Everyone knows that maximum relaxation can be achieved with the help of contemplation of flowing water and the quiet crackling of wood in an open fire. Therefore, many people living in country houses dream of having a fireplace in their room, creating an atmosphere of serenity and tranquility. It should be noted that the presence of a fireplace insert testifies to the well-being and high social status of the owner of the house.
Today, many companies offer various fireplaces that differ from each other in design and functionality. However, the purchase of a finished structure is considered a rather expensive service, so many people begin to think about how to build a fireplace with their own hands. If you decide to build a fireplace insert yourself, this procedure will be less expensive, and this article will help you understand the construction procedure in detail.
The subtleties of choosing a design
If you have not built fireplaces before, you might think that it will be impossible to build a fireplace in the house yourself, but this opinion is wrong. However, when laying the stove, you need to be extremely attentive to every detail and carefully study the theoretical material.
The fireplace is a conventional stove with an open firebox. The structure heats the room with the help of the generated heat, which is formed on the basis of the combustible fuel. At the same time, fireplaces have a simple design, in which there is only a firebox and a chimney.
The chimney should have a curved shape so that sparks and smoke from the flame do not enter the room, and rain or snow from the street does not enter the house.
In past centuries, European countries exploited portals as the main source of heating in the house, but at the moment it has a more decorative function, or is used as an auxiliary heating.
It is unprofitable to operate the portal as the main source of heating, because it has a low heat capacity. The unit gives off only 20% of the heat to the room, and all the rest of the remaining heat evaporates through the chimney in a place with air currents. Another disadvantage of the fireplace insert is the uneven heating of the room.
This is because a significant portion of the heat enters the room from the firebox, and the side walls practically do not heat the room. To increase the efficiency of fireplaces, it is recommended to build fireplace inserts of sufficient width and shallow depth.
Similar structures can be built in a house from ordinary bricks, paying special attention to the decorative component of the unit. Before you start construction, you should develop a project for the unit. You will need to find a fireplace diagram showing the location of the fireplace insert.
As a rule, the fireplace is installed opposite the entrance doors. However, if you wish, you can build a corner-type portal, or install it separately. There are a large number of models of fireboxes, which you can choose based on the dimensions of the room and the taste of the inhabitants of the house. It is not necessary to erect a fireplace insert opposite the windows so that drafts do not arise.
Before you start building, calculate the cross-section of the chimney. You should carefully consider the calculation so that the diameter is selected correctly.
Care must be taken to ensure that there is a constant supply of fresh air in the room and that the base for the oven is reliable. Therefore, before construction, an order should be prepared, which is a detailed diagram of each brickwork in the fireplace. You can use ready-made schemes. Each type of fireplace has its own order. With the help of drawings, you can understand the rules of masonry.
Before installing the fireplace, you will need to select the type of fireplace. There are opening and closing types of fireplaces.
Closed fireplaces are made of cast iron, which is lined with brick or stone from the outside. When using a door with fireproof glass, you can observe an open flame without interfering with the combustion process. A cassette made of cast iron is cheaper than a brick in cost and its operation will cost less. An open and closed fireplace can be made by hand.
The future portal must be on the foundation. If you are planning to build in a one-story house, then the depth of the bookmark should be at least 0.5 meters. For two-story houses, the depth should be increased to 0.8-1 meters. The most affordable option is reinforced concrete.
Foundation laying rules:
- a pit for the foundation must be dug around the entire perimeter of the fireplace. Use a level to measure the bottom;
- broken bricks or large stones should be placed in the pit and tamped well;
- after that, a layer of cement is poured into the pit. Align the layer and repeat the procedure;
- the inner walls of the foundation are also poured with liquid concrete, and the outer part must be laid out on a dense thick mortar;
- layers are poured until about 30 cm remains to the top of the pit. Make sure that each layer is even;
- then it follows on the waterproofing, which is made of two sheets of roofing material and clay mortar, to lay two rows of bricks.
Thus, about 7 cm should remain to the clean floor. This recess will be the basis for a home fireplace.
How is masonry carried out
The chimney masonry practically does not differ from the stove. It must have the same quality in order to end up with a high-quality monolithic structure. The dressings of the longitudinal and transverse seams are responsible for ensuring reliability. For these purposes, you can use an incomplete type of brick, or use the method of alternating the butt and spoon parts of the brick in the corners of the fireplace.
Make sure that the seams have a strictly specified width:
- for a simple brick 0.5 cm;
- for refractory: 0.3 cm.
