A bright and cozy home that you want to come back to again and again is, of course, the dream of any owner. The choice of lighting in this case is of great importance. Therefore, the question of how to choose the right lighting fixture for the bathroom and what characteristics must be taken into account is more relevant than ever.
Like other rooms in the house, the bathroom should be well lit. Bathroom light cannot be too bright to irritate sensitive eyes, which is why ceiling lighting is the best option. The light of such lamps does not hit the eyes, and they do not take up additional space, since they are attached directly to the ceiling.
Ceiling lights have many benefits. And one of them is that they are easy to fit into a single style of the bathroom, dividing it into special functional areas. There can be several such zones at once: a zone above a bath or shower, above a sink and a mirror, as well as a free zone.
Each corner of the bathroom needs lighting of different intensities.
For example, it is better to place a lamp with an intense supply of light above the sink, and less bright above the bathroom. This arrangement of accents is associated with the functional features of the ceiling lamps. In addition to the function of decoration, lighting fixtures can also perform accent and general functions. Light focuses on a specific area of the room or illuminates it entirely.
One of the most common bathroom ceiling luminaires are directional luminaires, which can be manually repositioned to illuminate the desired area of the room. Thus, you regulate the luminous flux yourself, which can be very convenient if there are many zones in the bathroom, and there is only one lighting device and there is no way to put an additional one.
Now there are a huge number of models on the lighting market, but they are all divided into three main types: mortise, mounted and overhead.
Mortise, or recessed, lamps are located in special openings of a stretch or plasterboard ceiling, forming a flat plane with it. Such lamps are usually small in size and are installed immediately in a set of five pieces. They fit easily into any bathroom.
Recessed luminaires are very popular because they can be used in almost any room and on any surface. In terms of style, they are as neutral as possible, because their body is securely hidden in the ceiling opening. By the way, the body of the built-in lamps is made of metal. Moreover, it can be both ordinary copper and aluminum, and elite chrome-plated metals.
Hanging lights are much more visible on the ceiling.
They resemble ordinary chandeliers, only of a smaller size. Such models are no longer placed in the ceiling, but under it at some distance. They usually have a suspension element that hides the power cable and allows the direction of the light to be adjusted.
Wall-mounted models visually take up a lot of space, so in bathrooms with low ceilings they will look cumbersome, which cannot be said about overhead lamps. Surface-mounted luminaires are located close enough to the ceiling, but not fully integrated into it. They are usually installed on ceilings where holes cannot be made for a recessed luminaire.
Which bulbs to choose?
There are four main types of light bulbs. These are LED, halogen, energy saving bulbs and incandescent mirror bulbs.
Incandescent lamps are gradually fading into the backgroundand there are several reasons for this. First, they fail quickly and have to be changed frequently. Secondly, they require a lot of electricity, and this entails undesirable cash costs. Finally, incandescent bulbs have a yellowish light, so it is best not to use them in small spaces. In addition, they cannot be used for lamps installed in plasterboard ceilings due to the fact that they heat up quickly.
Due to their structure, halogen bulbs are more durable: they last about four thousand hours. These bulbs are compact in size with high wattage. A great advantage of halogen lamps is their price. Compared to incandescent bulbs, they are considered much more affordable. However, they spend a lot of electricity, so you won't be able to save money with such bulbs.
Energy saving lamps are now used in every home, and all because of their cost effectiveness.
Such bulbs give very comfortable for the eyes matte light of varying degrees of brightness from warmer to colder. The only drawback is associated with the difficulty of their disposal, which requires special recycling procedures.
The most convenient and advantageous type of bulbs are LED bulbs. Of the obvious advantages of these lighting elements, one can single out durability and efficiency of use. LED bulbs are slightly more expensive, but they will last for many years. They are ideal for lighting living quarters, as they do not heat up and give an even cool light that is comfortable for the eyes. Reading under such light becomes much safer, because the eyes do not have time to get tired.
One of the most important properties of bathroom luminaires is moisture resistance. An electrician should not leak water for many reasons, one of which is the safety of the lighting fixture. To protect your health and protect your apartment from a short circuit in the electrical network, you must use special moisture-proof lamps in the bathroom. They are not afraid of water, they do not react to sudden changes in temperature and will last longer than other lighting fixtures.
According to the international standard for lighting fixtures for baths and kitchens, the body of the luminaire in terms of the degree of moisture resistance must vary from IP 4 to IP 5. Only such lamps are protected from water ingress. Moreover, the first type will withstand the indirect hit of a few drops of water, and the second type is able to withstand the hit of a jet with a strong pressure. The use of lamps with waterproof properties is especially important for families with small children, who usually like to splash water in the bathroom.
Based on the established standards, a medium-sized bathroom requires a luminaire with the ability to illuminate approximately 200 lux (where lux is lux, a unit of illumination in the International System of Units) for each square meter of the room. Accordingly, a bathroom of 7 squares will require a lighting fixture capable of providing 1400 lux.
A bathroom of 5 square meters requires illumination of 1000 lux of luminous flux. Approximately this amount of lux is contained in a conventional 75-100 W incandescent light bulb. Accordingly, a lamp with one such light bulb can illuminate a small bathroom.
The LED light bulb has a power of up to 3 W, which will provide a luminous flux of 200-220 lux. Accordingly, to illuminate a bathroom of 5 squares, you will need from three to five LED bulbs.
Despite the generally accepted European standard, for small Russian bathrooms, a lighting standard of 50 lux was set.
