Wood-burning fireplaces for giving long-term burning serve to fill the room with heat without constant regulation of the furnace process and practically without ash and soot waste. Therefore, in most of them there is no blower-ash pan, as in the usual heating systems. Installing a fireplace like this is the best way to create a cozy home atmosphere with a visible fire with minimal maintenance and little firewood.
Long-burning fireplace stoves can be chosen for the house, for a bath, with simple heating of the room or with additional functions of the hob, with a water or air circuit for heating adjacent rooms. It is worth considering in more detail the most common types of such structures and their features.
Prefabricated fireplace stoves
According to the method of installation, the stoves can be ready-made factory-made options and more complex models that need to be built into the interior. If you do not want to carry out complex construction work, then there is an opportunity to buy a factory model, the body of which is made of cast iron and equipped with transparent doors. In a set of such stoves, chimneys are often present, which are fixed vertically above the firebox. These devices on legs are easy to carry, it is possible to install them in a new place if necessary.
For a small room of 20-30 sq. m. a compact model of a built-in fireplace-stove on long burning wood is quite suitable. The facade can be lined with bricks or natural stone, and inside there is a factory-made cast-iron firebox with a transparent damper. The advantages of such a project are that you can implement any fireplace design to your liking and organize additional functions: stoves, countertops, heating circuits.
For a bath
Features of fireplaces-stoves for a bath in their increased moisture resistance and compactness for a small room. Sauna models on wood burning for a long time come in ready-made versions that are easily installed in the steam room. The enclosures are made of high-strength stainless steel, the transparent doors are tempered glass. Most designs provide for the regulation of heat supply, and the dimensions of such products do not exceed 1000 x 800 x 700 mm, which allows them to be easily transported and installed in any corner of the bath.
The most popular and high-quality domestic models of long-burning sauna stoves-fireplaces are Teplodar, Termofor and Ermak, and imported ones are Finnish Harvia and Kastor.
A fireplace stove with a hob combining two functions is very convenient. It is optimal to install them in the kitchen to heat it, along with which it is convenient to cook dishes over an open natural fire. An example would be the Okhta model with a solid black steel body, a cast iron firebox and a framed single-leaf tempered glass door. On the ceramic hob with one burner, you can boil a kettle, warm up soup or cook dinner in a short time. Due to its small dimensions, this stove is suitable even for a small country kitchen, and its appearance with burning wood is very attractive.
With water or air circuit
Factory models of fireplace stoves with a water or air circuit make it possible not only to heat the room in which they are located, but also to supply heating and warm water to other rooms in the house. A complex system of pipes several tens of meters long can be connected to them, through which heated water enters the radiator batteries in neighboring rooms or is discharged to the tap in the bathroom or bath. The average power of such systems is 9-11 kW, which is quite enough for heating a one-story building with 2-3 rooms, even in severe frosts. Of the most common fireplace stoves with a water circuit, one can mention Angara-Aqua and Pechora-Aqua.
The fireplace stove with an air circuit uses hot air for the local heating system in the house. Through pipes divorced from the heating device, it penetrates into other rooms. The advantages of this method are greater reliability, unlike water systems, less pressure acts on the air pipes, and they do not risk suddenly breaking through. Among the shortcomings, it is worth noting that the air system is not suitable for rooms with ventilation: kitchens, bathrooms, toilets.
The design of cast iron or steel wood burning stoves for long burning consists of the following elements:
- metal case with legs or a heat-insulating base to protect the floor;
- shutter made of transparent heat-resistant glass;
- ash pan for collecting soot;
- cast iron grate;
- flue gas outlet;
- air channels to ensure a stable combustion process.
The operation of such a heating device is based on prolonged combustion of fuel due to enhanced gas formation processes. That is, it is not intense combustion that occurs in the stove, but a slow smoldering of wood. This produces a large amount of gas. Due to it and the access of additional oxygen through the branch pipes, the gaseous combustion products pass the stage of secondary afterburning. The result is a minimum of waste, and the efficiency of the stove is increased.
Another common design of long-burning stoves is based on the gradual advancement of the flame in the stacked wood from top to bottom. This process greatly increases the time until the full fuel consumption, and at the same time no less heat is released. As an example, consider a burning match - if its head is directed upwards, then the flame will move very slowly down, if you tilt the head down, then the match burns out in a very short time.
