Lamps and fixtures are an essential attribute in every home. After all, an ordinary ceiling chandelier illuminates the room too much, makes it difficult for the eyes to rest and does not create comfort in the dark.
A small lamp can easily create a romantic or dreamy mood, help you relax after a hard day at work and give the room an appropriate atmosphere. In addition, an electrical appliance is an independent decor element that can emphasize the originality of a room, place missing accents and express the taste of the owners.
There are also street lamps that have completely different functions and purposes.
Among the many modern electrical lighting devices, it is very difficult to make the right choice and find the right luminaire. Modern models can be classified according to various criteria.
Light source type:
- Standard incandescent bulbs.
There is an abundance of lamps on the modern market, and they all differ in shape, material, mounting method, manufacturers.
Luminaires by type of installation are:
Suspended… Unlike ceiling chandeliers, pendant lights just complement the design of the room, not create it. They are some kind of decorative elements that are located near the ceiling. Cable electrical appliances are intended only for rooms with high ceilings, since it is recommended to install the luminaires at a level of at least two meters from the floor. But there are also exceptions that can be applied in small rooms
Embedded… Recessed lamps are considered one of the most popular and demanded. Among the significant advantages of lamps, one can single out the budget cost, ease of installation and dismantling, simplicity and conciseness. Most often, recessed luminaires are installed in stretch ceilings, but they can also be used for lighting in any large closet or pantry
From the models popular today, a gimbal device with rotary lamps can be distinguished.
Ceiling… The luminaires located on the ceiling are similar to standard chandeliers in appearance and installation method. But modern models are devoid of bulkiness, grace and massiveness. They are single-tube, two-tube, track. Of the advantages, one can single out the fact that they perfectly illuminate the rooms, are small in size and do not burden the interior, literally merging with the ceiling
It is recommended to purchase luminaires with LED devices, as this significantly saves energy.
Point… Miniature, but very bright lamps that perfectly illuminate a small space. Basically, point electrical appliances are equipped with halogen bulbs, which is quite economical in energy consumption. Today, the range of spotlights includes portable rechargeable models that are equipped with clothespins
Spots… An original and stylish lamp that is gaining more and more popularity every day.This is a metal oblong structure, on the rod of which a certain number of spotlights are located. Swivel lamps can be easily adjusted and directed to different areas of the room. Such devices, depending on the model, can illuminate both a small space and an entire room
Slots are not only wonderful lighting details, but also independent interior items.
- Wall mounted luminaires are divided into two types: sconces, which are mounted using a bracket, and near-surface electrical appliances, which are attached directly to the wall.
- Console… These models are much better suited for street lighting than others. Basically, they are located in yards, in parks, along roads, in parking lots, and so on. The device is mounted on a console and then on a wall, pole or other support.
- Crowning… Such models are also very popular with outdoor appliances. They are used in squares, on alleys, embankments, on the territory of school and preschool institutions. Topping off are spotlights and long induction lamps. The luminaires are mounted directly on the floor supports or through the crown brackets.
- Floor standing… These lamps most often include floor lamps. They look great both in rooms with high ceilings and in small spaces. Floor-standing models combine symmetry, flowing lines and unique decor.
- Gas… A portable light source that uses different fuels instead of a light bulb. The body of this model is made of heat-resistant glass and has a hanging handle.
Electrical appliances can be manufactured in various forms. Today, on store shelves, you can find symmetrical, asymmetrical, round, square, oval and other lamps.
Original lamps in the form of animals or birds are considered relevant. For example, the forms of a monkey, wolf, owl. Such diverse forms help to convey the individuality of the room, the owner's hobbies and even his character.
The diameter of the lamps can be absolutely anything and depends on the shape, style, purpose, location. For example, spotlights have a diameter from 5 centimeters to 15. This is the most common size, and in order to illuminate a small room, only 4-5 pieces are enough.
The appearance of the appliance should be attractive, laconic and match the overall interior of the room. Therefore, color plays an important role when choosing a luminaire. It is always necessary to select a harmonious tone of lighting technology with wallpaper, furniture or, for example, tiles.
Many well-known brands offer a wide range of colors for different fixtures - from pastel and classic to bright and provocative.
It is worth noting that the room itself plays an important role in the choice of color. After all, if you can buy a green, red or orange lamp in a living room with bright decoration, then only calm, comfortable shades for a working environment will fit into the office.
The choice of a luminaire depends on a large number of criteria: functions, location, fixing and other elements. But the main feature is the material that makes up the source of artificial lighting. Shades and other components of the luminaire can be made of absolutely any material.
The cartridge included in each electrical appliance must be made only of a flame retardant compound. It can be any metal, porcelain or plastic that is suitable for its properties.
Also, the reflector is made of heat-resistant material, which has a special strength and durability. Due to the mirrored, light, smooth inner surface, the device evenly scatters light in the room and does not heat up.
The plafond and decor can be metal, crystal, wood, plastic, glass, textile. Each material has its pluses and minuses, which can be considered in more detail:
Metal… It can be painted in any color and suit absolutely every interior. For example, gold, silver, bronze gives the room a luxurious, expensive look and is especially popular lately. Metal products are quite strong and durable, they are resistant to any kind of dirt and dust, and they are very easy to care for. On the other hand, this kind of lighting is quite heavy and not suitable for every base. In addition, it is considered the most expensive in comparison with other lamps
Glass or crystal. Crystal lamps are traditionally considered luxury items and a sign of exquisite taste. In addition, this material is not afraid of the sun's rays and sudden changes in temperature. Among the advantages of glass appliances, a rich selection of shades and shapes can be distinguished
The main disadvantage of crystal and glass is fragility. Such materials are very easy to break and damage during cleaning or installation. It is important to note that crystal is much more expensive than glass fixtures.
