In modern interiors, suspended ceilings take pride of place. They come in a wide variety of shapes and are mounted from different finishing materials. Their undoubted advantage is simple installation with a minimum lead time.
Features of the
When plastering from the builders, a certain accumulated experience is required. This process cannot be done without preparation. But almost everyone can put the frame on the ceiling with a minimum of tools. The main thing to have in your arsenal is a drill, a jigsaw, a screwdriver and a level. It should be noted that there is a type of ceiling that requires the attention of professionals. This is a stretch ceiling system. Installation is carried out using special equipment, a heat gun. A home craftsman can independently mount a suspended ceiling system made of plasterboard, plastic, lining. And also to master the Armstrong ceiling structure.
To choose the right type of ceiling covering, you need to consider the following factors:
- technical and operational aspects.
When determining the functional characteristics of suspended structures, the manufacturer's instructions and technical data sheets should be used. They describe in detail how to carry out the installation, for which type of premises different types of ceilings are suitable. The technical descriptions provide examples of design calculations, as well as tables with all the data. Therefore, experts have developed approved documents, which say which rooms are more suitable for this or that type of ceiling covering.
It is necessary to choose not only the material for installation, but also to develop the configuration of the ceiling. The supporting frame must clearly fulfill its functions.
The choice of the type of ceiling is significantly influenced by:
- the need to install a ventilation system;
- laying of communications for connecting electricity;
- the need for specific properties of the material (sound absorption, fire safety, impact resistance);
- service life and the possibility of replacing individual elements.
Each consumer has a list of their own requirements, especially aesthetic and design ones. But there are also generally accepted ones from manufacturers of false ceiling systems. These include functionality, moisture resistance, thermal insulation, and service life. And you need to be guided by them.
Acoustics is a way of propagating sound. This is a very important criterion for office space. The low noise level has a beneficial effect on the work process and increases labor productivity. There are special acoustic plates from German manufacturers that absorb sound well. Their use is justified in rooms with high noise levels.
Suspended ceilings can provide free access to communications, pipes, ventilation, heating, fire alarm systems. To fix the problem, it is enough to remove the decorative ceiling tiles, which will provide access to the ceiling. With the help of a false ceiling, you can easily hide defects and cracks in the base. Installation, dismantling and maintenance work is less time consuming when compared to other types of finishes. The suspension system allows more luminaires to be placed and absorbs noise.
The development of exclusive designer ceilings of different, sometimes bizarre shapes can be very expensive for the owner. But she will be one of a kind. Modern materials make it possible to make the cellular structure of the suspended ceiling almost invisible. You can order different designs of slabs, and then assemble an intricate individual pattern from them on the ceiling.
The positive aspects of ceiling structures are as follows:
- hide defects and flaws in the foundation. This is important when carrying out repair work in old buildings, where the ceilings, as a rule, were plastered. Over time, the finish layer cracked and could even fall off in some places. This type of coating must be completely whipped and the solution must be reapplied;
- manufacturers of building materials offer many solutions for the construction, shape and design of ceilings. The cost depends on the customer's estimate: from inexpensive to exclusive solutions;
- a very large selection of coatings - glass ceiling tiles, plastic, metal, plasterboard, wood. There are shiny and matte ceilings, as well as with a 3D effect;
- no need to disassemble the entire ceiling to replace part of the covering;
- easy to care for. A damp wipe is enough, moreover, the coatings are dust-repellent;
- in the interceiling space, you can lay communications, wiring, pipes, ventilation;
- suspended ceilings involve the use of a variety of lighting devices, such as raster lamps, spotlights, LED systems, chandeliers;
- long service life. The frame elements are guaranteed for 15 years of use. With proper care, the harness elements last longer;
- have thermal insulation properties, absorb sound, are fireproof, do not depend on a sharp change in temperature.
The negative aspects of ceiling structures are as follows:
- reducing the distance from floor to ceiling. The suspended structure, as a rule, rests on knitting needles, the length of which is 25 cm. In small apartments, a decrease in the height of the room will be very noticeable;
- high price level relative to other materials. Whitewashing the ceiling is cheaper, taking into account the development of the construction industry, it is better to choose a more expensive and durable material. Each customer strives for individuality, and this can be achieved using modern solutions;
- fear of high humidity. In case of flooding, it will be necessary to replace the decorative coating and load-bearing elements.
