Sometimes, over time or due to active use, defects appear on the floor surface: holes, potholes, cracks. But the owner does not always have the opportunity to completely change the entire floor. How to deal with this situation?
There is a way out: you can prime and putty the floor, and then paint it again or use another type of coating - laminate or linoleum.
Features of the
Putty is called a repair building mixture, the purpose of which is to seal holes and cracks, as well as to eliminate minor defects in the floor, walls and ceiling. In the case of floor treatment, its layer is intermediate between the primer and the application of the finish - paint, laminate, linoleum. The better the mixture covers the unevenness of the surface, the longer the floor will last.
Floor putty is slightly different from the same procedure on walls or ceilings. For the floor, the putty is not kneaded as thickly as for the ceiling or walls. The ratio of composition and water is 1: 5. The floor surface is pre-primed.
In the case when the floor surface is moisture-proof, the putty composition must be made even thicker, in a ratio of 1: 3.
In addition to the above, the floor surface requires the application of more layers. The coatings that are laid on top of the putty are also different: substances such as drying oil or wood stain are not used to cover wall and ceiling surfaces.
In addition, puttying of different types of floors - wood, concrete, expanded polystyrene - has its own characteristics.
The main thing is to end up with a flat area on which you can lay parquet, laminate, linoleum, or just apply a layer of paint.
Putty is used in order to eliminate minor imperfections and level the floor surface. Modern manufacturers offer a large number of filler materials.
Various options are suitable for wooden surfaces:
- Acrylic - this type of putty mixture will eliminate unevenness and imperfections in the floor surface. The putty is no less good for grouting. The composition of acrylic is moisture resistant, fireproof, elastic and durable. The main requirement when working with acrylic putty is a carefully prepared, clean and dry surface. After the floor is dry, it will have a smooth and shiny texture.
- Solvent-based putties, which include dust from wood. Indispensable when working with wood massifs, even rare ones. Suitable for filling parquet flooring. Solvent-based mixtures are good for treating surfaces equipped with underfloor heating systems. Dry very quickly.
- Oil - the basis is oil, chalk and water. High strength and durable composition. The oil composition dries for a very long time. If this is not critical, then you can be sure that the coating will be of high quality and durable.
- Polymer - the basis is water, good for filling holes and smoothing out irregularities. Dries quickly, eco-friendly, durable. The advantage of polymer putty is that dust does not accumulate on the surface treated with it and the processed edges of wooden boards are not clogged. However, it cannot be used for filling cork floors.
It is forbidden to work with it directly on the floorboards.
Regardless of the type of putty chosen, it must have a number of qualities:
- be uniform in texture;
- have good adhesion (adhesion to the surface);
- dry quickly;
- do not have any impurities and additives in the composition;
- cover the floor qualitatively.
Before starting any filling work, it is better to check the quality of the mixture in a small area.
Putty mixture is the best means for leveling concrete floors. The best is a putty composition based on PVA glue., and you can either buy it or make it yourself. In the second case, it will cost several times cheaper.
The advantage of working with this type of putty is that the mixture is ready immediately, you do not need to pre-mix it. The solution is very malleable, so it is quite easy to apply. It has excellent adhesion, so it "adheres" well to the floor surface.
After once the floor is dry, it will not have cracks, pits, unevenness or bald spots. Also, this type is not subject to shrinkage.… The surface will turn out to be smooth, beautiful, with no air bubbles, bundles and other troubles.
Very often, faced with a rather high cost of putty mixtures, people prefer make it yourself from materials such as PVA, drying oil, cement, sand and other components. If you have some skills and everyday ingenuity, you can make a composition that is no worse than a factory one.
There is another type of putty mixture - waterproofing. It contains a three-component polyurethane compound consisting of a semi-finished product, a hardener and a dry mixture. It can be used either alone or with other putty materials. It is very durable and resistant to all kinds of mechanical stress.
It is used, as a rule, to insulate a concrete floor or a protective layer of a self-leveling floor from moisture, to seal holes and holes. Used to treat structures such as swimming pools.
