A fireplace with a heating circuit not only provides heat to the room where it is located, but also allows you to heat other rooms in the building. Installation of such a system in a country house solves 2 problems at once: firstly, it creates a cozy corner in the living room with a view of a living flame, and secondly, it solves the problem of heating the house as a whole. The work is based on a heat exchanger in the fireplace portal, from which pipes are diverted to radiators in other rooms. Long-term heating models can provide heat over large areas with a minimum amount of fuel.
There are a large number of ready-made factory models on sale with a cast iron or steel body and transparent fire-resistant glass doors. They are compact and mobile and can be installed anywhere. There are also ovens that are permanently installed and cannot be moved.
Heating circuits can be operated with water or hot air. Air systems have lower operating pressures and are therefore less prone to breakdowns. But heating with hot water can be carried out in any room, including those with ventilation: kitchens, bathrooms, dressing rooms.
Advantages and disadvantages
Fireplaces with a heating circuit have the following advantages:
- with an existing heating system, they are easily connected to it;
- can have a hot water supply function;
- use environmentally friendly and safe fuel;
- because of heat dissipation, they do not allow the furnace to overheat;
- allow heating large rooms with a second floor;
- some models of continuous heating inserts have additional functions, such as hobs for cooking.
From customer reviews, you can also find out common disadvantages:
- adjustment of the heat supply is possible only in manual mode, in contrast to many atmatic systems for gas, electricity and solid fuel;
- Compared to other systems, this is not the most efficient way to heat with radiator batteries, especially in the harsh winter.
Principle of operation
Factory models of heating boilers for such fireplaces have a heat exchanger around the body in the form of a spiral or a radiator made of thin pipes through which water or air circulates. When heated, they flow through the heating pipes to the radiators in other rooms.
A wood-fired fireplace with a water circuit has a low efficiency, not exceeding 60%. In addition, simple models require a constant supply of firewood to efficiently supply the house with heat. Pellet fireplaces are relieved of these problems. They use pellets as fuel, which have a higher specific heat of combustion than wood. The pellet is automatically loaded from the back of the firebox. The intensity of the feed and, therefore, the power of the fireplace can be controlled using the electric control panel.
Fireplaces with an air duct can have an efficiency of up to 80%. Complex models can be designed with a heating function in the firebox and in the wall. This achieves maximum heating of the circulating air. Unlike water circuits, air systems require fans, which requires additional wiring and more energy consumption. But on the other hand, pipes for them are less demanding on strength, most often they are made of thin and cheap aluminum.
For safety, most fireplaces with air and water circuits are equipped with a fireproof glass protective door. Heat penetrates the room through this glass due to infrared radiation. This eliminates the possibility of sparks entering the room, and the owners can enjoy the sight of a bright flame. A soot protection is provided to keep the glass shutter clean.
How to connect
The connection of a fireplace with a water or air circuit can be made in the chosen place, the main thing is that it provides for the outlet of the chimney through the roof to the street. For efficient operation of the smoke exhaust pipe, it must have a distance from the heating tank to its upper end from 3 to 5 m.
The purchased fireplace has the maximum operating power indicated in its data sheet. The model should be chosen depending on the total area of the building:
- 60-200 sq. m. - up to 25 kW;
- 200-300 sq. m. - 25-35 kW;
- 300-600 sq. m - 35-60 kW;
- 600-1200 sq. m. - 60-100 kW.
The connection diagram for a fireplace with a water circuit contains the wiring of heating pipes in rooms with an indication of the location of thermometers, pressure gauges, radiators, a circulation pump, safety, air and drain valves.
The system connection procedure consists of the following steps:
- Leveling the floor at the location of the fireplace and covering it with a protective layer that protects against high temperatures.
- Installation of the furnace, its level control.
- Installation of a heating pipe system with a circulation pump.
- Connection to the heat exchanger circuit.
- Pumping water into the circuit, checking the operation of the circulation pump and the tightness of all units.
- Installation and connection to the flue channel of the chimney furnace and its sealing.
- Trial kindling of the fireplace.
After checking the operation of the system, the readings of the measuring instruments, the speed of circulation and the flue gas outlet during the first fire, you can start regular operation of the fireplace stove.
When connecting a fireplace with an air duct for heating the whole house, the first steps are identical: leveling and protecting the floor, leveling the device. Air heating systems do not need a pump; hot air is circulated through the pipes by gravity. For an effective flow of heated air, it is necessary that the ducts be no more than 3 m in length, and the entire system has a minimum number of corner turns.
Fireproof aluminum pipes are used as air ducts in the rooms. This material is able to withstand temperatures up to 250 ° C. The air ducts themselves are thin-walled, lightweight and easy to install anywhere. It is best to attach them to the ceiling using metal hooks or a metal profile frame. For a more aesthetic appearance, the heating system is often hidden under decorative boxes. After installing aluminum pipes, it is necessary to seal them and connect ventilation.