The suspended ceiling consists of a metal frame that occupies the entire base area and ceiling tiles attached to the supporting structures.
Plates can have different types of connections:
- Cells … The entire ceiling is divided into squares or rectangles, which are covered with slabs at the back.
- Tiles … Mostly used in office spaces.
- Panels … A panel in the form of a rectangle with a width of more than 30 cm is taken as a decorative element.
- Cassettes … The squares of the frame structure are covered with panels of the same size.
- Reiki … During installation, decorative slats of different lengths and widths are used.
- Solid ceiling. Most often it is assembled from drywall sheets.
- Stretch ceiling. PVC film is used.
The decorative finish consists of different materials:
- Drywall sheets. They make it possible to create a perfectly smooth coating that can be putty, pasted over with wallpaper, painted, applied with decorative plaster. With the help of drywall sheets, ceilings of different levels and geometric shapes appear in the interior. Drywall is environmentally friendly and meets sanitary standards. Its disadvantages include the fact that it is afraid of high humidity conditions and needs a topcoat.
- Plastic panels. They are made from polycarbonate. The mirrored surface of plastic ceilings is an excellent replacement for glass panels. Such a ceiling is easy to install, moisture resistant, resistant to mechanical stress, and easy to clean.
- Metal … These are aluminum or steel slats, cassettes, panels. They can be matte or glossy, with a mirror finish.
- Wood … Any product made from natural wood is a guarantee of quality and durability. Wood products will never go out of fashion, but their big drawback is their high cost. Manufacturers suggest using a cheaper way in decoration. The use of chipboard and MDF boards, the surface of which is covered with patterns that imitate natural wood. You can find slabs covered with veneer.
Before proceeding with the installation, you should calculate the amount of materials, purchase a tool, process the base and apply markings.
The lathing is made of galvanized steel profiles. She is not afraid of moisture, as the profiles are protected by zinc. For a plasterboard or plastic ceiling, you will need ceiling strips (60x27 mm) and guides (27x28 mm), as well as suspensions that will hold the structure: butterflies, couplings, anchor suspensions, connecting elements. For fastening, you need to purchase self-tapping screws for metal and polypropylene dowels.
The main tools for self-assembly of frame structures are as follows:
- angle grinder;
- laser level;
- tape measure, pencil, ruler;
- construction knife and saws for metal or wood;
- plumb line;
- scissors for metal;
- protective glasses;
- hammer with a nail puller;
- pliers, crimping pliers;
- a hacksaw for metal with a fine tooth;
- screwdrivers, awl.
The level is needed in order to apply the markings for the installation of the guide element. The rule is used when cutting drywall sheets. After installing drywall, further finishing will be required. Tools and materials you may need:
- tape for reinforcing seams;
- sealing tape;
- primer solution;
- paint roller and brush;
- putty knife;
- abrasive sheet No. 240.
How to calculate the expense?
Armstrong ceiling expense rates
These are special coefficients with which you can independently calculate how many frame elements and decorative plates are needed, knowing the size of the ceiling.
Knowing the consumption rates, you can:
- independently calculate the amount of required materials;
- calculate the approximate cost of the purchase;
- make an estimate;
- allocate a budget for work.
Using the example of a square-shaped ceiling with a total area of 100m², we will make the calculations. The length of the guide bar is 3.6 m. It is mounted in 1.2 m increments. To find out the required amount, we divide the ceiling width of 10 m by the installation step (1.2 m). It turns out 8.33 rows of carriers. We multiply the length of the room 10 m by the number of rows. Almost 84 lin. m, and these are 28 pieces of bearing profiles. A 1.2 m crossbar is placed in 60 cm increments. We repeat a similar calculation: we find out the number of rows (10 m length is divided by 0.6 m installation step). We have almost 17 of them. In running meters it turns out to be 167. And in pieces it turns out to be almost 140 (167 running meters should be divided by 1.2 m - the length of the bar).
The guides of 0.6 m are placed with a step of 1.2 m. m of rails. Their number will be 140 pieces. The hangers are placed on strips of 3.6 m with a step of 1.2 m. For 1m² of the ceiling, 0.7 hangers are required. The corner profile is calculated along the perimeter of the room, its length is 3 m. For 1m² you need 0.4 running meters. m.
