate this indicator at the level of 1-1.2 m.
- All decorative elements must be made in such a way that it is impossible to injure themselves on them. Many experts recommend giving all surfaces a semicircular shape without sharp corners.
- A one-meter-long fence should be designed for a minimum load of 100. In this case, it is necessary to take into account not only the weight of a person, but also the effect of the wind flow.
- In the case of the formation of a lattice type of railing, all holes must be larger than 12 cm. Be sure to take into account other rules, which can be found on specialized sites or in regulatory documents.
- It is strictly forbidden to install handrails that have structural damage to individual elements or the entire system.
- The railing is secured with specific anchors or other similar fasteners. Fastening is mandatory to the base and walls of the building.
Structures of this type are distinguished by a unique appearance, since the material is perfectly processed and allows you to give it a different shape. As a basis, a wooden beam of a certain thickness is used, which is subjected to shaped cutting.
The disadvantage of wooden railings is rotting, to which it lends itself. This leads to a loss of functional properties and a decrease in operational safety. To protect the tree from harmful decomposition, it is coated with special paints, varnishes and other protective solutions.
The fastening of wooden handrails is carried out using anchors, which are equipped with a threaded rod. If possible, special fasteners "wood grouses" can also be used, which pierce the floor through and through and are fixed from below.
Metal is one of the strongest materials to provide a high level of security. Wrought iron railings have all these advantages and are unique in design. In their manufacture, special metal rods are used, which are bent to give them the desired shape. The number of such twisted elements can vary from a few pieces to several dozen. Fastening is done using special anchors or, if possible, by welding.
The main disadvantage of these products is the lack of wind protection for the loggia. The cost of forged railings is also significantly higher than other similar systems.
Railings made of metal of this type are not only very beautiful and durable, but also very durable, since the material is covered with a thin film that prevents the development of corrosion. This makes it possible to exclude additional coating of the substance with paints and other similar compositions.
Such fences fit perfectly into the facades made in the Art Nouveau style. Fastening to the base is carried out using anchor bolts with which special supports are screwed. All elements of the railing are fixed to each other using a threaded or bolted connection. Welding in this case is possible, but this process is very expensive and therefore rare.
Railings can also be formed from aluminum profiles or steel pipes that are bolted or welded together. These structures are also highly durable, but their installation requires certain skills.
Glass fences are gradually gaining popularity, as they are distinguished by their original design and relatively good safety indicators. The parapet consists of solid glass with metal inserts. It is distinguished by the presence of several layers, and the material itself is hardened using a special technology. When heated to 600 degrees, you can give it any shape.
Glass fences must be manufactured according to a specific technology and have the following technical features:
- When the size of the canvas is less than 600 * 375, the thickness of the glass itself must be more than 3 mm.
- With the dimensions of the element 2500 * 1600, a minimum thickness of 7 mm and more is allowed.
Fastening of such structures to the bases is carried out by welding, bolts, anchors or using special glue. Direct fixing of the glass sheet to the supporting metal posts can be done in several ways:
- Frame mounting.
- Fixation using special profiles.
- Point mount.
- Clamp mounting (only applicable to steel frames).
Parapet made of brick and aerated concrete
These materials are highly durable and heavy. The fences obtained in this way have a long service life. Professional construction allows you to obtain structures with a unique design that fit into the general trend of style.
Among the advantages of this material, several properties can be distinguished:
- The strength of the frame allows you to use it as a support for placing shelves on a loggia, hanging flowers, etc.
- When joining two loggias, a brick fence can significantly increase sound and heat insulation.
But brick, as a material, is not a universal product and has several negative sides:
- Great weight. In some cases, the location of heavy structures is almost impossible on relatively fragile substrates. Installation of brick fences in multi-storey buildings requires special permission from specialists.
- The cost of construction can be slightly higher than other similar systems.
- Installation of brick railings should only be carried out by an experienced technician in compliance with all regulatory rules.
An alternative to brick can be granite or marble. They lend themselves well to processing, which allows you to make columns, railings and other attributes of fences from them. The disadvantage of these structures is also a significant weight, which does not allow them to be mounted on any kind of balconies.
Techniques for installing balcony systems
One of the main factors influencing the choice of installation method is the type of material used in the manufacture of the handrail. Before proceeding with the fastening, the strength of the foundation must be checked.
Fastening of almost all types of fences is carried out using special anchor bolts. This process can be broken down into several sequential stages:
- Assembly. Such works begin from one edge and consistently move along the entire perimeter. When forged products are used as a fence, they already initially have the desired shape and their installation begins with direct fixation.
- After that, all support posts are fastened to the foundation with special fasteners. When this part is ready, proceed to securing the railing and wall cladding (if such is expected).
- It is important to adhere to safety rules when performing all these types of work. This often involves reliable insurance for the performer, excluding the location of people under the balcony, etc.
After completing the fastening, it is imperative to check the reliability of fixing the railing and whether they are capable of withstanding the expected load.