When choosing the type of flooring in living quarters, many people opt for carpets. It should be noted that such a coating not only performs the function of floor insulation, it also gives the room a special appeal. Hand-made carpets deserve special attention. Handicrafts are of good quality and interesting author's design. Such models will emphasize the originality and exclusivity of the interior design.
Features of the
Carpets are considered one of the oldest inventions. They were used for insulation and as home decoration, and were also an attribute of wealth. Carpet weaving originated at the moment when man mastered the processing of animal hair.
Handicrafts have always had the status of a separate work of art. Each hand-made model is unique. With all the desire, the master will not be able to accurately recreate his masterpiece again.
It should be noted that hand-made coatings have a higher cost compared to analogs made in an industrial environment. However, nowadays handmade floor coverings are gaining more and more popularity. Such products can not only add an oriental touch to interior design, they can serve as an excellent addition to classic styles.
Let's highlight the main advantages and differences of handmade models:
- the use of natural ingredients;
- environmental friendliness of materials;
- detailed patterns;
- the inclination of the pile is to one side;
- asymmetry of the edges;
- irregularities in the pattern.
Another distinctive feature of such products is the difference in shades of the same thread color. To describe this phenomenon, the term "abrash" is used, which denotes the spectrum of the rainbow.
Handmade carpets are divided into three main types: pile, lint-free, felt. Additionally, such products are distinguished by shape (oval, round, rectangular, carpet tracks) and size.
Pile coatings are characterized by a complex structure, which makes the manufacturing process of such products more laborious and difficult.
In the execution of this type of coating, three threads are used:
- base thread;
- ducks (forms a carpet knot);
- thread that secures a row of knots.
Pile models are divided into nodular and tufted. Knot products are considered the most difficult to manufacture. At the same time, they have the greatest beauty and value compared to other hand-made types. Knotted products consist of parallel (base), transverse (woven between parallel and serve as knot locks) and knotted threads.
There are the following types of nodes:
- "Giordes" (Turkish double);
- Senne (single Persian);
In addition to the pile, there is a fringe in knotted products. In this case, the fringe plays the role of a continuation of the carpet. These products are of superior quality and durability, and the pile fibers straighten more and more over time, making the carpet softer.
Trafted coatings get their name from the way they are produced. Manual trafting is the sewing of fibers and threads (using a special tool) onto a previously prepared base. An additional base is attached to the back of the product, which holds the fibers together.
Lint-free canvases are easier to manufacture.In the manufacture of such models, two threads are most often used: transverse and longitudinal. The longitudinal thread is the basis of the product, through which the transverse thread is passed - in a certain order.
Lint-free models are divided into:
Palace - the simplest and cheapest type of handmade carpets to make. The color palette of carpets is most often monochromatic (stripes are allowed). The weave of such a model consists of a warp and weft threads, which makes the texture of the product look like a fabric.
Kilims differ in original design and low cost, which makes them popular. The structure of such models contains a variety of ornaments. The pattern is made by interposing weft threads of different palettes according to a given image.
Sumakh - lint-free models with a variety of patterns. The peculiarity of the manufacture of this type of coating is that the ornament is created using an additional colored thread. The third thread is passed around the base threads, which forms the texture of the pigtail. The ends of the colored threads, from which the pattern is formed, are often brought out to the wrong side of the product. On the back of the carpet, a kind of pillow of threads is formed, which retains heat well.
Handmade felt models are also distinguished. Felt covers are made using the wool felting technology. Thanks to this method of production, the felt fabrics have a high density and are very warm.
Exclusive handmade designer models are a separate piece of art. Elite copyright products can be made both according to the idea and sketches of the designer himself, and to order (according to the buyer's criteria). In the manufacture of handmade coatings, designers use only modern and high-quality materials. Over time, such a product will become a real antique. Antique carpets are exclusive and very valuable interior items.
Designer carpets are available in both modern and classic styles. Artificially aged products are very popular. On such models you can see old drawings, partially lost images, ancient ornaments, Arabic or Egyptian symbols, non-standard geometric shapes. A correctly chosen author's model is able to emphasize almost any interior design, convey its originality.
- Designer aged carpet with ancient ornaments in the interior of the living room.
- A faux-frayed model in an Art Nouveau kitchen.
- Author's product of original shape with woolen pile.
- Modern designer model in the loft interior.
