Well-chosen lighting creates a cozy atmosphere and comfort in the room, makes it visually more spacious, voluminous, and, if necessary, divides it into zones. Intricate designer chandeliers are not always capable of solving these problems, therefore built-in lamps have recently gained popularity.
Features of the
Recessed, spot or spot lamps are names that combine lighting fixtures into one group, the body of which is mounted on any surface, becoming almost invisible.
Despite their modest size and minimalistic appearance, the spots are distinguished by such characteristics in the design of the room, which are inaccessible even to the most intricate designer chandelier. Their features:
- Recessed luminaires are suitable for use on vertical, horizontal, inclined, rounded surfaces. In any position, their body will be securely fixed;
- The spots are universal for interiors of different styles, since the "body" of the lamp is practically invisible, and only a small source of light remains on the surface;
- Easy to install with a small set of tools and minimal basic knowledge of light fixture installation;
- They differ in a variety of shapes and materials;
- They make it possible to adjust the brightness of the lighting in the room by grouping a different number of devices and different power of the lamps;
- They help to solve design and architectural problems due to the fact that with the help of directional light, some zones in the room are highlighted, while others are shaded;
- Combine with any kind of lamps: traditional, halogen, LED, energy saving;
- Built-in luminaires are self-contained units, not an integral lighting system, therefore, in the event of a breakdown in the structure of one luminaire, it is enough to replace only it, and the rest will function properly;
- They are used both for decorative purposes for illumination, and as functional devices that provide full illumination of the space;
- Available in the entire light spectrum, and LEDs can also be colored.
There were no significant drawbacks to this type of lighting, but there are several nuances that are worth paying attention to. First of all, it is irrational use of spots, especially with incandescent lamps, with low ceiling heights. As a rule, they are mounted in stretch ceilings, and this requires the installation of stretch panels 6-16 centimeters below the level of the existing ceiling. At a height of 3 meters or more, such a distance will be insignificant, but at 2.5-2.7 m there is a risk of getting the feeling of an overhanging, too low ceiling.
Second point - the total cost of the entire structure. The spot itself is quite cheap, however, multiplying the cost by the number of fixtures required to illuminate an entire room, you can get an impressive amount to pay.
Recessed luminaires can be classified according to many parameters. By construction type:
- Modular are a flat luminaire without a border, which is the same size as a standard rectangular or square ceiling tile. They illuminate the entire space of the room at once, so additional light sources are no longer required. Modular luminaires give the interior a somewhat industrial or technogenic look, so they are best suited for minimalist modern interiors, designs with the latest technology, clear shapes and straight lines. Will look good in the home version of the hi-tech style and in the workroom.
- Point luminaires (downlights) perform the function of illuminating individual areas. Necessary for placing light accents in the interior, zoning and creating volume.
By the nature of the lighting:
- scattered - create soft lighting for the entire room;
- directional light - focuses on a specific object or area, illuminating only a small area of space.
By depth of location:
- completely form a single surface with the floor, wall or ceiling;
- partially recessed - mounted on 2/3 so that part of the case stands out slightly on the surface of the plane. Such lamps usually have a beautiful body, which acts as an additional decoration and enhances the illumination due to the reflective properties.
By type of installation:
Only the first group of lamps can rightfully be called built-in, since their installation takes place with the housing deepening into the wall, floor, ceiling, furniture or false surface (suspended ceiling, drywall).
Surface mounted, or external, have small dimensions and from the side they look like partially recessed luminaires, but they are installed on solid surfaces. Such light sources are convenient when the small dimensions of the room do not allow mounting false surfaces that take away precious centimeters from the area of the room. Another option is a design idea for which external light sources are more suitable.
Suspended luminaires are the most distant from recessed ones, since their body and the supply wire, which is given a decorative design, are located outside. Suitable for use on any type of ceiling surface (hinged, slatted, tiled and others).
- fixed (static);
- swivel (rotating).
Rotating machines are more difficult to install and more expensive, but they also function better. By rotating them 360 degrees, you can change the angle of illumination.
