To create a beautiful and functional brick fireplace with your own hands in a country house is a task that is not very difficult for an owner with ingenuity. Due to the material, the costs for a brick portal and chimney will not be high, especially in comparison with granite, marble and other exclusive minerals. Cement mortar for masonry, the necessary tools are also not very expensive.
Before you make yourself a fireplace for a summer residence, you need to choose its design and shape, and also decide on the calculation of the dimensions of the firebox, chimney and portal.
A simple fireplace, depending on the location, can be wall-mounted and corner. Its parameters are determined based on the area of the heated room: it is divided by 100 - as a result, the optimal firebox area is obtained. The width of the furnace opening should be 1.5-2 times the depth and about 1.5 times less than the height. To achieve sufficient draft, the area of the smoke hole should be 10-15 times smaller than the area of the firebox, and the straight section of the chimney should have a length of 3 to 5 m. With such proportions, it is possible to achieve effective heating of the room and the safe operation of the fireplace.
A brick mini-fireplace for summer cottages is well suited for small rooms and requires a minimum amount of building materials. With a furnace size of no more than 40 x 60 cm, it will quite cope with heating a room with an area of up to 20 square meters. m., and its height without a chimney will be approximately 1.1 - 1.2 m, width 0.5 - 0.6 m.Taking into account the entire cladding with decorative protrusions and the coating of the tube for smoke, the structure will require 220 - 230 standard red bricks …
An English fireplace differs from other models with a straight chimney, one-way heat flow and a trapezoid-shaped firebox. Such a device allows most of the generated heat to enter the room.
The side and rear walls of the firebox have a slight slope of about 20 ° and serve as a kind of reflector of heated air. The smoke collector is in the shape of a pyramid, and the chimney pipe is also hidden under a layer of brick, which tapers slightly towards the ceiling. Another feature of English fireplaces is the base under the portal in the form of a platform, which is laid out of refractory bricks.
The depth of the firebox in English fireplaces is 0.4 - 0.5 m, the brick layer should protrude from the edges of the furnace hole by 0.3 m, and the protrusion of the horizontal base can reach 0.5 m.For effective draft and sufficient heating of the room, it is necessary that the cross-sectional area of the chimney and the area of the furnace had a ratio of 1 to 8. The outlet pipe in the English version should be 3 - 5 m high. If all these conditions are met, it is possible to achieve simple and uniform heating of the room, a beautiful flame in the hearth and the absence of harmful smoke in the room. Classic English fireplaces have a long history and will add a cozy atmosphere to any country house.
Brazier fireplace is an option for outdoor use. This is a great way to arrange a personal plot, where you can comfortably spend your leisure time in good weather. A fireplace with a barbecue, in addition to a woodpile and a firebox, has a ledge on top, on which skewers with barbecue or a grill for grilling meat are placed. In addition, such a device can be used to cook other dishes in a frying pan, in a saucepan, or in a rooster, and food cooked on the street using natural fire is not only healthy, but will also give the family a lot of positive impressions.
The simplest barbecue fireplace without a roof is much easier to mount than the option for the house, because it does not require the construction of a smoke collector and a chimney - all gaseous combustion products are vented directly onto the street.
For the foundation, a concrete base is usually chosen, the thickness of which will depend on the mass of the brick structure of the future barbecue, usually it is 20 - 30 cm.The portal is most often laid out in a U-shape with a recess, inside which there is a compartment for firewood, a firebox with a tray for charcoal above the ceiling and a place for a grate or skewers. You can show your imagination and install more complex structures: with two fireboxes for simultaneous cooking of several dishes, with decor on top of bricks made of natural or artificial stone, with a table for cutting food or a sink with a tap and a sink.
A summerhouse can be built with a brick frame and a fireplace, and the walls and roof are made of other materials: profiled iron, wood or plastic. This will simplify installation work and save on building materials.
There are a huge number of projects for summer cottages for the street, the most common of them are:
An open gazebo under the roof on 4 columns with a brick barbecue, this option is suitable for calm, windless weather, but in case of bad weather, you can build light walls made of fiberglass, PVC panels or other available materials. The roof can be tiled with metal or ondulin tiles, and even electric lighting can be installed inside
Lightweight construction of a gazebo made of wood, in which brick is used only for the fireplace itself with an arch-shaped firebox. On a cool evening, a small company can gather around the hearth, there will be enough heat from it. If necessary, you can equip the roof with a canopy made of lightweight polymer materials
Finnish gazebos have recently become widespread in our country, as they are designed for cold climates. They have in profile the shape of a regular 6 or 8-gon with closed walls and an inclined roof, from the center of which a chimney pipe emerges. They use an island brick fireplace, intended for both barbecues and space heating
Since ordinary clay brick is universal in its physical properties, it can be used for both home and outdoor fireplaces. The part of the firebox that is in direct contact with an open fire is selected from a refractory grade.
The outdoor fireplace has a variety of design projects, with home craftsmen coming up with new ideas every year. Outdoor fireplaces can perform the function of heating, cooking, or a combination of two tasks at the same time. Models can be island or wall-mounted, if they are attached to a gazebo, an outer wall of a house or a stone fence. The latter option is very interesting, it will save materials and construction costs if the site already has a strong and high brick fence. A corner or wall-mounted fireplace with a small hood can be attached to it.
A country fireplace made of bricks is most often made of an island type, a simple U-shaped structure without a high chimney pipe. For this option, it is better to equip the foundation in advance with a platform made of concrete, street tiles or other durable non-combustible material. It will be convenient to place chairs for relaxation and other garden furniture on it. An island fireplace for a summer residence can be modernized over time, adding new details, in the end, building a full-fledged closed gazebo with heating and a barbecue.