With the help of these calculations it is possible to calculate the consumption of slatted ceilings, acoustic. Do not forget that this is an average calculation. It is better to include 7-10 additional percent in any estimate, so that there will be no unpleasant situations later. You need to take into account the following factors:
- the shape of the room;
- the ability to arrange the rails diagonally;
- trimming slabs;
- the percentage of defects.
Rates of expenditure of a ceiling made of plasterboard sheets
Take as an example a ceiling 10 m long and 10 m wide. The size of the ceiling plasterboard is 2500x1200x9.5 mm. As a result of calculations, the following materials will be required for work:
- drywall - 100 m²;
- CD profile - 87 pieces;
- UD profile - 14 pieces;
- suspension 60/27 - 160 pieces;
- longitudinal connector - 70 pieces;
- cross-shaped coupling - 160 pieces;
- ceiling dowel - 1600 pieces;
- self-tapping screw "flea" - 900 pieces;
- dowel 6x40 - 200 pieces;
- putty - 40 kg;
- fiberglass tape - 130 rm. m.
Installation of a plasterboard suspended ceiling
The first thing to do is find an assistant. It is very difficult to fix drywall sheets on your own, you need a safety net. It is better to start with a simple single-level ceiling, preferably a small area.
- Preparing for installation … You need to carefully examine the walls and ceilings, remove everything that might interfere. Lay communications, repair cracks in the ceiling base.
- Mark the ceiling. At this step, you need to decide on the lighting devices and their connection. When using spotlights, the ceiling drops by 3-4 cm below their total length, and when using raster lights - by 5-10 cm. Look at the degree of curvature of the old ceiling, to prevent such mistakes with the new one. Using the level, find the lowest corner from which the marking will begin. Having marked the corners, we use the rule to measure out an even horizontal line on the walls. This is the bottom line of the UD profile.
- Installation of frame elements … We fix the guide profile around the perimeter. To do this, at a distance of 30 cm, we make holes for dowels with a puncher. We screw wood screws into them. The length of the dowel plug must be at least 40 mm. CD profiles are installed in 60 cm increments. They come in 3 and 4 meters. To stiffen the frame, you need to use hangers for rack-mount profiles with an attachment pitch of 40 cm.
- Laying communications and choosing a place for the lamp. To install a spotlight, you need to make a hole in the drywall using a crown. Profile entry is not allowed. In the case of a chandelier, it is attached to the base or guide profile. The profile must be additionally reinforced with hangers. The wires are placed in a special corrugated pipe. The communications for the surface-mounted luminaire are led out through a hole in the drywall.
- Thermal insulation … The frame structure can and should be insulated with sheets of mineral wool. It not only serves as thermal insulation, but also absorbs sound.
- Fastening drywall sheets … Knowing the width between the walls, you need to calculate how many whole sheets are needed and how many pieces. Cut the sheets with a utility knife or drywall file. Fasten the sheets of gypsum board with self-tapping screws for metal with a pitch of 25 cm. The heads of the fasteners are recessed into drywall so that they do not rust over time. Subsequently, they will be closed with putty. A special tape is glued to the joint of two sheets and putty with a gypsum mixture. After complete drying, the seams must be sanded. The entire surface must be primed so that the finish holds better.
Installation of a suspended structure of the "Armstrong" type
- Markup and schematic drawing. As in the previous case, you first need to draw up a layout diagram of the structures. Then proceed to markup. Profiles in such a system are not attached to the base, but along the marking lines the master will orientate faster where the bearing profiles and the rest of the jumpers will be located.
- To mount a suspended ceiling, you need it lower by at least 15 cm … This is a constructive minimum clearance for laying communications and installing lamps. You can also put insulation in this space. The most convenient way to mark a wall is to use a laser level. Ordinary bubble levels can be used instead.
- Laying communications. Before you start to mount the frame, you need to carry out all the work related to electrical wiring. For example, if it is known that the lighting fixture will be large-sized, then the place of its attachment must be additionally strengthened with suspensions.
- Installation of the frame. After completing all the work, you can proceed to the installation of profiles. Corner profiles are attached to concrete substrates with dowels. Their diameter is 6 mm, they are placed in 30 cm increments around the entire perimeter. The corner is fastened to the wooden base with self-tapping screws for wood. Their length is 30 cm.