By design features:
- single luminaire (with one lamp);
Several combined lamps give better illumination and a different effect. By appointment:
- wall (wall);
Luminaires for ceiling and wall mounting differ little from each other in characteristics and appearance. The main requirement for them is the minimum degree of heating, since the stretch ceiling does not tolerate high temperatures well, and other materials are capricious in this regard. But the devices that are installed to illuminate the floor must create a perfectly smooth surface with it and be made of particularly durable, non-scratching materials. This category also includes staircase lamps that provide illumination of the steps.
By the type of lighting used:
Incandescent lamps. The most uncompetitive option among modern lighting elements. They heat up too much and burn out quickly, their fragile body is only suitable for use at a height where the bulbs will be inaccessible for mechanical damage. The base of incandescent lamps requires the greatest distance between the ceiling surface and the stretch fabric - 12 cm. They are also not adapted to temperature extremes and high humidity, but there are bulbs with a special housing that protects them from moisture. The advantages include only low cost and pleasant warm light
Halogen. In terms of characteristics, they almost do not differ from the first type, but they serve an order of magnitude longer due to some modifications in the design, which extend the life of the tungsten filament
Luminescent, or energy efficient. With a low heating temperature, long service life, low energy consumption and high power, they could be the best of the existing options, but they cannot be called environmentally friendly due to the use of mercury vapor in the design of lamps
LED. Ideal for ceiling luminaires. LED lamps practically do not heat up, do not blink, are resistant to mechanical damage, consume little energy, are environmentally friendly, and have a long service life - up to 100,000 hours. It can be used both in the form of natural light and in color options. Also, LEDs are distinguished by the presence of additional features: lamps with a motion or heat sensor, dimmable (dimmable). In comparison with other types of lamps, they are much more expensive
The shape of the luminaire and its appearance are very important, since they are involved in interior design. Common types of recessed luminaires: round, square, oval, triangular, rectangular and even hexagons. Spherical lamps should be noted separately. Round luminaires have the following characteristics:
- They are versatile. You can easily select a model for any diameter of the mounting hole. Suitable for mounting on a variety of surfaces. Do not "argue" with the interior;
- Multi-sized. They can be compact for illuminating a small area or an art object in a room, or they can fully replace a chandelier.
- Provide uniform and bright light without flickering;
- They can be with or without a visible body. You can choose the color and material of the case for any interior;
- There are static and rotary models.
Oval lights are less versatile. It is important to bear in mind that we are talking here, rather, about the shape of the plafond, than about the shape of a light bulb or diode. That is, the light source itself remains round, only the edging changes. In this regard, oval lamps are more suitable for decorating large surfaces and are used as ceiling or wall. For highlighting the floor or, for example, stairs, they will already be too cumbersome and pretentious.
Triangular luminaires have the following advantages:
- This is the optimal combination of quality solutions and original design;
- Suitable for different interiors;
- Two types of construction: with a triangular body and a round lamp (very compact) and a one-piece triangular lamp in a body that repeats these shapes (variable in size);
- The purpose of compact models is decorative lighting, and large ones are general room lighting;
- Wide light distribution and visual comfort;
- Produced by reliable manufacturers. Due to the fact that a triangular luminaire is a diode of a complex shape, it cannot be repeated on low-quality equipment, so the risk of getting an unusable product is minimal.
Square luminaires also have a number of advantages:
- The square is a classic shape in the interior. Such lighting will be both decorative and functional at the same time, suitable for most interior solutions and will eliminate the need to choose a chandelier.
- Wide range of applications - from private housing to administrative and municipal premises;
- Variability of sizes;
- Can be installed both on the ceiling and on the floor, since square luminaires without a decorative body form a perfectly flat surface with finishing;
- They give uniform, bright, but unobtrusive light, therefore they are suitable for dark rooms, into which little or no natural light penetrates.
