Linoleum is a polymer material that is used as a versatile floor covering. In popularity, it even competes with laminate flooring. It is distinguished by ease of use and mobility, it is easy to lay and, if necessary, can also be easily removed. And the variety of colors and textures will satisfy all tastes and harmoniously fit into the interior and functionality of each room.
Based on the list of positive qualities, it is widespread among consumers, and this leads to a number of problems with regards to the correct laying technology, gluing joints and other production nuances. A special procedure is the processing and bonding of seams between individual sheets, which also raises many questions.
Linoleum can easily be laid even by a person who is far from finishing work. Its surface is convenient and easy to wash, it is not afraid of water, movement on it is soft and does not cause noise. It is the best choice for many residential and commercial applications.
The division of linoleum into types occurs depending on the material of manufacture, wear resistance and structure.
Felt-based linoleum, which can be household and semi-commercial, is quite popular.
Its main features:
- The multi-layered and soft structure holds its shape better and practically does not deform;
- It bounces even on a concrete floor;
- Has the property of soundproofing;
- Due to the impregnation with anti-flammable substances, the possibility of its ignition is minimal.
- It retains heat well and boasts a long service life.
On the Russian market, it is presented in two versions, which in certain modifications can have from 5 to 7 layers:
- PVC - protects against physical and chemical effects;
- The second layer of PVC - functions similar to the first layer, are not available in all types of coatings;
- Printed cover;
- Foamed PVC - does not absorb moisture and prevents deformation during operation;
- Fiberglass - stabilizes all layers among themselves;
- Felt backing - base;
- An additional layer of waterproofing that protects the felt from moisture.
- The floor must be level and dry. The material itself is hard to cut with a knife, this must be taken into account before starting work and choose the right tool;
- For rooms with a high level of humidity, felt-based linoleum is still not suitable, it begins to mold and rot;
- It is desirable to have a monolithic coating of the entire area, it is extremely difficult to weld it and only a master should process the seams;
- At the joints, an additional water-repellent tape is glued, it is impossible for water to get into the gaps. The skirting boards must fit very tightly.
Linoleum on a fabric or textile basis is presented in two layers: the first is synthetic or natural felt and the second is PVC with decor.
It is used mainly in residential premises and has the following properties:
- Heat and sound insulation;
- Softness and elasticity;
- Does not require the help of specialists during installation;
- Environmental friendliness and safety.
You can lay it on a flat surface or on an old coating, if it lies without displacement. At the joints, protection from water is required, the use of skirting boards. The negative qualities include a relatively short service life and high cost.
Commercial linoleum is a coating designed specifically for places with a large flow of people. It is durable and is used in schools, hospitals, offices, corridors, cafes, shopping malls and similar places.
- Resistant to moisture;
- Long service life, resistance to deformation, contains quartz chips;
- Environmentally friendly product, fireproof, soundproofing property;
- The construction is monolithic and does not slip.
Negative: high price and small palette of colors.
It is divided into two types: heterogeneous (multi-layer) and homogeneous (single-layer), they are the same in terms of service life, cost, but different in scope. Multi-layer are more suitable for rooms with a requirement for heat and sound insulation. Single-layer is applicable in places where there is a high probability of mechanical damage.
Laying such a coating should only be done by a specialist. If it is necessary to glue it, the hot welding method is used.
When is bonding necessary?
Linoleum of domestic production is most often produced in a width of 1.5 meters. It is great for compact rooms, but a problem with larger rooms. Indeed, in this case, laying in separate strips and further welding of the seams are provided. In some cases, the coating has to be joined like a mosaic and glued in parts.
Many professionals advise to lay linoleum as completely as possible.
Before purchasing the material, the area of the apartment is measured and the required roll footage is calculated from this figure. Seams begin to join after the flooring. You can fix the carpet or mark the transition between rooms with gates.
Butt joint methods
Previously, it was possible to solder the edges of linoleum together only with the help of a special soldering iron. The seams were uneven, stood out strongly and ruined the entire appearance of the floor. This fastening did not last long. Nowadays, new, practical and reliable methods of soldering have been developed.
There are several ways of joining joints - these are cold and hot welding. The cold one helps to glue the flooring by applying a special adhesive, and the hot one - soldering with special equipment. Additional methods are also used, such as double-sided tape.
For laying linoleum on top of other materials or if the edge is lifted, rubber, wooden or metal sills are used (mechanical method).
It is possible to connect the seams with your own hands at home only by cold welding, scotch tape or a nut. It cannot be argued that one method is good and the other is bad. It all depends on the specific case, the specialization of the room and the type of linoleum.
It should immediately be noted that the method is inexpedient at home. Household linoleum is not resistant to high temperatures and will eventually melt. For the most part, the technology is designed for a very strong and wear-resistant material, which is mainly used in commercial or industrial enterprises or for creating complex application works.