If this condition is not met, then the masonry loses its strength and when heated, the seams undergo deformation. Use a smooth plastic mortar to ensure uniformity.
Before laying red brick, it should be placed in water for a few minutes so that it does not absorb liquid. If you have chosen a refractory brick, then you can use it right away.
To ensure good adhesion of the mortar, dust should be washed off. It is unacceptable to use ceramic and refractory bricks for dressing joints at the same time, because they have different working data, as well as the coefficient of expansion. You should not lay bricks with chips inside the smoke channel, because this will interfere with the normal circulation of gases.
After you have completed the preparatory phase, you can build the fireplace itself. The masonry process itself takes place in this way: with the help of one hand, you need to put a brick on a wooden lath and press it, then a solution is applied to the material and with the help of a light pat it is nailed. Bricks are stacked in layers. Do not allow the clay solution to push the bar out and the clay crawls out of the cracks.
When laying the bottom row, the bricks must lie on the edge. Check each layer with a level and square. The angle should be 90 degrees. Remember to check the diagonals.
Use a trowel and trowel when you start laying vertical layers. The solution should be checked by hand to exclude small stones and other debris from entering it.
Each row should be checked against the drawn drawing and the laid out layers should be hatched with a pencil.
The fireplace must not be allowed to come into contact with external walls, so that temperature drops do not occur and the masonry does not collapse.
After you have completed laying several rows, you should remove the framing slats. After the third row, you will need to lay two pins for the fireplace grate. Pay special attention to the protrusions. They should be laid out with half bricks. Grouting is carried out using a colored decorative solution.
After you finish building the structure, you need to remove the excess solution from the inner walls of the chimney and firebox. The interior of the fireplace does not need to be plastered.
When you lay the firebox, pay special attention to the position of the pipe, it should be of a strict vertical shape. For laying the chimney, which is located on the roof, cement and sand are used.
Close the roofing carpet with an overlap, thus protecting the wooden floor from the flames of the fireplace.
To increase the heat dissipation of the fireplace, the wall of the fuel section should be at an angle, and the side walls should be turned outward, while tilting the rear wall at a slight forward angle.
How to calculate the size
If you decide to build a fireplace with your own hands, you can order a personal project, or download a ready-made scheme for laying stoves from the Internet. It is very easy to calculate the size of the future fireplace yourself and this procedure will not take much time. When drawing up drawings, remember that when carrying out work you will use not only solid bricks, but also halves.
How to calculate the correct size of the fireplace:
- Initially, you should measure the room in which the fireplace will be located.
- Then, observing the scale, you need to draw a diagram.
- Calculate the size of the firebox. It should be borne in mind that its dimensions cannot be less than 1/50 of the size of the room.
- The fireplace portal should be equipped in a ratio of 2: 3 or 1: 2 (this is the proportion between depth and height). Pay attention to the calculation of these parameters, because they affect the smoke in the room and the correct heat transfer.
- The size of the chimney opening will depend on the area of the firebox. The hole should be eight times smaller. Make sure that the pipe diameter is at least 10 centimeters. The length of the chimney is usually 5 meters.
Building an outdoor fireplace
Many people dream of putting an outdoor fireplace with a barbecue in their yard. Such structures can be built from iron, bricks or stones. It all depends on your preference. Stone portals are in demand, because they are characterized by increased strength and durability. At the same time, it will be very difficult to make a similar fireplace in the yard on your own if you decide to take such a step for the first time.
Brick is most in demand for these purposes. The construction of such a structure is an easier process than the construction of a stone stove. When choosing a brick, focus on its quality. Poor quality materials reduce the service life of the units by several times.
Outdoor metal fireplaces are quick to build and easy to assemble.
The first time it is best to assemble the fireplace using "dry assembly". This method will help eliminate errors in construction. After assembling the structure, make sure that you are satisfied with your work, and proceed with laying on the mortar. The principle of building a portal on the street is similar to the order of a home fireplace.
If your portal will be outdoors in an open area, consider building a roof. A small canopy can protect the fireplace from precipitation and increase its service life.
With the help of these recommendations, you can build a fireplace with your own hands and enjoy the evenings on beautiful tongues of flame. Some people try to use portals as full-fledged heating by connecting air ducts to them. These devices distribute warm air throughout all rooms and can pass over the fireplace through the floors.
Depending on your preferences and wishes, you can install a portal in your home that will emphasize your status and position in society. The fireplace will perform only a decorative function or be used as a heating - it's up to you.