When choosing a floor covering, buyers give their preference to linoleum. Many refer to the fact that this kind of material is not strong enough and not durable enough, but this is a big misconception. In addition, flooring of this type is placed not only in houses and apartments, but also in public transport, this directly indicates its durability and quality. But buying linoleum and putting it down is half the battle. It is necessary to carefully study all the subtleties and nuances in order for it to remain completely intact for many years.
Due to its fairly simple installation and reasonable price, this flooring has earned the love of buyers who, among all materials, preferred it. Also, with its help, you can easily create an imitation of parquet, laminate or tile.
But laying it on a concrete floor carries a lot of nuances that cannot be ignored.
How to put it right?
Currently, the modern market abounds in a rich variety of floor coverings. In this regard, choosing a high-quality and suitable linoleum in all respects is not an easy task. Putting it down is quite simple, so you can do without the help of a master and cope with this work yourself. But in order to properly put it on a concrete floor, you need to familiarize yourself with some of the features.
Preparing the floor for laying the covering. As a rule, any material requires preparation before it is coated onto a concrete surface. There are several technologies that provide a complete understanding of overlap in general. These are the methods dry and wet screedthat are easy to prepare without assistance.
Making a wet screed:
- We remove the existing floor covering to the concrete surface. We remove debris with a broom and a vacuum cleaner.
- We cover cracks and crevices on the floor with a sealant or concrete mortar, and foamed up gaps and irregularities.
- We make waterproofing using plastic foil. Important: we place it overlapping with the capture of all walls.
- If there is a need to capture heat, we place a damper tape around the edges of the room to keep the heat.
- We mark the top level of the screed. Using a laser level, draw a strip with a pencil or stretch ordinary threads. Thus, we get the thickness of the screed, but it must be remembered that it should not exceed 28 millimeters.
- From the resulting upper point, set aside 3 centimeters upward - this will be the final upper point of the tie.
- We lay out the profile segments on the surface. Adjust the height with construction wedges.
- Mix the solution and water, stir with an electric drill.
- Pour the resulting consistency around the perimeter, starting from the far wall.
- We smooth out the solution with a slat. It dries in an unventilated room.
Bumps may form after a wet screed. If the linoleum is with a substrate, it will hide all the flaws along the old screed, but if the coating is thin, you will have to additionally level the concrete floor. To do this, you need a water-soluble mixture that spreads evenly over the surface and does not require the intervention of external forces.
But it is worth noting that after carrying out the actions, you need to treat the coating with a roller and a primer.
- We remove the old coating.
- We seal up the cracks with a sealant, it can also be done with foam or concrete mortar.
- We apply a waterproofing layer.
- We place the profile sections, as in the case of a wet screed. We fill everything with insulation of a loose structure to level the surface.
- Put thick plywood sheets on top of the screed. It is important that the joints on the plywood do not overlap.
Immediately after the surface preparation has passed, you can purchase linoleum. Despite the huge number of variations of such a coating, it can be divided into several groups - natural and unnatural.
The second is in great demand, as it has a low cost. It is subdivided into:
Also, linoleum can have a base or be baseless. The first one is quite strong and durable, the second retains heat, but does not have the same degree of wear resistance, since there is no litter.
There are several types of linoleum:
- Natural. It usually consists of wood and cork flour with the addition of oils and jute fabric. This is a highly ecological material that is suitable for a nursery or people with asthma and allergies. Its main advantages are: durability, environmental friendliness, structure preservation, a large selection of colors.
- PVC linoleum. Its base is heat-insulating, it can have both a multilayer version and a single-layer one. Despite its low cost, it has a number of features: low heat conductivity, environmentally friendly, does not rot, and is easy to floor.
- Alkyd. Such material is soundproof, but at the same time fragile and prone to rapid cracking.
- Colloxin. It lacks a base, but despite this, such linoleum is resistant to moisture, strong and elastic.
- Relin. This is a two-layer material, quite elastic, but it cannot be placed in houses, since it contains substances harmful to humans that can harm health.
