To build a fireplace with your own hands seems to many to be an overwhelming task. And completely in vain. Everything turns out to be quite simple with the correct and thorough approach to the matter. The dimensions of brick fireplaces are determined depending on the area of the room and everyone can figure it out.
Where to start
First you need to decide on the location of the fireplace in the house. It is undesirable to place it opposite the windows, as then there will be drafts. The back wall of the fireplace can get very hot, so it is best to have it flush with the outside walls of the house. In wooden houses, additional measures should be taken to eliminate this hazard in order to avoid a fire.
Sizing should be started with the firebox
They are determined as follows: the area of the room in which the fireplace is located refers to the area of the firebox as 1:50 - 1:70.
So, for a room of 20 sq. m and a standard ceiling height (3 - 3.5 m), the area of the firebox portal will be 0.4 sq. m or 52 × 77 cm.
Likewise for a room of 15 sq. m - 0.3 sq. m or 44 × 67 cm.
For a room of 10 sq. m - 0.2 sq. m or 36 × 45 cm.
The depth of the firebox should be from ½ to 2/3 of the portal height. It is important to follow this rule, otherwise it will be unpleasantly reflected during the operation of the fireplace. Too shallow depth will lead to smoke, and too deep - to loss of heat transfer.
The dimensions of the chimney are determined by the dimensions of the firebox. Its area should be approximately 8 - 15 times smaller. If you plan to make a chimney of bricks, the dimensions will be 14 × 14 and 14 × 27 cm. When using a stainless pipe - 8 - 14 cm. The standard height of the chimney is 4 - 5 m.
The overall dimensions of the fireplace are determined based on brick standards: 6.5 × 12 × 25 cm. Taking into account the thickness of the seams, the height of one row of masonry will be 7 cm. The back wall can be made in half a brick - 12.5 cm. Side walls in one brick - 25 cm.
Experts strongly recommend making a drawing of the future fireplace on paper before starting work.
Together with the ordering scheme (schemes where the order of the bricks in it is indicated for each row), it will allow you to determine the number of bricks required for work. It is worth considering that ready-made schemes with an already calculated amount of material count each half and three quarters as a whole brick.
For beginners, in order to avoid unpleasant surprises, it is preferable to use ready-made ordering schemes. It must be remembered that, even strictly following such a scheme, the actual material consumption may differ from the declared one.
The type of fireplace also plays a role. So, about 200 pieces will go to a corner fireplace with dimensions of 1 × 1 meter. red bricks and 100 pcs. refractory. For a simple fireplace with dimensions of 65 × 115 cm, the number of red bricks is about 250 pieces, and for chamotte - 100. For a traditional large English fireplace, 300 pieces are already needed. red and 130 fireclay.
To estimate the dimensions and make sure that the calculation is correct, it is worth making dry masonry.
Those. fold the fireplace according to the ordering scheme without mortar, and then, having disassembled, proceed to the real masonry. This will avoid mistakes without making the process too long.
The foundation is an important and responsible stage of work. When laying the foundation for a fireplace, it is worth considering the following points:
- the foundation of the fireplace should not be in contact with the main foundation of the house;
- the dimensions of the foundation should be about 10 cm larger than the dimensions of the fireplace on each side;
- the depth of the pit should be 50 - 60 cm;
- the level of the foundation must be lowered from the floor level to the height of one brick - 6 - 7 cm;
- laying the fireplace on a completely finished, frozen foundation.
The foundation is made of brick or concrete
Concrete is more complex in execution, so let's dwell on it
On the bottom of the pit, crushed stone is poured with a thickness of 10 - 15 cm. Formwork is installed, processing with resin or upholstery with roofing material. The foundation is poured with sand-cement mortar (3 parts of pitch and 1 part of cement). After leveling the poured foundation, leave it to dry for a week under plastic wrap.
Immediately before laying, it is necessary to provide additional waterproofing with two or three layers of roofing material.
Choice of materials
The strength and durability of the fireplace depends on the quality of the materials. Pay attention to the appearance of the brick: cracks and chips are not allowed. They can only be used on the first row of the base. Sand and clay should be free of foreign matter and lumps.
The main building materials for a brick fireplace are red and refractory bricks, clay and sand, cement M300, M400 (for the foundation). It is customary to make the outer layer of red brick, the firebox and chimney - of refractory (chamotte).
Before starting work, red brick must be soaked in water.
This will prevent moisture from absorbing from the mortar and ensure the strength of the masonry. Readiness is determined simply: if air bubbles stop coming out of a brick immersed in water, you can take it to work.
Fireclay bricks of yellow color do not undergo deformation, withstands temperatures up to 1000. It heats up slowly, but then cools down slowly, keeping heat well. Therefore, it is perfect for laying the interior of the fireplace.
One of the disadvantages, however, is that the brick cannot be cut into pieces due to its high strength. But manufacturers take this fact into account and produce bricks of various shapes: straight, wedge-shaped, trapezoidal, arched.
Those who want to save time and effort in the construction of a fireplace can purchase a ready-made insert-firebox. Currently, the Elba brand has proven itself well among domestic products. They are welded from thick stainless steel, equipped with a cast-iron chimney pipe, Clean glass system. The combustion chamber is lined with fireclay bricks, which provides additional heat transfer and increases the service life of the furnace.