How are carpets weaved by hand?
Handmade models are mainly made from sheep's wool, silk and cotton. Sheep wool is the most convenient to work with, durable and has a low cost. Craftsmen sometimes use goat or camel wool, which makes the pile of the product more shiny. Silk is the most expensive natural fiber, so it is not used so often in carpet weaving. Cotton is most often used for the production of carpet backing.
By the method of production of canvases by hand, the following classification is applied:
- Wicker. Knots are tied on the threads of the base. Such products have pile of various lengths and fringes.
- Woven. Weft and warp threads are intertwined on a loom. There is no pile in woven products.
Consider, using pile models as an example, how carpets are made by hand. Manufacturing technology has not changed much after many centuries. Initially, the master is determined with the pattern and with the parameters of the product (size, shape, number of threads for the warp and weft). Then comes the preparation of the wool.
The quality of the carpet as a whole will depend on this stage. Sheepskin is cleaned of dirt, scratched and painted. After processing, the wool is spun. This is how threads for weaving are obtained.
Then the master makes the product itself, using the technique of weaving or weaving. The finished product is cleaned of the remaining threads and dirt, the field of which is dried. The final stage is the leveling of the pile height.
How do you define manual work?
Knowing the features and technology of weaving handmade carpets, you can easily distinguish them from machine-made products. To avoid counterfeiting, when choosing a hand-made model, you should pay attention to the following details:
- Fringe in products made by hand, it is not sewn to the canvas, but is its continuation. On carpets that are made by machine, the fringe is always sewn on.
- Nodules. In hand-made models, there are knots at the base of the pile, since the pile is completely knitted by hand.
- Edge wrapping (excluding oval and round models). The side wrapping of the edges of handicrafts is uneven. In machine-made goods, the stitches are uniform and have the same indentation.
- Marking… Machine-made goods have stripes with information about the manufacturer, serial number and composition. On hand-made canvases, such tags are almost always absent (on some products, the author's signature is indicated near the fringe).
- Defects and irregularities in the ornament. When making carpets by hand, craftsmen often overlook small details in the design.
- Material… When making carpets by hand, preference is given to natural materials. Synthetics are predominantly used in machine production.
- Color. Handmade threads often have an uneven color (different shades of the same color).
It is worth paying attention to such things as flexibility, pattern on the back side, combination of materials, direction of the pile. Handicrafts are more flexible (due to the lack of an adhesive backing) and can be easily bent in half. The pattern from the inside of the carpet is clearly visible and repeats the pattern from the front side. The pile is tilted to one side, so the handmade canvas has light and dark parts.
The earliest carpet weaving centers were established in India, China, Iran and Pakistan. Today, carpets are produced in many countries of the world.
China is one of the first countries to establish carpet weaving centers. Traditional Chinese flooring features a large floral pattern and high pile. Among modern models, you can find canvases of various shapes and materials - with national patterns (yin-yang, dragons, hieroglyphs). Popular Chinese coatings with a raised pile haircut. Thanks to the use of this technology for cutting the pile, the image on the carpet is voluminous.
Carpet weaving has no Indian roots, but it has a long history of development in this country. The first carpets were made under a clear Persian influence, but later handicrafts began to show their national characteristics.
Wildlife, animals and birds were most often used as patterns. When choosing a material for making goods, craftsmen mainly opt for silk. Handmade silk Indian models are of high quality. The appearance of such products does not deteriorate over time.
Individual families and entire dynasties of artisans were initially involved in carpet making in Iran. The drawings on these items reflected the local culture of the country and folk customs. Iran remains the leader in the production of carpets to this day. Iranian rugs are often sold under the name "Persian".
Pakistani rugs are mainly made from wool. Floral and geometric patterns prevail on carpets. Pakistani carpets are divided into single-level and two-level. Products belonging to the first type are soft and easy to bend.
Two-tier models are more rigid and durable.The distinctive shades of Pakistani flooring are gold and red (these are the colors found in every rug).
We should also highlight handmade carpets from Nepal. The color scheme of Nepalese products is light. These rugs are ideal for creating a warm indoor atmosphere.
The knots in Nepalese products are close to each other. After the master finishes the weaving process, the product is carefully processed (the surface of the carpet is washed). The rinsing gives the carpet designs the rich color that is the hallmark of Nepalese products.
In this video you can see the process of making a handmade silk carpet.