The design of a long-burning heating device with a vertical downward movement of the flame is called the Bubuafonya stove by the name of its developer. In its firebox there is a movable disc, which plays the role of a piston, which descends as the upper layer of firewood burns out. There are slots between the disc and the walls of the combustion boiler, through which the resulting smoke rises up and out through the chimney. Above the stove is equipped with an air duct for the oxygen necessary for combustion to enter, the horizontal chimney from the firebox is connected to the chimney that goes out into the street. In addition, this design provides a container for collecting condensate.
Not only wood is used as fuel, there are varieties of long-burning stoves on coal and peat briquettes. Their specific heat of combustion is higher, but wood firewood is better suited for creating a cozy atmosphere, a pleasant smell of a fire and an aesthetic appearance in the firebox of such a fireplace.
Stoves-fireplaces with a water circuit consist of almost the same elements as the usual type, which is used to heat one room. But around the firebox they have a heat exchanger in the form of a radiator or a spiral. It consists of metal pipes through which water circulates. When heated, the liquid enters the heating systems distributed throughout the house.
In addition to buying factory models with a water or air circuit, you can create a project and build fireplaces according to your taste and needs, for example, brick, stone, monolithic. This method is unique in that it is possible to create a fireplace portal with a fireplace insert of any size, and accordingly any power - for large buildings with several floors.
If you are purchasing a ready-made cast-iron or steel fireplace stove with a heating circuit, then its technical passport indicates the operating power. Based on this value, a model is selected depending on the area of the building:
- 60-200 sq. m. - up to 25 kW;
- 200-300 sq. m. - 25-35 kW;
- 300-600 sq. m - 35-60 kW;
- 600-1200 sq. m. - 60-100 kW.
For a home-made fireplace stove, you can calculate the average generated power yourself, taking into account the type of fuel and its specific heat of combustion, the volume of the furnace, the shape and cross-sectional area of the chimney.
With your own hands
It is easiest to create a long-burning fireplace stove for a country house by purchasing a ready-made cast-iron firebox. There are several varieties of them:
wall-mounted - designed for mounting in a fireplace near the wall, they will be covered with masonry on three sides, and a transparent shutter is located on the front side
corner fireplaces - installed in a corner fireplace
double-sided models have transparent dampers on opposite sides and are suitable for simultaneous heating of two adjacent rooms
with heat exchanger for connection to the heating circuit
After the firebox is purchased, you need to create a fireplace project with a facade cladding around it. Here you need to consider whether the metal heating cabinet has legs at the bottom or protection against high temperatures. If it is not there, then you need to build a heat-resistant base of concrete, brick or ceramics in the floor.
Facing the front of a fireplace with a ready-made firebox is best done with refractory ceramic or clay bricks in one layer. After the laying is done, you should not immediately take up full kindling. It is necessary that the mortar is completely dry and the walls shrink. This will take 2 to 4 weeks. During this time, it is worth drying the fireplace. To do this, it is necessary to heat it daily with a small amount of dry firewood, no more than 2 kg.
You can make a long-burning wood-burning fireplace with a home-made firebox without ordering an expensive cast-iron product in the store. Popular models that are easily assembled with their own hands are English fireplaces.
The English fireplace is constructed of classic red brick without additional decorative cladding. The opening of the furnace is in the form of a trapezoid, and the chimney is straight or slightly tapering from the top of the portal to the ceiling. The chimney inside has a curved shape that prevents heat from escaping through the chimney.
Long-term support of heat in an English fireplace is carried out by the internal walls of the firebox, which are located at a slight angle to the base. Thus, heat is reflected from the walls, hot air circulates inside. This version is open, that is, it does not have a protective flap made of durable fire-resistant glass.
Independently, an English fireplace begins to be erected from the foundation. For construction at the full height of a floor of 2-2.7 m, it is necessary to lay a foundation with a thickness of at least 20-30 cm. It can be made of the same brick or a strip foundation with formwork can be poured. After drying and shrinkage of the foundation, an ordinal brick laying is carried out. A mixture of M200 grade cement with sand is taken as a mortar. For 1 cubic meter m. brickwork will require approximately 0.3 cubic meters. m. of concrete. In the process of work, you will need a hacksaw or a grinder to cut bricks for inclined walls inside the firebox of an English fireplace.