When shopping for fixtures and bulbs, make sure they diffuse the right amount of light for your bathroom. It is better to know the dimensions of the bathroom in advance and roughly determine in which area you are going to place the lighting fixture. These parameters will affect the type of luminaire and the number of bulbs needed to provide good lighting. As a rule, information about the lighting capabilities of the device is indicated in the passport that is attached to the product. Before buying it is worth studying it. Usually the manufacturer indicates how much space a particular lamp illuminates.
For spacious bathrooms, lighting is suitable, which is provided by several built-in lamps at once located along the perimeter of the ceiling.
Features of installation on different surfaces
The method of installing chandeliers and any other ceiling light sources is determined not only with respect to the type of lamp. An important role in this issue is played by the type of ceiling and the materials that were used in its creation. It is important to consider whether it will be an ordinary concrete ceiling or a special ceiling structure, which is a stretch, slatted or suspended ceiling. When installing the lamp, it is also necessary to take into account how many centimeters the ceiling structure deviates from the ceiling itself.
For an ordinary concrete ceiling without additional structures, not all types of lamps are suitable. For example, mortise models simply cannot be installed, since they require some deepening. But there are no restrictions on mounted and overhead models, so you can safely install them. The only condition is that such lamps must be mounted on special dowels and have a spherical or flattened shape.
But the weight of such chandeliers does not matter, because the concrete ceiling will withstand any lighting fixture.
Recessed luminaires and lightweight hanging and overhead lamps can be positioned on a plasterboard ceiling, inside which an electrical wire runs to each individual lamp. For each such electrical wire, a certain amount of electricity is discharged through the switch. This system is installed simultaneously with the installation of a plasterboard ceiling structure.
Electric wires for such ceilings are usually placed in a special cable that looks like a hose assembled with an accordion. It is installed on the main ceiling to prevent short circuits and ensure the safety of the lighting fixture.
When installing pendant lights on a plasterboard ceiling, additional pendant elements must be provided for them. But built-in spotlights do not need such elements. For them, it is enough to make special holes in the ceiling, then connect them to the already installed electrical wire, and then fix them in the previously prepared sinuses using special mounting "ears" or springs. These springs help to hook the spotlight onto the edges of the prepared hole. The weight of such spotlights should be low and the length is at least 20 millimeters less than the length of the mounting holes. This is necessary in order to protect the main ceiling from overheating.
The installation of lighting fixtures in slatted ceilings is practically no different from the installation of fixtures on plasterboard ceilings. There are few differences between the two systems. Rack structures also allow you to hide all internal wires, and most of the luminaires are also attached to the suspension structure itself. For slatted ceilings, it is also necessary to drill special sinuses and stretch electrical wires, and then connect them to the lighting fixture. The wiring is usually simply fixed on the ceiling rails themselves.
Stretch ceilings cannot support the weight of even the lightest lighting fixtures.
That is why it is necessary to purchase a special bracket when installing luminaires in such ceilings. This fastening element must be fixed to the main concrete ceiling, pulled through a hole in the additional, i.e., tension, ceiling, and then fix the luminaire to it. When installing a luminaire, a special sealing ring is often used, which helps to hide the opening of the additional ceiling, as well as to strengthen the junction of the luminaire, bracket and stretch ceiling curtain. The sealing ring will prevent the stretch ceiling from deforming in case of overheating.
There are also cases when built-in lamps are mounted in a stretch ceiling. In this case, the bulbs must be installed in the depth of the stretch ceiling in such a way that they do not look out. In other words, spotlights must be hidden deep into the structure so that their body and the plane of the stretch ceiling lie on the same level.
In fact, you can place ceiling lights anywhere, because no one gave specific instructions on this matter. In addition, the designer's imagination constantly throws us new ideas in interior design, and these new decor solutions, of course, do not bypass the play with light.
There are some restrictions on the placement of luminaires in places of high humidity., but they, as a rule, are not stipulated, because this is something for granted. For example, no one in their right mind and good memory will install a lamp that is not protected from moisture penetration next to a tap or shower hose. The lamps cannot be located above the bathroom itself or inside the shower stall. This is contrary to basic safety rules. But for the rest (especially with regard to decor) there are no rules, and there are a lot of options. So in this case, everything directly depends on the imagination of the owner of the bathroom.
Ceiling lamps in the bathroom can be arranged in any order. If the light is provided by a single fixture, it is better to place it in the center of the ceiling. In this case, the light will be scattered evenly around the entire perimeter of the room. You can also use luminaires with adjustable beam direction or multiple spotlights.
It is believed that the use of a voluminous single chandelier on the ceiling is not suitable for the bathroom, since it hangs quite low and thereby eats up the space. However, if the height of the ceilings allows, you can try this option as well. To be honest, for all its impracticality, such a chandelier looks gorgeous.
Using such models of lamps, you can competently fit into the bathroom interior a chandelier with graceful floral motifs and wood motifs, which have recently become fashionable again.
Volumetric hanging chandeliers can be located not only in the center of the ceiling, but also on the periphery, thus illuminating only a certain part of the room. Such options for the location of the lamp are necessary for the zoning of the bathroom. In addition, in some cases, the lighting device can act not only as a light source, but also as an additional decorative element, combining beauty and practicality. Examples can be seen in the photo.
Of course, when zoning a room, it is necessary to provide each zone with a lighting device. Therefore, it is very common to find a combination of different ceiling and wall lamps within the same bathroom.
You will learn more about ceiling lamps in the bathroom in the following video.