Linoleum has been and remains the most popular flooring. Despite the fact that the cost of good linoleum may exceed the cost of tiles, it is still in demand due to the simpler method of installation and ease of maintenance. The service life of this type of coating is not lower than that of a laminate, and there are many more ways to eliminate minor defects during operation. In addition, a large number of products for proper styling (glue, mastic) and many care products are now being produced that restore the original appearance.
Features of coating repair
Each coating does not get better during use, and linoleum is no exception. Dents, bubbles or bumps often appear on it, it happens that holes or burns form.
You can eliminate these shortcomings yourselfusing some tools specially designed for this purpose. True, it is worth saying that by recommending leveling the floor before laying the PVC coating and applying adhesive mastic over its entire surface, the manufacturer does not at all seek to complicate your life. With proper installation, all of these common damages (punctures, blisters and waves) can be avoided.
To restore the old canvas, seal the hole and patch up the torn linoleum, it is enough to use cold welding. These include special types of adhesives that do not glue, but fuse the ends of the gap. There are several types of welding: for baseless linoleum butt-to-joint (class A), for felt (class T) and for repairing large gusts with a gap of 4 mm (class C).
Before gluing the breakthrough, paper tape must be glued to the joint to avoid damaging the top layer of linoleum. Then an incision is made at the site of the rupture and welding is introduced using a nozzle with a thin nose. Scotch tape succeeds 30 minutes after repair at an acute angle.
To smooth out waves and creases, you need a hair dryer. With its help, it is necessary to heat the place of the swelling until the linoleum becomes soft. After that, the coating is pressed to the floor with a load for a day. If you don't have a hair dryer at hand, you can take an iron and thick paper through which the base is heated. It is more difficult to remove dents and creases in this way, especially strongly pressed places. But if you heat the surface well, and then roll it with a metal blank, like a rolling pin, then there is a 70% chance of successfully repairing the coating.
Bubbles and bumps after styling are eliminated quite quickly: a cross-to-cross incision is made on the bubble with a construction knife, mastic or glue is squeezed into it and the place of the incision is pressed to the floor for a day with a load.
To repair the burn, you will need to make a patch of the same linoleum in its place, which is cut out of the remnants. The patch is glued to the mastic, the joints are cold welded, the patch is placed under the load for a day.
Corrosive stains are removed using special products. Do not use abrasives (including sandpaper), bituminous and oily products (gasoline, solvent, toluene). They remove the upper protective layer, after which it will be impossible to wash the contaminated linoleum.
Small do-it-yourself repairs are available to everyone, but it is advisable to prevent defects by proper styling.
Types of mixtures for recovery
Mastic for gluing is sold ready-made or made independently. Each type of linoleum requires its own type of mastic, which is easy to make at home. To glue a PVC coating or alkyd-based linoleum, a homemade casein adhesive is used, consisting of casein, drying oil, water, lime. If you have a wooden or metal base, then for alkyd linoleum it is better to use varnish-chalk mastic (in the composition of resin varnish and chalk). On concrete can be glued with casein-cement composition.
For concrete floors and for grouting, industrial mastics based on natural binders are also used. One of the most popular is cold bitumen mastic, which is used for gluing any type of linoleum. Fast-hardening mastic based on waterproof binders is a lime-bitumen, which contains bitumen, water and asbestos and is completely waterproof.
In addition to securely fixing the coating to the base, it additionally provides waterproofing, preventing leaks to neighbors from below in the event of an accident in heating or water supply pipes.
Mastics with polymers are bitumen-rosin, bitumen-latex and rubber-bitumen("Isol" and "Bisky"). The first two are used for gluing PVC linoleum to a wooden base or to concrete screeds. Bituminous-latex mastics can be applied very well with an ordinary spatula, do not drag on the tool and allow you to create a thin layer of glue on the floor. At the same time, they set very quickly and can be used in an unheated room. Perfect for gluing PVC linoleum to fiberboard, chipboard and concrete.
If you have linoleum on a fabric basis, then the best option is the Bisky bitumen-rubber mastic, which is absolutely harmless and explosion-proof. One drawback is a gradual build-up of strength - within a month. Therefore, it is advisable to refrain from strong impact on it in the first week after laying linoleum.
Linoleum mastics are of two types: for polishing the floor (protective function) and for gluing linoleum to the base.
The ideal option is to apply a protective sealant to the flooring immediately after installation. But if this is not done, then, if desired, the protective composition can be applied later.
The main functions of the protective mastic:
- making the coating shine;
- reduced antistatic effect;
- increased adhesion to the floor (preventing slipping);
- protection against scratches, easier cleaning and prevention of corrosive dirt from entering the deep layers of the protective coating;
- protection against burnout, increased resistance to UV rays.