Another important aspect when laying linoleum on a concrete floor is the presence of a substrate. It usually spreads on uneven floors, as it helps to hide defects or can serve as a good thermal insulation material. If the surface is flat, you can do without a backing, but if there are bumps, you need to purchase this material, which contains jute fiber, natural flax, or a mixture of wool and flax.
As you know, such a coating is available in rolls of various sizes. And in order to correctly calculate the required amount, it is necessary to measure the length and width and add 15 centimeters to them.
Important: it must be laid so that there are no joints and missing centimeters on one side.
After determining the size and buying linoleum, the question arises: how long can the covering be laid? First, you need to spread it out and leave it in this position for a day in order to eliminate and smooth out all the irregularities and folds. If the number of rolls exceeds one, you need to combine the joints and align along the edges.
Laying is carried out in two versions - with and without an adhesive base. The second option is usually used in very large rooms. After the linoleum has lain for a day, you can proceed to measuring and cutting the edges. Instead of glue, double-sided tape is used, then you can proceed to installing the skirting boards.
If you nevertheless decide to lay the coating on glue, then you need to purchase an exclusively water-dispersible composition. It is applied with a spatula in small areas. Adhesive installation can be used on the balcony, as it is the focus of cold and moisture.
Single-layer linoleum also requires special laying:
- We unwind the insulation, glue the edges with tape.
- We apply an antiseptic to the base.
- Next, we distribute the glue to some areas.
- We install the skirting boards and distribute the furniture around the room.
Repair and replacement of the coating is a very complex process that requires compliance with all the nuances.But listening to all of the above advice, you can easily and without outside help cope with such a seemingly difficult task that has arisen in the apartment.
It is worth noting once again that when choosing, you need to rely not only on the appearance of linoleum, but also on characteristics such as durability, wear resistance and tendency to shrink.
How to remove the coating from the concrete floor?
Before laying linoleum on the surface, it is necessary to dismantle the existing coating. It can be different: wooden or, for example, tiled. Each type of coating, as you know, requires the use of varying degrees of strength and different materials expended for this case. Therefore, in order to properly remove the old coating, it is necessary to follow certain algorithms and only then you will get a really high-quality outcome.
Dismantling the wooden floor
First you need to remove the skirting boards, if any. It is advisable to start from the corners in order not to damage the skirting board and leave it intact for future use. In the gaps between the floor and the plinth, insert a nail puller and separate from each other. Next, we take out the nails with chisels or unscrew the screws with a screwdriver. It all depends on how the skirting board is attached to the floor surface.
If it has paint on it, it will prevent easy dismantling. Therefore, when separating, it is necessary to use a nail puller and a hammer. If the layer is thick and you cannot find a nail, count 10-12 centimeters from the corner. Roughly, this will be the location of the first nail.
After all the skirting boards have been removed, you need to start dismantling the wooden floor. It is recommended to start by removing the back side in order to completely preserve the boards for possible further use for various purposes.
If the boards are attached with screws, the execution technology is quite simple. You just need to unscrew the screw with a screwdriver and peel off all the wooden parts. If they are nailed down, you should work hard and strictly follow the instructions:
- Find the most recent board.
- We drive a nail puller under it.
- We lift with a hammer.
- We step on the floorboard, as a result, it will be located in its place, and the nail will stick out.
- We remove the nails.
If the floorboards are pressed against the wall, you need to use both a nailer and a hammer. And those areas that have succumbed to damage can be easily hidden under any skirting board. Next, we remove the rotten wooden logs filled with cotton wool or glass wool with a crowbar. In the second case, it is necessary to carry out work strictly with gloves in order not to injure your hands.
After you have removed the lags, the dismantling can be considered complete.
Dismantling a concrete floor with tiles
Usually such a tile is firmly fixed on concrete, therefore, it is impossible to tear it off without damage. Those areas that have also been damaged can be filled with concrete mixture, thereby completely leveling the surface. Dismantling of this kind is very difficult and dusty, so you need to be patient and have a mask that will protect your respiratory system.
