A fireplace is not only a wonderful element of room decor, but also a high-quality heating system. They can be installed in almost any home, regardless of its architecture. Such a design is complex in construction, but it is still possible to make a fireplace with your own hands.
Fireplaces can be made from different materials, but everything can be broken down into several basic types:
Closed type constructions. Such fireplaces are built into the wall, which makes it possible in some way to optimize the space of the room
Semi-open systems are very similar to the previous view, but their frame only adjoins the wall, and does not hide inside it
Island fireplaces can be located anywhere in the room. Striking representatives of such systems are metal structures that operate both from the electrical network and on wood
By the type of main fuel used, fireplaces are also divided into:
- solid fuel systems (preferably wood fired).
It should be noted that a standard fireplace is equipped with only one plane for heat dissipation (firebox), but there are systems in which there can be several such elements (there are two or more open walls).
Dimensions and Drawings
Structures of this type have a peculiar structure, therefore, before proceeding with their construction, you should select the type of system that you plan to build. It is very important at the planning stage to create preliminary plans and drawings of such products. This will allow not only to simplify the laying, but also to purchase the required amount of materials.
The calculation and ordering of the fireplace depends on the type of construction.
So, for example, for the corner version of the system, you can adhere to the following masonry sequence:
- The first row of bricks simply rests on the base.
- The 2nd and 3rd rows are already the base of the fireplace.
- Rows 4-5 are used to form the ash pan.
- The stove starts already from the 6th, and the firebox itself starts from the 7th row.
- The walls of the fireplace are formed by rows 8-13.
- Layer 14-19 forms a smoke box. After that, all the other rows are used to equip the chimney.
The calculation of the main components of the fireplace is carried out according to a special method. So, for example, the size of the firebox depends on the area of the room where the installation of such a structure is planned. Often this is a ratio of 1 to 50 (with 25 square meters of room, the firebox will have an area of 0.5 square meters).
When choosing electric fireplaces, it is also important to consider their power, which is designed for a certain area of the room. Manufacturers often indicate these parameters in their recommendations, which makes it easy to navigate when buying.
Rules for the formation of foundations
The base for the fireplace is very important, especially if it is made of bricks. The area of the foundation also depends on the direct dimensions of this structure and should exceed them by about 15 cm.When the firebox is planned to be mounted in a two-story house, the thickness of the concrete should be at least 80 cm, while for one-story cottages this parameter is 50 cm.
When installing the fireplace directly on the ground, prepare a cushion of sand, gravel, etc. to obtain a solid and stable base
The standard foundation is a concrete structure. Its construction involves the formation of formwork, the inner walls of which are insulated with bitumen or roofing felt.Then large stones are placed inside the container, and small crushed stone is poured between them. All this is then spilled with a cement-sand mortar. On top of the resulting system, rubble stone is again laid down in several layers, which is also cemented. After that, the upper surface is aligned to a certain level of the floor.
Firebox masonry algorithm
The process of arranging fireplaces involves the formation of a structure according to a previously developed drawing.
When performing installation, you should be guided by several simple rules:
- Before laying the brick, you need to wet it in water to remove all the dust. For this, 20 seconds in solution is enough.
- The thickness of the joints must be thin and the plaster must be carefully removed from the brick surface.
- For the formation of corner elements, it is advisable to use pre-prepared wooden blanks. Fixation of metal elements is carried out using special metal sheets or wire.
- The masonry is made in rows, observing the layout of the structure. Often, many people prefer products with a stove bench or fireplaces of the "Russian stove" type.
- To give the structure a unique design and high-quality heat retention characteristics, you can additionally finish its surface using decorative natural stone.
The construction of brick fireplaces requires not only considerable effort, but also certain knowledge. Manufacturers today provide the ability to replace them with a variety of metal alternatives.
Such systems have small dimensions, which allows them to be placed anywhere in the room.
Among the popular models, there are several products with distinctive characteristics:
Bavaria… This range of fireplace stoves is distinguished by originality and a variety of designs. Not recommended for use in garages and other similar technical buildings. The variety of models is wide enough, which makes it possible to choose them for the dimensions of various rooms
Yenisei… Fireplaces of this type are distinguished by their high power (11 kW). The shape of the fireplace is angular, therefore it is installed only in certain places. The duration of the combustion of the furnace can reach 8 hours, and to improve the characteristics of heat preservation, its inner part is lined with fireclay tiles
It should also be said about such modern products as biofireplaces, which do not emit harmful combustion products. Therefore, its design does not imply a chimney, but it runs on special biofuel.