Wood - natural material that suits any interior: from provence and country to classics and loft. He personifies home warmth and comfort. Wooden artificial light sources are environmentally friendly, inexpensive and easily combined with absolutely any materials and textures
Among the minuses, one can single out a high sensitivity to humidity, a sharp temperature drop and the difficulty of cleaning from dirt and dust.
Plastic… Such chandeliers are considered much stronger, more practical and cheaper than others. They are quite lightweight and come in a wide variety of colors, shapes and sizes. But it is worth noting the negative aspects. Plastic is very sensitive to high temperatures, and in particular to direct sunlight
There are several chandelier and lamp manufacturing companies on the modern market that are most widely known and loved by customers:
- Arte Lamp. An Italian lighting company that began its existence more than fifteen years ago and today the brand's products are popular in twenty countries. The company is constantly expanding the geography of its presence, intensively developing the styles and directions of lamps, improving the technologies and characteristics of the models.
- "Aurora Light". A Russian company that produces a wide range of lamps that differ from each other in shapes, colors, styles, as well as cost. Very often, the brand has models made of non-standard materials and original designs. For example, bronze or various minerals. All electrical appliances are subject to mandatory certification and strict quality control.
- Citilux… A popular international brand that produces only first-class lighting equipment. The company was founded in 1994 in Denmark. In Russia, Citilux began to be distributed in 2006. The main rule of the brand is simplicity, lightness and elegance of design. Such features are inherent in absolutely all models of fixtures in the Citilux range.
- Colosseo… High-quality Italian lamps have occupied leading positions in sales in Russia for many years. The brand produces original, sophisticated and even whimsical models for home and office. The range of products includes a wide range of colors - from standard shades to flashy and unique ones that will surely fit into any room interior.
- Favorite… A relatively young but popular brand that produces high-quality and reliable products. A feature of the brand can be considered a fast pace of development due to the exclusivity and production of lamps that meet international standards and trends.
- Globo… A well-known Australian brand that manufactures unique lighting equipment for home use and street lighting. The advantages include affordable cost, unique design and first-class quality with high performance. Globo is widely distributed in fifty countries, and its range includes more than two thousand electrical appliances.
- Vibia… The company develops and manufactures lighting fixtures that are ideal for rooms with modern or high-tech interiors. Country of origin: Spain. Among the advantages of the company are practicality, attractive design, durability when used correctly and energy savings.
Regardless of the type, type of installation, size, shape and manufacturer, luminaires always consist of a base and a bulb. The appliance fittings include:
- Cartridge. The main part of the luminaire to which the light bulb is attached.
- Reflector. Concentrates and directs the flow of light.
- Plafond. An accessory that brings zest to the luminaire and creates uniform illumination. The plafond should be made of a durable material that transmits light well. The main task of the accessory is to protect the light bulb from mechanical damage.
- Housing. Connects and holds all parts. Significant requirements are imposed on the housing, since the strength of the luminaire and its ease of use depend on this element.
- Brackets and other accessories that secure the structure and wires when connected.
How to connect?
Connecting a luminaire to a switch is the most exciting and central topic when buying new lighting equipment. It is best, of course, to entrust this action to a professional. But if for some reason it is not possible to contact a specialist, then first you need to study the connection diagram, which is always present in the kit of any lamp.
The installation technique of any, even the most unusual model depends entirely on its design. If a person learns how to mount simple lamps, then he will easily understand how to fix other models as well. For example, with two lamps, with a sodium lamp or lighting equipment without brackets.
Before starting work, you need to turn off the electricity, and then check the absence of voltage using a tester. Then, following the diagram, carefully and correctly connect all the wires. There are only three of them in standard luminaires and they are all different colors. After connecting, it is necessary to attach the body to the ceiling, wall or other support and check the equipment for operation.
For information on how to connect a sconce, see the next video.
How to change a light bulb in a spotlight?
Spot lighting is a model with a small illuminating surface and consists of only two parts. This is the frame into which the light bulb and clamps are screwed to ensure a secure attachment to the ceiling.
In a spot device, the replacement of an incandescent lamp is carried out in the same way as in any other lamp. And everyone can cope with this procedure. First you need to turn off the electricity in the room and remove the cover from the case. Then unscrew the old light bulb and carefully insert a new one in the same place.
If there is a halogen light source in the ceiling device, then to replace the lamp, you will have to spend a little more time and effort. To do this, you need to remove the cover and the retaining ring. After that, unscrew the burned out lamp and mount a new one in this place.
It is worth noting that the halogen light source should not be handled so as not to leave marks on it. It is best to use a tissue or thin gloves when replacing.
It often happens that a ceiling lamp is equipped with an LED lamp or is a stand-alone device. In the first case, the light source is easily replaced with a new one. It is only necessary to remove the cover, take out the lamp and screw in a new one.In the second case, you will have to remove the entire lamp lamp together with the body and mount a completely new one.
For more information on replacing a light bulb in spotlights, see the following video.