There is another type of tile planting - glue planting. To do this, you need to remove the seams yourself and moisten these places with water. Next, remove the rest of the coating with a spatula. After dismantling all the tiles, you can remove the screed.
This is a very difficult process as the screed is the concrete layer that levels the surface. And it needs to be either reconstructed or completely removed. There are several ways to delete:
Shock. Removal takes place with a jackhammer. But it is important to remember that when performing actions in this way, you need to know that the screed does not contain reinforcement, otherwise you will need the help of specialists
Before removal, it is necessary to perform a number of specific measures: wear a respirator, special gloves, headphones and goggles to protect the cornea of the eye from foreign objects.
- Diamond cutting. This method can be used if the concrete is no more than 25 centimeters thick and does not contain reinforcement. It is usually performed by two people, since it is almost impossible to cope with such a sharp one on their own. The appearance of the special machine is uncomplicated - it is a kind of mechanism with a disc that cuts the surface, moreover, it is oversized, which is convenient for small rooms.
- Diamond drilling. Such a mechanism is very expensive, its price varies from 150 to 250 thousand rubles. He makes holes in the floor surface and removes the screed in the corner parts of the room.
Removing the coating from a concrete floor is undoubtedly a difficult and time-consuming process that requires time and effort. A good result depends only on your own skills, ownership of the tools and the practical application of all of the above tips.
How to glue?
As a rule, glue is not used very often in everyday life. But with it, you can independently glue linoleum to any surface. But it is necessary to take into account some of the nuances and features inherent in this particular method of floor overlap.
Concrete floor includes many types, but they have one thing in common - the presence of cement powder in the composition. Linoleum spreads over any of these types, be it wet, dry or semi-dry screed. The content of crushed stone, sand or gravel in the composition of the base may vary, and their percentage may also vary. All these components are included in the category of absorbent floors, that is, those that are able to retain moisture.
This is one of the best qualities of such a floor, because linoleum can be guaranteed to last intact for several decades. But it all depends on the owners and their desire to renew the floor. If linoleum with this method lies for quite a long time, then its wear resistance can be noticeably lower and after five to seven years it will completely wear out.
Many people wonder whether such material needs to be glued. You need to know that any glue must fix the coating. And before you buy it, it would be most likely to get advice from store sellers and ask which glue is right for your type of linoleum.
For a regular floor made of concrete, the following are suitable:
- Linoleum with a backing that prevents the passage of heat.
- Alkyd adhesive, the base of which is made of non-woven and woven fabric.
Linoleum, which has no backing, cannot adhere to concrete and concrete surfaces. Before carrying out such actions, you need to cover the floor with plywood, chipboard or other materials that are similar in composition.
Used in gluing:
- Substrate and fabric fixing compounds. They are applied in a 7 mm layer to the concrete surface for better adhesion.
- Mastics from various manufacturers. You can buy them only if the linoleum has a fabric base. It must be glued after 20 minutes after application to the floor.
- Mastics with the addition of rubber. They are used when gluing alkyd linoleum without a backing.
Mastics are known to be applied with a spatula. Linoleum is glued to this type of adhesive base only after a certain amount of time so that the solvent has time to disappear. The waiting time usually does not exceed 25 minutes.
If the glue has come out over the edges, it must be removed immediately. Also, if the mastic gets on your hands, it can be easily removed with an ordinary solvent, and the glue can be removed with water.
Before laying linoleum on a concrete surface, it is necessary to put a soil layer on it. You can prime it with either mastic or drying oil.It is worth noting that for convenience, you can immediately drill holes for the baseboard, thereby saving time and effort. In order not to cut the linoleum, it can be laid in a single roll. You shouldn't worry about uneven edges either - they will be covered with baseboards.
Household and commercial types are one in one - before flooring, they need to be given time to level and smooth out bumps and irregularities. You can glue such linoleums only when you make sure that the surface is completely smoothed and has no protrusions. If you do not know how to cut the material, read the rules carefully and follow the algorithm:
- We position the linoleum roll so that its edges extend beyond the floor and capture several centimeters of the wall.