Rectangular lights combine the positive characteristics of square and individual features. Their main difference is the elongated shape, which can no longer be called universal. With their help, you can completely illuminate a room and visually change its shape. For example, if you place rectangular lamps along the long side of the room, it will become even more elongated in appearance, and if across, it will approach the shape of a square. Also, the advantages include:
- Ease of installation at any ceiling height;
- Wide range of color temperatures;
- High percentage of energy savings - up to 70%;
- Long service life - 50-100 thousand hours;
- The minimum degree of heating;
- Environmental friendliness and safety.
Volumetric luminaires (polyhedrons, spheres, drops) belong to the ceiling. With rare exceptions, they are used as decoration for inclined surfaces (a common case is decorating a dressing mirror or illuminating paintings on the wall).
Their shades remain in sight at any time, therefore, even when the lights are off, they play the role of decoration.
The dimensions of the recessed luminaires are very variable. There are models of small and large sizes, thin and voluminous, long and short, narrow and wide. So, for example, the smallest diameter of a round luminaire can be 90x13 mm with a mounting hole diameter of 70 mm, and the widest one - 300x13 with a mounting hole of 280 mm. The required dimensions are determined by the location of the luminaire (floor, ceiling, furniture, walls) and its functions. For the floor and ceiling, larger luminaires are suitable, which can carry both functions at the same time. For decoration, it is better to focus on small lighting fixtures.
It is important to consider the location of the lamp. "Outside" points give more light and dissipated heat, while internal or hidden ones form a narrow luminous flux, and heat is more concentrated on the surface of the ceiling.
Accordingly, for high-quality functional lighting with hidden dots, larger and larger lamps will be needed.
The luminaire body and decorative elements on it are selected taking into account the characteristics of the mounting surface. It can be made of iron with various coatings, brass, zinc, bronze, aluminum, gypsum and imitations of these materials. Painted plastic and drywall can be used as imitations. More rare types are made of solid wood or its substitutes (MDF, plywood), there are ceramic, enamel and crystal products, glass shades and cases with crystal as hanging decor. Paper and textile decorations are quite rare.
Features of metal products:
- Low cost;
- Wear resistance;
- Suitable for fine processing, forging, creating volumetric decor;
- Ease of care;
- Cheap metal for painting can be replaced with expensive metal - gold, silver, bronze.
The disadvantages include the large total weight of two or more products. The stretch ceiling may not be able to withstand them.
- Reflective surface;
- Aesthetic appearance;
- Variety of colors and shapes;
- Resistance to temperature and humidity changes.
Of the minuses is the fragility of the product. Accidental mechanical damage during installation or wet cleaning can lead to chips and cracks.
- Creates a magnificent play of light from refracted rays and enhances illumination;
- Has a respectable appearance;
- Subject to processing, which allows you to create sophisticated jewelry;
- Easy to clean by any means.
Crystal is much more expensive than glass, but it is also a fragile material, despite its weight.
Made of wood:
- The most easy-to-process material that is suitable for creating any decor;
- In small quantities, it is relatively inexpensive;
- It is environmentally friendly and safe for health;
- Suitable for many types of processing: mechanical and manual painting, artificial aging, polishing, spraying, glossing;
- Can be used in interiors based on natural wood.
If you need to decorate a large area with lamps in wooden cases, you will have to spend a significant amount. It is important to take into account that it is better to keep the tree away from places with high humidity.
- The most economical of all materials;
- Versatile, suitable for any interiors;
- Resistant to damage;
- Has a small dead weight;
- Not afraid of high humidity;
- A wide range of colors, textures, shapes and sizes.
Of the minuses - plastic may look original, appropriate, but not expensive. With a high degree of heating and frequent temperature changes, it burns out and cracks.
There are several ways to apply color to the finished body of the lighting fixture - electroplating and painting. Dyeing, in turn, is manual and machine. The final result and the cost of the product will depend on which method is chosen. Electroplating (or chrome plating) is used when it is necessary to make parts smooth, shiny and reflective. For some decorative elements, it can be made matte by processing with special brushes or by applying a sandblast pattern. Electroplating produces several primary colors that mimic more expensive materials: rose and yellow gold, antique bronze, chrome, copper.
Painted items have warmer, brighter colors and a rough surface. Red, green, yellow, blue, orange shades are widespread. Black and white colors can act as soloists, and can be combined with others. Often they and brown are used as the main colors for applying decor using golden, silver, gray shades.
