Woven carpets that came from the East many centuries ago are a popular and demanded piece of furniture. They are lint-free and made from wool, cotton, silk or synthetic materials. In production, the principle of simultaneous interweaving of weft transverse threads with longitudinal threads of the warp is used. The process is carried out on special weaving machines. The pattern is created either by embroidery on a ready-made canvas, or during the manufacturing process, when the weft transverse threads have different colors and form the desired pattern.
Features of the
Woven carpets have a number of positive properties:
- high quality of products and uniqueness of the pattern;
- the use of mainly natural materials, which increases the durability and strength of carpets;
- ease of care. Products are easy to clean and retain their original appearance for a long time;
- low cost in comparison with pile models.
A number of disadvantages are also noted:
- due to the use of natural materials, the manifestation of allergic reactions is possible;
- susceptible to damage from moths;
- there is a possibility of the appearance of mold, fungus and pathogens.
Homespun carpets according to production technology and production materials are divided into the following types:
Carpets. The simplest carpets in terms of manufacturing technique. The threads are pulled tightly onto the machine frame, from which the carpet fringe is formed. They are not visible on the finished product. The weft thread plays the role of a generatrix and forms the pattern of the carpet. Both sides of the finished product are equivalent. Due to its practicality and the choice of budget options, the rug is the most common and demanded type of woven carpets
Sumakh. Lint-free carpets in which the transverse weft is interrupted after weaving of different colors. For this reason, there are gaps in the products between the joints of adjacent ornaments located in the transverse direction. Sumy has a front and a slightly fleecy seamy side, due to which this type is the softest when stepped on
Kilims - smooth woven carpets, the production technology of which resembles the production technique of rugs, but in a more complicated version. The weft transverse thread can be interrupted by threads of other colors, this is necessary for the formation of patterns. The drawing in this case turns out to be more complex and beautiful. Due to the interruption of the transverse threads in the finished product, gaps at the junction of the two shades are possible. But they are noticeable only if you look at the light through the kilim. And during normal use of the carpet on any hard surface, the cracks are absolutely invisible
In the case when the longitudinal threads are of one color, and the transverse ones are of another, a multi-colored carpet is obtained. Such models are a little cheaper due to the simplicity of the drawing.
Patterns and figures can be not only woven, but also embroidered on a ready-made woven fabric. In this case, the drawing is more complex and more varied than in the classic production, there are also no gaps between patterns of different shades. The front side of the embroidered kilim is a little rough. Kilims are used as wall and floor carpets, bedspreads, tablecloths, blankets for sofas and armchairs, or as an element of decor that does not carry a practical load.
Tapestries. The word Gobelin in French means a lint-free carpet or a woven painting, which featured beautiful ornaments, biblical subjects, and later reproductions of famous paintings. Tapestries were woven by hand, so their cost was very high. They were made from natural threads and sewn from separate parts, which were woven separately. At the final stage of production, the items were decorated with silver and gold details
One could find whole series of tapestries united by a single plot. But only very rich people could afford such masterpieces.
After J. Jacquard invented the loom, tapestries began to be produced by machine. This affected the quality of woven products - they became noticeably thinner and less dense. The price for them dropped, and the canvases became available not only to the inhabitants of palaces and castles.
Woven carpets are made from the following materials:
Wool. Warm, soft, wear and dirt resistant material with excellent noise insulation and water repellency. The disadvantages of wool are that it can cause various allergic reactions and is electrified. Due to the huge number of animals, sheep wool is the most widespread. It is economically profitable to use it in the production of carpets, the products are inexpensive and are in high demand. Goat wool is more expensive than lamb wool, due to the raising of animals, mainly for the meat and dairy industry, but it has better performance properties and is softer to the touch
The most expensive and high quality is camel wool. It is durable, keeps warm well, is hypoallergenic and does not electrify.
Cotton. A carpet woven from cotton threads is hygroscopic and hygienic, but not durable. To improve the performance properties, a material with high wear resistance and strength is usually added to cotton
Acrylic. Outwardly it resembles wool, hypoallergenic, but less durable
Silk. Silk carpets look luxurious: the colors of the canvases are bright and rich, and the pattern shines, shimmering in the sun. Such chic products are not used on the floor. They decorate the interior and are an independent decorative element as a wall carpet or furniture cover
How to care?
Some helpful tips for carpets:
- you need to lay out the carpet only on a clean and dry surface;
- do not allow heaters to be installed on the carpet surface and use open fire near the product;
- when cleaning at home, do not wet it abundantly; it is better to use the foam method, using a soft brush;
- when knocking out the carpet, it is better not to hang it on a rope, but to lay it on a flat surface in order to exclude unintentional damage to the canvas. It is necessary to vacuum the lint-free carpet on both sides, starting from the wrong side;
- Once a year, a natural woven carpet must be dry-cleaned to prevent the appearance and get rid of bacteria and microorganisms.
The best craftsmen from Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, Russia, Uzbekistan, Bulgaria and Armenia never cease to amaze consumers with their woven carpets, which are real works of art.
You can learn how to make a woven carpet with your own hands by watching the video below.