Many people use a decorative fireplace when arranging the interior, so as not to use complex systems with a smoke collector, an exhaust hood and refractory materials. A false fireplace in a room can work on the basis of an electric, gas or water heater, and skillful paintings, electric light or candles are used to simulate a flame. This option will not replace the natural heat from burning firewood, but it will look very impressive and will cost much less, since it does not require the work of an experienced stove-maker.
A fireplace in a house should, first of all, provide a normal exhaust of smoke to the outside, so that there is no strong smell and carbon monoxide in the room.Its dimensions should be calculated based on the area of the room, and materials with high thermal insulation should be used for cladding. If it is conceived to make a false fireplace, then ordinary decorative brick without fire resistance is used.
Fireplaces for a bath use mainly coal for heating, they are small in size and a simple device. They have 2 working parts: a firebox and a chimney. The difference from a traditional sauna stove is that the firebox is open and the heat for heating comes from it. Brick options for such fireplaces are usually wall-mounted or corner ones. Due to the large mass of building materials, they must be installed on a massive base, if the floor in the bath is not thick enough, then you need to take care of an additional foundation for the stove.
A home fireplace consists of 4 parts:
- firebox where firewood is burned;
- smoke collector for smooth transition of smoke into the chimney;
- chimney that removes combustion products outside;
- a portal around the firebox with decorative cladding.
Stove options can be different, but it is best to choose a trapezoidal open firebox with inner walls at a slight angle. This will provide the highest efficiency of such a fireplace. A very efficient model of a fireplace for a room with an air heat exchanger. This part can be made in the form of a serpentine pipe, which gives off additional heat. Therefore, for the flow of hot air into the room, it is not necessary to maintain a constant open fire.
Outdoor fireplaces with a firebox can have chimneys, barbecues, an oven, metal burners, and even a roof for cooking in the rain. Their device depends only on the imagination and capabilities of the owner. There are interesting models of fireplaces with a breadmaker, a wood-burning stove or several fireboxes.
For arranging fireplaces, red bricks made of clay or ceramics, plastic molding or pressing are predominantly chosen. The latter option is less durable, especially at high thermal loads, since it contains many pores. But ceramic bricks, obtained by plastic molding, have a smooth and durable surface and are no less strong inside.
There are 3 types of bricks for home and outdoor fireplaces. Conventional non-facing building bricks are intended for internal layers of masonry that are not visible. It does not need protection from an open flame and a smooth, beautiful surface, therefore it is the cheapest. In the manufacture of refractory bricks, pressing and high-temperature firing of blanks made of chamotte mass or quartz are used. Such building materials are installed in places of contact with open fire, i.e. in the firebox and smoke collector. Facing and shaped bricks for decoration have a smooth, uniform surface with different colors, textures or gloss.
For masonry, building mortars are used, which include cement, sand, water, and sometimes chemical fillers for heat resistance. In order not to calculate the most correct combination of components for building a furnace, you can purchase special dry building mixtures that only need to be diluted with water and mixed before use.
In addition to bricks and a binder mortar, when building fireplaces, metal parts are used for the fireplace grate, heat exchanger, chimney, barbecue and charcoal trays.
With or without foundation
Arrangement of the foundation for the fireplace is best done when erecting the building itself. But if the house has already been built, then the floor is cut out and a base of concrete or brick is made under the chimney facade. Depending on the size of the fireplace, the foundation deepens 30 - 50 cm below the floor level. The brick base should be laid on a mortar of cement grade 400 or 500 with sand in a ratio of 1 to 3. In the case of a concrete foundation, a wooden formwork is constructed.
A foundation for a home fireplace is not needed if it has a high brick base, such that the distance from the bottom of the firebox to the floor is at least 0.3 m.In this case, it must be taken into account that the floor structure can withstand the existing mass of the stove with a chimney. Also, false fireplaces do not need a foundation.
An outdoor fireplace in any version must be erected on a concrete base of at least 20 - 30 cm so that the structure is stable in the backyard soil.
The sequential diagram of the fireplace contains drawings of the arrangement of bricks from the lowest to the top row. There can be several images, they contain orders from different sides. With the help of ready-made projects of such drawings, you can correctly assemble the furnace with your own hands; the builder is only required to lay bricks on a horizontal level and add mortar. Ready-made row diagrams allow you to immediately calculate the required amount of building materials.
If the owner of a suburban area has no experience in laying bricks for a fireplace, then step-by-step instructions will help him build a structure from scratch. There are many variants of such plans, but they all have approximately the same structure. A lesson in the manual laying of a home or outdoor fireplace usually consists of 5 - 7 stages, each of which describes the installation of 2 - 3 rows of bricks and its features. Along with this, other necessary questions are considered: how to properly reinforce a brick or concrete base, how to make a smoke collector and an air heat exchanger, how to decorate the facade of a fireplace.
Experienced stove-makers highlight the most common mistakes when building brick fireplaces:
- incorrect proportions of the sizes and shapes of the furnace, smoke collector, section and height of the chimney and the area of the heated room;
- too thick or thin joint width between rows, incorrect combination of concrete mortar components;
- not using heat-resistant and refractory bricks;
- too small height of the foundation or base for the fireplace;
- the dimensions of the facade, decorative parts are incorrectly calculated, the rows and decorative details are not installed exactly in level, the bricks must be laid with the utmost accuracy and professionalism.
In addition, there are operational errors immediately after construction. Many do not know how many days a fireplace can be stoked after laying. A full firebox can only be carried out after 2 - 4 weeks.
Before this, forced drying is carried out: a small amount of dry wood is heated every day. Start with 2 kg, increasing the weight by 1 kg every 2 days.