A fireplace is a type of stove that has an open exit to the room. Heat is generated locally in it, which limits the space it heats. Open fireplaces heat only a small area of the room, and fireplaces with a closed hearth allow you to heat the whole house.
Once upon a time, fireplaces were ubiquitous because they were used as a hearth for home heating and cooking. Now it is rather a decorative element, because the installation of a real wood-burning fireplace in a city apartment is possible only in 1 case out of 100.
How to install
Installing a real fireplace with a chimney in an ordinary apartment is almost impossible. But there are a number of nuances that allow you to add this decorative element
- Firstly, the apartment in which the installation is planned must be located on the top floor of the house.
- Secondly, the owner of the apartment must obtain two permits from the housing inspectorate: for the redevelopment of the premises and for the right to carry out reconstruction work (the device of the chimney involves making changes to the floors and the roof).
- Thirdly, even if the first two conditions are met by you, then it should be borne in mind that the maximum permissible load on the floor in a residential building, according to SNiP norms, should be no more than 150 kg / m2. The weight of an ordinary fireplace with a chimney and a metal insert can easily reach 500 kg.
- Fourth, if the first three points did not convince you, then the cost of creating a wood-burning fireplace will be about 200,000 rubles.
Thus, sadly, one can only dream of an authentic fireplace in an apartment while drinking hot tea while sitting near an electric fireplace.
Types of fireplaces
Electric… This type of fireplace is the most common in apartments. It is an electrical hearth connected to the network, which simulates the thermal and visual effect of burning wood. It heats the room, consuming about 2 kW of energy per hour. The advantage of this fireplace is that it can easily warm up a room of 25 m2 to a comfortable temperature. In addition, the electric fireplace in summer can only work in visualization mode, without connecting the heating mode.
The firebox of an electric fireplace is most often stylized as a cast iron casting. Internal elements can be different: simulate the burning of wood, embers or heated stones. In budget options, the imitation of fire is performed by scraps of fabric, which are set in motion by a stream of air. The firebox is only one part of the structure, which is traditionally called a fireplace. In addition to the firebox, a portal is also needed (the outer front part in the shape of the letter P, which frames the firebox and gives the fireplace a finished look).
Modern electric fireplaces are equipped with a built-in steam generator. Water is poured into the built-in container, which is broken into small particles and released outside. Due to the fact that the interior decor is illuminated by lamps with light filters, the steam becomes like smoke from coals. A huge advantage of such models is additional air humidification.
When choosing an electric fireplace, be guided by its power (for heating, the power must be at least 1.5 kW), by its dimensions (the smallest fireplace in the depth is 7 cm), the function of adjusting the brightness of the glow. Additional functions - imitation of the sounds of burning wood, a steam generator.
Bio fireplace. This type of fireplace is fundamentally different from an electric one: there is no imitation of a flame in it, it really burns.Gas burners are installed in its working space, which ignite biofuel for fireplaces (liquid), as a result, the process of heat release and lighting occurs.
- naturalness of fire;
- energy saving;
- the ability to install in almost any part of the room;
- absence of smoke and combustion decay products;
- ease of installation, which does not require special skills.
- the need for a hood;
- inability to turn off the heat supply;
- the obligatory presence of a fire extinguisher in the house;
- coordination of work with gas workers and setting equipment for regular control.
The ease of installing an electric fireplace with your own hands is difficult to overestimate. It is enough to choose a suitable furnace model, choose a place for it and connect it to the mains. However, if you want the fireplace not only to work, but also to become part of the interior, then you will have to build a portal for it.
The fireplace portal can be made in several styles:
- classical… Portal in the shape of the letter P around the fireplace insert;
- rustic. Ethnic style "country" has a D-shape. Installed in a corner and made from inexpensive materials;
- bionics - style of nature, assumes the absence of right angles, the shape smoothly flows into one another. There is a place for sculptors to turn around;
- tiled - Russian style… Decorated with tiles - tiles - it was used to design stoves in Russian houses of the nobility and merchants.
The easiest way to make a fireplace cladding is with a cardboard box. Do not be surprised or sniff, class C (seven-layer corrugated) packing cardboard is used for packing valuable goods in international transport. In addition, cardboard is the most affordable and cheapest material, it is easy to use and environmentally friendly.
For the manufacture of the frame, in addition to cardboard, you will need stationery glue, a glue gun or liquid nails, scissors, paper tape, various decorative elements made of polyurethane: corners, plinths, sockets
- The frame is made according to the size of the firebox you have, you first need to take the dimensions and make a drawing on paper.
- The elements are glued together with liquid glue from a pistol, then all the seams are glued with masking tape so that uneven joints are not visible.
- After the frame has dried, it should be pasted over with wallpaper for painting (if you plan to draw the design yourself) or wallpaper with imitation of stone or brick.
- Glue decorative elements, if required.
- Paint the fireplace.
- simplicity and speed of manufacture;
- low cost of materials;
- the ability to move to any place after connecting;
- easy to replace with a new one if necessary.
the structure is easily destroyed by small children
Stationary fireplace portal
The fireplace portal can be made in a frame way. Consider creating a wall portal for a drywall fireplace.
To do this, you will need a 5x5 and 5x4 metal profile, self-tapping screws for metal and drywall, scissors for cutting metal, a screwdriver. Other tools: hammer, level, pencil, optional.
Step-by-step installation instructions:
- Before starting the installation of the frame, the place behind it must be laid with asbestos or other refractory material.
- The position of the frame is marked on the wall with a pencil using a level.
- The profile is cut to elements of the required length and attached to the wall in accordance with the markings so that a cube or parallelepiped is obtained.
- The body is reinforced where the maximum load will be on it. Usually the firebox gives a load to the lower part of the frame, therefore additional elements from a 5x5 profile are attached at a distance of 30 cm from the floor.
- The chimney frame is made at the discretion of the owner of the fireplace. You can make it triangular (like a real fireplace), you can rectangular, or you can not do it at all.
- After creating the frame, the communications (electricity) are connected. For safe and trouble-free operation of the fireplace, the cable inside the portal must be laid using a metal sleeve. The cable section must be at least 2.5x2.
- For more convenient use of the fireplace, it is worth making a separate switch. Otherwise, you will have to constantly unplug the power cord.
- For cladding, drywall is used, which is cut into the necessary pieces and attached to the frame using a screwdriver and the screws intended for this.
- The cladding joints are glued with a sealant and must be reinforced with metal corners, because drywall tends to crumble from physical impact.
- It is imperative to make several ventilation holes so that the firebox does not overheat.
- Plasterboard is primed, putty and ready for further cladding.
- Cladding can be made with any materials: tiled, artificial stone, textured plaster.