The origins of the popular flooring are rooted in the distant past. For more than two centuries, production technology has been acquiring new and improved characteristics and qualities. With the development of the chemical industry and the advent of artificial materials, the structure of the previously patented oil-based canvas - linoleum - has changed.
Linoleum remains one of the most demanded floor coverings to this day. This popularity of the product is due to the fact that linoleum is considered a fairly durable and highly functional material.
The versatility of linoleum is that it allows you to choose from a wide range in favor of a suitable option for the solution.
The main differences between products
Linoleum is a material with general consumer availability. Modern flooring is quite popular. This is facilitated by a wide selection of existing coatings, which have the following characteristics:
Color solutions. The variety of shades and patterns of the material allows you to make a choice, focusing on the taste and style of the selected option for various types of premises. In terms of drawings, this material can imitate any natural materials: stone, wood, or simply have an original ornament
- Strength. Unlike natural flooring such as wood or ceramic tiles, linoleum does not crack over time.
- Softness. The structure has a springy base, which is the reason for the pleasant and comfortable tactile feature.
- Price. Along with budget options, linoleum is also presented with premium options.
- Easy to install. The flooring technique is simple to perform. Today, both professional craftsmen and a simple layman can lay this material.
In modern production, commercial linoleum should be distinguished, which is divided into two groups:
- Homogeneous linoleum.
- Heterogeneous linoleum.
Homogeneous and heterogeneous linoleums differ in composition and technological characteristics:
Homogeneous linoleum is essentially a single-layer coating. The structure of this linoleum is uniform throughout its thickness. Also, the material has special strength and elasticity. Basically, the texture of the homogeneous coating is a simple marble pattern. This material is used as flooring in rooms with high traffic and industrial load: trading floors, halls of large rooms, railway and bus stations, airports
Consider the composition of the elements of homogeneous linoleum:
- PVC. The polyvinyl chloride used protects the coating from mechanical damage. The disadvantage may be a slight odor that disappears over time.
- A piece of chalk.
- Quartz sand.
- Industrial lime.
- Tint pigment.
The constituent components are mixed in a multistage way, and then the mixture is processed in special devices. Then the mixture is passed through rollers, which give the material the desired width and thickness of the future flooring. The durability of homogeneous linoleum is influenced by the thickness of the coating. The thicker the product, the stronger and more resistant the flooring will be.
Over time, the coating, which is subject to huge production loads, can be damaged, but this issue is also resolved positively.It will not be difficult to restore linoleum, it is sanded, thereby removing the upper damaged layer, and a special protective mastic is applied.
Heterogeneous linoleum is a coating consisting of several layers (heterogeneous means heterogeneous in composition). Modern, heterogeneous flooring allows it to be installed on any type of surface. The method of its manufacture is much more complicated than the production of homogeneous linoleum.
Heterogeneous linoleum is divided into the following types:
The types of heterogeneous coating differ only in the thickness of the protective layer, which significantly affects the price of the product.
The composition of heterogeneous linoleum includes the following components:
- The base consists of polyvinyl chloride.
- The next layer of fiberglass, it is it that allows you to maintain the desired surface dimension.
- Next comes the embossed layer. A thin layer of PVC is not limited to colors and decorative elements.
- The outer layer of PVC is a protective layer. Thanks to the top film, the coating is protected from external damage and wear.
The number of layers applied by each manufacturer is different. It usually ranges from 2 to 6.
Heterogeneous coatings are suitable for absolutely any kind of premises. Linoleum has proven itself well in rooms with a large crowd of people, it can withstand any mechanical stress. The positive characteristics were also influenced by the fact that the material is resistant to fire, and this is an important fact, since the coating is widely used in children's institutions.
The operational period exceeds more than ten years.
Difference in technical characteristics
Giving preference to such a floor covering as linoleum, you should thoroughly study all the features and technical characteristics of this product. Of the widely used types, each of the presented coatings deserves special attention.
A homogeneous single-layer coating, in fact, is the most wear-resistant, since the pattern is practically not erased.
The constituent characteristic properties include the following indicators:
- Long operational period of service, more than twenty-five years.
- PVC is relatively safe for health.
- There are no toxic substances.
- Protected against fire.