Recessed luminaires with different functionality are incredibly in demand. Special the following models are common:
"Starry sky". The legendary lamp for creating cosmic beauty has migrated from the category of free-standing bedside lamps to the rows of built-in lamps. Ceiling, wall or floor, with white or colored glow, swivel or fixed, round, spherical, drop-shaped - this luminaire will transform. Relevant for living rooms, bedrooms and children's rooms
"Enigma". These embossed shades in pure crystal on a chrome-plated base reflect light and enhance the play of refracted rays. They add conviviality and fabulousness to any interior, and they favorably emphasize individual decorative elements: crystal dishes, statuettes, niches and arched openings
"Cube". As the name implies, the plafond has the shape of a cube, and a round diode is deepened inside it. Crystal clear glass gently smoothes the corners of the cube, while a transparent amber border imbues the light with warmth. Combining different models of "Cubes" gives an even more interesting result
"Porcelain". Its design is inspired by the timeless classics - white color and stucco on the ceiling, so the round body of the lamp is made of ceramics in a noble white shade and covered with a relief pattern. It goes well with rosettes, moldings, stucco moldings, antiquities, appropriate in the classical style (vases, amphoras, sculptures)
Dew. These are small shades of unpainted cut crystal, which, due to the play of light, "paint" large beautiful chrysanthemums around the lamp on the ceiling. Several such devices are capable of illuminating a room of 4-6 square meters, which eliminates the need to look for a suitable chandelier
Flower. The theme of floristry is continued by curly plafonds in the form of half-open buds, petals and other vegetation. All models are presented in combinations of bronze, gold and silver, which makes them worthy of luxury interiors
Glam. Despite the budgetary cost, these lamps are distinguished by an interesting design and subtlety of execution. Looks like a faceted gem recessed in a patterned metal bowl. Playing on the edges of the glass, light gives the interior a decorative look
- Glass. A laconic and sophisticated combination of glass and chrome. Minimalism and clarity of lines make it modern and ideal for high-tech, techno, minimalist interiors.
- Mirror. A cluster of these spotlights in crystal shades creates the illusion of twinkling stars in the sky.
- "Pearl". Lamps in the Pearl style are charming openwork shades of metal threads, on which pearls are strung. This decor is designed for a luxurious setting, so ideally there should not be many shades.
It is not difficult to assemble and install recessed luminaires. To do this, you must follow a number of recommendations:
- Prepare the installation site, check the presence of cables and socket outlets.
- Calculate the safety distance (height under the ceiling - 10 cm, between the lamp and flammable objects - 50 cm).
- Cut a mounting hole at the selected location with a ring drill.
- Mount in accordance with the instructions for a specific type of lamp (with or without a transformer, halogen, diode, incandescent and other options).
- Check the operation of the devices by turning on the general switch.
Popular manufacturing countries producing beautiful and quality products include:
Spain (LEDS, Mantra, B. lux)
Russia (Arlight, Gauss, Ecolight, Donolux)
Italy (Arte Lamp, Lussole)
Germany (Lumberg, Hans Kogl, Schmitz-Leuchten)
Beautiful examples in the interior
Spotlights are a unique framing tool for your home. In the corridor and hallway, they can be used to create the necessary light and an intricate pattern on the ceiling, which will not only diversify a boring room, but also visually make a narrow and long space wider.
In the kitchen, they are convenient to illuminate the cooking area and the dining area, in the nursery, color options in the spirit of the "starry sky" will look beautiful, in the study you can highlight paintings on the walls, in the living room more festive or designer models will be appropriate, creating an atmosphere of comfort and luxury. Suitable models "Pearl", "Dew", "Glass".
A special category of recessed luminaires is represented by profile bronze luminaires. These long glowing tubes can be given absolutely any shape, combined with LED strip and colored lighting, placed on ceilings, walls, floors and furniture. They will equally well give the child's room the look of a spaceship and will frame the mirror of the dressing table.
For an overview of recessed luminaires, see the next video.