When building a house for housing or a summer cottage, people often think about how to equip heating in it. In this case, the thought of building a wood-burning fireplace with your own hands may arise.
Many will say that it is easier to buy a ready-made one, especially since there is a huge selection of metal fireplaces on the market for different types of fuel. But this is a formulaic option. Only you can make a stone fireplace by putting a piece of your soul into it.
The main question when building fireplaces with chimneys in the house is why you are planning to build them. Purely for decoration - this is one option, the second - it will carry the main heating function.
But in any case, you will need step-by-step instructions. Here are the main steps for building a fireplace yourself:
- operating principle;
- choice of material;
- choice of location;
- size calculations;
- arrangement of a reliable chimney;
When building a fireplace with your own hands, it should be noted that the shape of the stove should be wide, but completely shallow. The masonry is made uneven, with additional protrusions, thereby increasing the area of elements that give off heat.
The work of fireplaces is very simple. Firewood, burning in the firebox, heats the walls of the stove, which, in turn, give off heat and heat the air in the room. The fireplace consists of two main components:
- the oven itself;
What to make
For the construction of a fireplace, red ceramic bricks or heat-resistant bricks are suitable. But it is not recommended to mix the two types of bricks with each other due to the fact that the physical properties of the materials from which they are made are different, and when heated, they behave differently. If they are combined when building a fireplace, they can damage the masonry.
Use a clay-based mixture as a bond. It can be purchased ready-made or made by yourself.
The second type of material is natural stone. It is very expensive, but the fireplace will look much richer from it.
The third type is monolithic with the use of formwork.
You can use special fireplace structures, which are then lined with bricks. They are usually closed with a cast portal, thus increasing the burning time of firewood, which means they raise the efficiency value several times.
Due to the fact that the construction of a brick wood-burning fireplace will weigh about one ton, it needs a foundation. It is not recommended to put the house and the fireplace on the same base, since the shrinkage of these objects will be different.
The budget option for the foundation is to build it from reinforced concrete.
Fireplace decoration should be made of heat-resistant materials that retain and give off heat for a long time. These include stone, tiles, ceramics, decorative plaster.
Where to place
First you need to determine where to place the fireplace. There are three locations for installation:
It all depends on the size of the room in which you plan to install the stove.
Corner or wall-to-wall placement is suitable for not too large rooms. But if the room is impressive in size, then installing a fireplace in the center is an excellent solution. This is due to the fact that you do not have to heat the street wall, thereby not losing heat, and such a fireplace works much more efficiently.
But the fireplace in the corner will help save not only space, but also money for materials during its construction.
What are the calculations for?
Before proceeding with the construction of a fireplace, it is necessary to make all the calculations and draw up a project.This is necessary so that, firstly, the fireplace is safe, and secondly, so that its efficiency is as high as possible.
You can use a ready-made project, according to which your friends built a fireplace at home, or order from a company engaged in their construction.
Drawing up a competent order is one of the main components of a successful fireplace construction.
Basic requirements for a fireplace with wood
In the place where the pipe begins, it is necessary to organize a visor. In order to be able to extinguish the sparks flying out of the hearth, as well as to reduce the pressure in order to avoid smoke. Also, due to the small draft in the fireplace above the firebox in front of the chimney, it is necessary to organize a dome to accumulate smoke there for a while until it leaves on pipe to the street.
How to post
The masonry must be made so that one monolithic structure is obtained, for which it is necessary to make a dressing in both the longitudinal and transverse directions.
The most difficult thing is to lay out the chimney.
Fireplace chimneys are vertical pipes for exhausting smoke and carbon dioxide. Its wall should be no thinner than half a brick. Provided that the pipe will subsequently be plastered, it is allowed to lay it out with a thickness of 1/4.
It is not recommended to lay out the chimney with bricks with a chip inside, as soot will settle on the walls.
The main laying is done in the same way as the fireplace itself. Particular attention should be paid to the passage of the pipe through the roofing material. Usually, to ensure fire safety, cutting is done in the attic, that is, the area of the chimney is increased. The pipe is taken out about two rows above the roof, then the otter is arranged. Finish the chimney with a head.
Also, instead of brick, you can use an asbestos-cement pipe or a ceramic pipe. It is much easier to equip it. But such a pipe cools down quickly, and it will be very problematic to melt the stove again with it.
If you decide to make a fireplace for heating, then you need to connect radiators to it. To do this, it is necessary to install contour pipes in the firebox, which, in turn, are introduced into the main heating of the room. In this case, the fireplace can be used as the main or alternative source of heat energy.
A stone and brick wood-fired fireplace does not require any special maintenance. But for fire safety purposes, it is necessary to inspect and diagnose it twice a year and, if necessary, clean the chimney. To do this, special doors are installed in the pipe, which will easily allow you to inspect and clean the chimney.