If you plan to sheathe the walls of the room with GKL sheets, then an additional horizontal profile is placed in the metal wall lathing. This is done for the rigidity of the structure. A wall corner is attached to this additional profile. According to the marked lines, you need to fix a set of fasteners (suspension, butterfly, knitting needle). One set of hangers is required per 1m². In those places where the luminaires are planned, additional fasteners can be supplied.
The bearing profiles (3600) are placed on the wall corners and fixed with hangers. The distance between them is 1.2 or 0.6 m. It depends on the drawn diagram. All work must be controlled using a level. The fixed carriers must be located strictly horizontally. The hooks of the suspensions are slightly tightened with pliers so that the carriers hold well. The 1200 carriers are placed in 60 cm increments. They fit into the slots on the 3600 profiles and snap into place. Some craftsmen bend them, but this is not necessary. The frame will be rigid anyway.
Installation of ceiling tiles. After all the work on the installation of the frame structure is completed, lamps and decorative plates are installed. Electric wires are pre-connected to the desired square, where the lighting fixture will be located. And the luminaire is connected using terminal blocks. First, whole plates are installed. They are not attached to anything, they are simply placed on the prepared frame. As a rule, the outer cells may not match the size of the slabs, so trimming will be necessary. Plates are easily sawn with a hacksaw, and then they are placed in the holes
After installing them, the installation of the ceiling can be considered complete. Additional finishing is not required. This is the simplest slab laying scheme, but there are more complex options when the slabs are laid diagonally or with a shift. Bearing elements allow you to make a frame of different configurations. Choosing such a ceiling, the master gets the opportunity to independently design. After all, these coatings can be painted in different colors, combined with each other.
It should be noted this type of panels as LED lamps. These are panels that look like a screen, covered with a matte film. They are designed for ceiling suspension systems and have a standard size of 600x600 mm. These panels have built-in very powerful LEDs that emit bright but soft light. It is enough to have one such lamp in order to create daylight diffused light in the room.
The main manufacturers of Armstrong type suspended ceilings:
- Hunter Douflas.
Suspended structures of these European manufacturers are made of steel (0.6 mm), on which a special powder composition is applied. The standard size of the slab is 600x600 mm.
Rack ceilings are made of aluminum alloy. Their surface is protected by a varnish coating, which is applied in two layers. The width of the lath is from 3 to 30 cm.
Major drywall manufacturers:
Stretch ceiling manufacturers:
- Renolit Ag;
- Saros Design;
- Cool Stretch;
Tips & Tricks
You need to use only proven, high-quality materials and tools in your work. The mounted ceiling will delight you with both design and quality of work for more than one year.
You always need to start work with the markup and drawing up a layout diagram of the elements. Taking the time to make a list and count correctly can save you time in the future. Then you don't need to run to the store and buy what is missing.
Experts recommend adhering to the following tips:
- installation work with plasterboard must be carried out in a dry room;
- use the level at all stages of work;
- soundproofing ceilings can be done with mineral wool. It fills the space in the mounted frame;
- you do not need to clean the backlit suspended ceiling very often. It is necessary to look at the degree of pollution;
- the thickness of such a ceiling must be sufficient. Step-by-step installation technology and the drawing itself depend on this indicator. The assembly of higher quality material is easier;
- when performing repairs, do not forget to pre-purchase accessories, fasteners, glazing beads and others, do not forget to also leave an indent under the curtains;
- sheets of plasterboard should lie in a horizontal position for some time, so it will be easier to collect them.
A suspended ceiling is an easy and inexpensive way to level a substructure and provide additional sound insulation. It is not difficult to carry out the installation of suspended structures on your own. But it is worth following the instructions from the manufacturer, having all the necessary tools and minimal knowledge about installation. With the help of decorative finishing elements, you can create a stylish, high-quality and unique ceiling covering. It will serve for a very long time, since manufacturers provide a long warranty period for all structural elements. Now such ceiling coverings are hung quite often.
You can safely experiment with the design and decoration of the cassette ceiling with your own hands. Subject to all conditions, ceilings will decorate the room for more than a dozen years. Each type of ceiling is unique in its own way. Plasterboard expands the range of design solutions, Armstrong suspended ceilings are durable and easy to install, the stretch ceiling system provides a huge selection of colors.
You can see how to install the CESAL cassette ceiling in the toilet in this video.