The advantages of homogeneous linoleum include, first of all, its high strength, color fastness is dense and evenly distributed throughout the entire layer. Since the product contains industrial lime, it is not recommended to allow excessive contamination, this is fraught with deep contamination of the canvas. It will be possible to remove dirt from the surface only with a grinding machine followed by the application of a special mastic.
Functional and technical characteristics of heterogeneous linoleum are in great demand among consumers. When purchasing this type of linoleum, carefully study all the letter designations and the classification scale. The correct choice of the purchased canvas depends on these parameters.
For example, if the packaging is labeled with class 21-23, then the product is used only in households. If the class is 31-34, then the installation is carried out exclusively in public places. Class 41-43 is used in industrial premises, in chemical laboratories, since these types are resistant to chemical reactions. The service life of PVC coating is much shorter than that of a homogeneous material, it is only 10 years.
Household linoleum is probably the easiest to classify characteristics of all PVC coatings. It is used only in domestic premises, as it is not designed for serious loads and high traffic. The coating of the protective PVC layer varies from 0.15 mm to 0.35 mm.
When giving preference to household flooring, keep in mind that the service life will be short.However, a huge selection of colors and the budgetary cost of the material will suit everyone's taste.
What is the difference between laying linoleum?
As mentioned above, interest in linoleum does not subside to this day. Gone are the days of the Soviet Union, where the flooring was not distinguished by the intricacy of design solutions. Such a coating evoked sadness and dullness. In the modern world, shopping malls have been replenished with a variety of materials that satisfy any consumer whim.
Since this type of flooring is quite flexible, laying it will not be difficult, even for novice craftsmen. First of all, you need to stock up on all construction equipment: a knife for cutting linoleum, a substrate (if necessary), an iron ruler, a plinth, glue, a roller for rolling the surface, a hammer.
Following the exact dimensions of the room, the floor covering should be cut correctly.
The main types of linoleum laying should be highlighted:
- Dry styling method.
- With glue.
- Simple styling.
The dry method of laying consists in laying the material without the use of glue or mastic. You will also have to take into account the fact that the canvas shrinks. When unfolded, the cover must remain for several days in order for it to “acclimatize”. Be sure to leave allowances at the edges.
If the web has a pattern, the parts are adjusted accordingly to the elements of the web. You will need double-sided tape for bonding.
Laying on glue is the safest of all methods. The method is also quite simple to use. When applying glue to the inside of the canvas, note that the draft will interfere with the installation process. As you apply the blade to the surface, roll it over with a rolling roller. Further, it is necessary that the surface is completely dry.
How to take care of them?
The quality and structure of the material, as well as the maintenance methods, differ significantly. Polyvinyl chloride has a unique property of protection against premature coating defects. The top layer prevents dirt from getting into the linoleum structure, thereby simplifying maintenance. Cleaning is carried out, depending on the use in a particular room. The material is unpretentious and does not require professional detergents and cleaning agents; cleaning is carried out with water and a soft cloth.
Compared to homogeneous linoleum, the use of special mastic is not required for this type of coating.
According to its characteristics, homogeneous linoleum has a porous structure, which makes the surface easily contaminated with long-term use. For this, it is necessary to carefully monitor the condition of the surface. If, however, heavy contamination cannot be avoided, then cleaning with a grinder and cleaning agent will come to the rescue. She thoroughly clean the top, contaminated surface layer. Further, a layer of mastic is applied, which will protect from dirt in the future and increase the period of use of the coating.
How to choose the right product?
Taking care of comfortable living conditions, people are careful about the choice of any building material that not only saves the budget, but also does not harm health.
To do this, it is necessary to rely on the characteristics of the offered products:
- The presence of an unpleasant odor. If there are irritating odors, which speaks of harmful chemical constituents, then it is better to refuse this material.
- The weight. Well-known manufacturers do not violate the technological process of their products. Therefore, a high-quality coating is heavy, because all layers are observed and correctly applied.
- Products should be purchased only in specialized stores. After all, only there you can get reliable information about the availability of certificates.
- The surface pattern must be clear and evenly applied.
- The thickness of linoleum should be within the limits of GOST.For homogeneous flooring, it is 1.5-2 mm, for heterogeneous flooring it varies from 0.4 mm to 0.6 mm.
In any case, each type of flooring has its own pros and cons. Having carefully studied all the components, feel free to make a decision to purchase the material you like.
You can find out more information regarding this issue in the video below.