Compositions for floor putty are used very widely. They are necessary both for those who install parquet or laminate, and for those who need renovation of the floor covering and cosmetic repairs. In both cases, the composition and sequence of actions will be almost the same.
There are also mixes that are equally suitable for filling ceilings, walls and floors. The only difference is in the thickness of the solution.
Puttying of a concrete floor can be done both under linoleum, and under a laminate, and as a basis for a self-leveling floor. True, in the latter case, it is desirable that the concrete is relatively flat by itself, without additional tweaks … Basically, mixtures for it are sold dry. Therefore, before starting work, the composition must first be diluted and kneaded. There are also pasty mixtures that are immediately ready for use.
Also for this floor self-leveling putty is often used … It is more liquid, so it aligns better. The finished solution is placed evenly and thinly, in one layer. It is impossible to apply the mixture thickly, cracks may appear … When the putty is slightly dry, the overly applied composition can be removed with a spatula. Next, the surface is leveled with sandpaper.
If the putty is to serve as the basis for a self-leveling floor, a polymer mixture is best suited. It must be remembered that the surface itself must contain a minimum of cracks and irregularities.
Using the right wood floor filler will level it, hide bumps and cracks in plywood or boards, and extend the life of the surface. Styrofoam floors can also be repaired with filler compounds.
If gypsum fiber sheets (GVL), as well as fiberboard or chipboard are laid on the floor, it is again necessary to putty the irregularities and grind the seams with the putty mixture for the floor. Only then can you achieve perfect joints, invisible to the eye.
How to apply correctly?
The putty is applied to the floor in several stages.
- Deep holes are closed. For this, several layers are applied. Each subsequent layer can be applied after the previous one has completely dried. The finishing layer is placed on one level with the coating.
- After all the cracks are sealed, all the layers have dried, the top layer is smoothed with fine-notched emery paper.
- The thicker the layer of putty, the denser the color of the future floor should be.
A layer of putty is always visible through paint, stain and varnish. Therefore, the choice of color should be determined taking into account this feature.
- If a specific shade is needed, the putty can be tinted (before work has begun or after all layers have dried).
- The cracks on the wooden surface are putty with a metal or wood spatula in a direction perpendicular to the boards in the floor.
- The putty mixture is applied in a thin and even layer. In order to level the floor surface as much as possible, a stretched gauze is put on the first layer, after which it is putty on one more layer.
- After all the applied layers have dried, the surface is primed with oxol or drying oil. When the floor is dry, you can lay parquet, laminate or simply paint the surface.
The putty is chosen based on both the type of surface and the result you would like to get.
There are the following types of putty:
The base layer is always put in the first layer. It evens out the main roughness, as well as rubbing the seams. The finish line, as its name suggests, is placed last. Universal can be used in any capacity.
Tips & Tricks
Repair professionals recommend sticking to the following:
- Be sure to read the instructions on the pack or package of the mixture before purchasing or at least before using.
- You need to mix the solution only in the amount that will be required for 4 hours of continuous work. If you make more of the mixture, you will have to throw it out, since after this time it loses its properties.
- To choose the right type of composition for puttying, you need to take into account the properties of the room in which the work will be carried out, as well as humidity. Some formulations are suitable for use only in rooms with low humidity levels. Better to find out before work begins.
- After all layers of putty have been applied, you need to wait until they are completely dry - this will take about a day (possibly more). And only then you can start the next type of work.
- Before applying the first layer of putty, the surface must be cleaned. After that, first, potholes, pits and cracks are primed, then holes and cracks should be treated with PVA glue diluted with water 1: 5.
- After that, finally, you can proceed directly to puttying.
If you follow these tips, you will get a beautiful and even floor with a minimum of financial costs. Otherwise, there is a chance that everything will have to be redone, possibly with the involvement of specialists and, of course, additional costs.
You will learn how to properly putty a wooden floor with homemade putty from the video below.