- We drive out the accumulation of air from the inside, wait for it to completely smooth out.
- At the junction between the floor and the wall, measure the line with a ruler, cut it out, strictly following it.
- At the outer corners, we bend the linoleum with the inner side, put the board, cut the bent part and completely cut the canvas.
- To cut the inner corners, fold the edges in the form of the letter V. From the center we cut into two even parts, fold the edges and cut them strictly along the line.
After the linoleum has been cut, it must again be left for a day in order for it to take its natural shape and smooth out.
After that, it is necessary to make a decision on what glue to fix, and on what technique to follow.
We start gluing:
- Move aside half of the flooring.
- Spread the glue evenly over the concrete floor.
- We return the pushed side to its original position.
- Smooth it out with a special roller so that the air is completely released.
- We do the same with the second part.
Technology: how to lay at home and what to fix?
This process is generally very time consuming, it is difficult to do it yourself without someone's help. But correct installation requires a certain order of work and the availability of tools, namely:
- Special knife.
- Brush for applying glue.
Having completely aligned the surface and cutting off all the edges, we fold the edge part. Apply a certain amount of glue to this area, wait for it to partially dry for 10 minutes. After carrying out such actions, we smooth the surface with a roller. Wipe off the protruding glue with a rag. If glue gets on the front side and on the top deck, it cannot be wiped off in any way, therefore you need to be as careful as possible.
We can consider the owner of a small-sized room lucky enough to fit one roll. But if the room is large, you should think about how to lay two rolls at once and make the joint invisible. You can cover it in two ways: fasten it with a welding machine or special glue, which is sold in two types: A and C. The first is used only with adhesive tape, and the second, respectively, without it, but using the same technology. Putty will also help to cover up the gaps between the linoleum and the baseboards.
This process of gluing linoleum is laborious, but doable. This kind of installation task can be handled independently without any help.
But do not neglect the recommendations, which not only provide the necessary information, but also make it clear that any flooring requires special attention.
Examples and variants
On the modern market there is a huge number of coatings with a different structure and a variety of design solutions. The most popular is, of course, linoleum.
It will perfectly fit into any room, its flooring will not cause difficulties, and the price will pleasantly please every customer. In addition, manufacturers and their technologies do not stand still, therefore such material is rapidly transforming and improving, acquiring a new look.
Among the advantages of such coverage - practicality, reasonable price, durability, high environmental friendliness and beautiful design. But in order for linoleum not to stand out from the general design concept of the room, it must be selected wisely.
This linoleum will be a great addition to any kitchen. It does not stand out, but noticeably emphasizes the contrasting red furniture, putting it in the foreground. It is this texture that does not irritate the eyes, it flows smoothly into the wall, which has the same color scheme.
With the right use and purchase of flooring, any room is endowed with restraint and sophistication. The gray color is not distracting, but the textured contrasting flowers will surely attract the attention of any person who is not indifferent to luxury and feels style.
Light linoleum goes well with technology that literally flooded every room. It should also be noted that light shades are the best fit for a small apartment. They are able to bring not only coziness, but also significantly expand the space.
This option emphasizes status, wealth and luxury. Dark linoleum seems to bring notes of seriousness, coupled with genuine grace. It can be used both in the bedroom and in the living room, which will surely not be devoid of comfort.
At first glance, it may seem that it is marble. But this is a big mistake. Such linoleum, imitating an expensive coating, will not only add status to the bathroom, but also significantly save the budget.
With the help of bright and contrasting linoleum, you can create such a unique and colorful interior. The atmosphere that reigns in the room seems to take you into the distant magical world of fairytale heroes, who are loved not only by the child, but also by the parents. In addition, the diagonal plot visually expands the room, making it even larger and more spacious. Here, not only the correct texture has been chosen, but also a complete balance has been observed.
If you want to expand your kitchen, choose striped linoleum with cross-stripes. He will add a few square meters to a miniature room and give it dynamism.
You will learn more about how to lay linoleum on a concrete floor in the following video.