All modern mastics contain polymer additives, this allows you to maintain the elasticity of the coating for a long time, and without creating craquelure (cracks) on its surface.
Applying care mastic at home is not difficult. However, before covering the linoleum with a protective compound, it must be thoroughly cleaned. Cleaning is done with the same brand as the mastic. As a rule, the manufacturer produces a whole line of care for PVC coating or natural linoleum. An integrated approach guarantees the protection and preservation of the presentation for decades.
First, the most persistent household dirt is removed from the floor - grease stains, black stripes from shoes, stubborn paint stains. For this, a cleaning compound is used in a sufficiently high concentration - about 3 caps of cleaning agent for 2 liters of water. The product is applied directly to the stains and left on for at least 15 minutes. Then the dirt is removed with a dish sponge.
Then the agent is diluted in a ratio of 1 cap to 2 liters of water and the entire surface of the floor is rinsed with it. In this case, a mop is not used, it is best to do it manually with a microfiber cloth, helping yourself in hard-to-reach places with a sponge with a soft abrasive.
The final stage of surface preparation is rinsing it from the cleaning agent with plain water. The water is changed 3 times. First, a rag with a product is washed in running water, it goes through the entire floor for the first time. Then the second change of water and a rag, after the third change of water (the rag can be left the same). After washing, leave the floor to dry completely. Make sure that no one passes over it and leaves no traces.
If the floor was drafted or not completely dry before applying the polish, the polymer may peel off after a couple of weeks.
Regardless of what type of mastic you have: matte or glossy, it is applied exclusively with a lint-free cloth or floor polisher. A small amount is rubbed into the linoleum only in circular motions with pressure, preventing the accumulation of funds at the edges of the circle (white stripes). After a 30-minute break, a second layer of mastic is applied in the same way and left for 40 minutes until completely dry. In no case should you walk on the newly treated surface.
It is recommended to apply mastic on the floor at home once every two months, but in offices it is necessary to carry out a full restoration once every six months, sometimes once every 4 months.
This simple instruction will help you quickly and efficiently restore any linoleum without the help of specialists.
There is one unshakable rule - the purchase of mastic is done only after the purchase of linoleum. In this case, you definitely need to ask the seller what kind of linoleum you buy (PVC, alkyd, natural) and on what basis. These data and also the type of base on which the coating is laid are the basis for choosing an adhesive composition.
For foamed, baseless and felt-based linoleum, there are different means. It is worth remembering that a universal product (for all types of coatings: carpet, linoleum, tiles, etc.) is suitable only for foam-based PVC linoleum and only for concrete or fiberboard / particleboard.
Consider the difference between dispersion compositions and mastic itself. Dispersion glue is always water-based (bustilate, acrylate, PVA, Gumilax), in the mastic there are always admixtures of adhesives: gasoline, solvent, bitumen. Mastic, in contrast to the dispersion composition, provides almost 100% waterproofing.
Natural linoleum and marmoleum are glued only to dispersion glue. It is better to choose mastic if the substrate is very wet or if you are laying conductive linoleum. Reviews of the masters say that there is enough busylate or acrylate for the house.
When laying and caring for linoleum, the best option would be to purchase care products of the same brand as the linoleum itself. The adhesive and care have been tested specifically with this substrate and are guaranteed not to spoil the floor.
Forbo 897 - care mastic with anti-slip effect, which protects the coating from the appearance of black stripes. Scope of application - premises with high traffic (offices, hospitals, schools) and gyms. Forbo 898 "Longlife Basisschutz" in glossy and matt version contains metal polyacrylate, which allows it to be used on all types of linoleum (PVC, alkyd and natural, including marmoleum). Absorbs deeply into the base, pushes dirt outward, abrasion resistant.
Mastic for gluing Forbo 628 Eurostar Rapid reinforced with fiber, perfectly applied to the floor, does not squeeze out over the edges of linoleum. Suitable for underfloor heating, it will not be crushed under the influence of roller chairs. The setting time is 24 hours.
Tarkett company is not engaged in the production of mastics, however, it offers excellent cold welding of all three types for gluing linoleum joints and its domestic repair. Welding is carried out in Belgium and is used only for interior work. Type A - for PVC linoleum (baseless and foamed), type T - for polyester backing.
HomaKoll 248 - dispersion glue based on PVA, suitable for PVC coating. Opinions on his account were divided exactly in half: 50% of the masters categorically do not recommend gluing on it, because the coating is blown up in waves, 50% have no complaints, they say that it is advisable to prime the floor surface twice before applying the product. It is unanimous that the dismantling of the coating is easy. At the same time, many note that the wrong consumption is indicated on the bank, and for semi-commercial linoleum, despite the manufacturer's assurances, the glue is absolutely not suitable.
For information on how to make cold welding of linoleum, see this video.