For work you will need:
- connector - polymer cords (welding);
- soldering apparatus - hot air gun and nozzle;
- fluoroplastic tape;
- sharp knife.
It is better to rent a hairdryer, as this is a tool of narrow specialization and will most likely not be needed in the future.
- Linoleum is tightly attached to the floor with PVA glue or fluoroplastic tape and the edges are adjusted. Dust, water and debris are preliminarily removed;
- Along the entire length of the joint, a recess is cut out in the form of a V-shaped groove with a sharp knife or cutter;
- Attach the nozzle to the soldering machine. The cord is inserted into the nozzle;
- Only after that the hair dryer is turned on and heated to a high temperature (300-600 ° C). Good equipment should have sensors and temperature control;
- The edges are degreased for better adhesion. They are carried out with a hairdryer along the joint, without lingering in one place. It is necessary to solder smoothly along the entire length. The polymer should protrude somewhat beyond the seam. The cooled seam is cut along the entire length with an arcuate knife (the seam should be warm, but already set). It is more convenient to solder from the wall to the middle of the room, and also from the opposite side.
Advantages of the method:
- The seam has a long service life;
- Strong and reliable connection.
- Expensive equipment and consumables;
- Soldering requires skills in working with the equipment;
- The seam is quite noticeable;
- Not suitable for household linoleum.
You can also weld linoleum with a soldering iron or iron. Although this method is deprecated, it does occur occasionally. The soldering iron is convenient in small rooms with inconspicuous, few joints.
The essence of the technique is simple: the soldering iron is heated and the edges of the sheets are melted, they are connected to each other. The resulting seam is cut off if necessary. So that it does not stand out much against the general background, it is carried out with a roller along the fresh and soft seam, pressing, several times.
Plus - simplicity and availability.
- The joints do not look aesthetically pleasing;
- They are brittle and do not last long;
- Modern types of coatings do not melt well under the influence of a soldering iron.
Details on how to glue linoleum using hot welding can be found in the video below.
This is a modern technology that is ideal for those who have no experience in such work, but want to independently and efficiently process the joints at home. Adhesion of the edges by cold welding is carried out using a specialized glue.
This processing has a number of positive aspects:
- There is no need to hire professional workers and purchase special equipment;
- A fairly economical option that does not require large cash costs;
- The seams are neat and almost invisible.
- wide paper tape;
- knife (not clerical!);
- glue (cold welding).
Household welding is divided into three types - "A", "C" and "T":
- Type "A" is well suited for gluing new, only laid linoleum. The consistency of the glue is quite liquid, it allows you to even more reliably hide the seams and ensure a snug fit. It literally melts the edges and holds them tightly;
- Type "C" is focused on the old coating. Here the glue is much thicker, the consistency is similar to jelly. This determines its ability to fill large gaps. With its help, the old coating is repaired, cracks, such seams do not get dirty. Finished seams are about 4 mm wide;
- Type "T" is intended for polyester materials. Working with this composition requires knowledge and skills. It is highly toxic.
The glue comes in tubes and is sold in hardware stores. At the end of the bottle there is a needle-tip, which should be thin enough to penetrate deeply into the seam.
Before gluing the linoleum, you should spread it out and leave it to straighten for about a week. During this time, it will smooth out and adapt to the shape of the floor. After that, the excess parts are cut off and fixed along the plinth. The floor is pre-washed and, if necessary, primed. To make the seam even less noticeable, the sheets are overlapped one on top of the other. A cover without a pattern will need about 4 centimeters, and the presence of a pattern will require adjustment.
Cold overlap welding technique:
- The upper part is bent, the tape is glued in the middle and along the lower part. The same strip is attached to the top;
- A ruler is placed in the middle and cut along the line with a knife up to the floor;
- The trimmed parts are removed, so a tight connection is obtained, protected with tape;
- Now, in the middle, the place of the cut is filled with welding (the spout is immersed in half), the glue protrudes slightly;
- After 15 minutes, the composition dries, after which you can remove the tape.
Cold welding technique without overlapping:
- The edges are cut as smoothly as possible.If a drawing is present, then it is also adjusted;
- A wide paper tape is glued. It is needed to protect the material and highlight the bonding area. In the course of the seam, the scotch tape is cut;
- Guided by the tape, glue is applied to the seam. It is important not to let it fall on an unprotected surface. It is impossible to clean the coating from it;
- After 15 minutes, the tape is smoothly removed. After 2 hours, you can safely walk on the floor.
- The technique is intended for a new coating. When gluing the old one, all the points are observed, but the scotch tape can not be glued, since the linoleum has already "lay down" and does not need additional fixation.
Repairing Torn Linoleum:
- Cracks or defects are thoroughly cleaned and degreased, we glue adhesive tape;
- We cut through the gap, opening access only to the damaged area;
- Fill with glue (type "C") and wait for it to dry completely;
- Remove scotch tape and excess glue.
If damage has occurred on a fresh canvas, for example, when rearranging furniture, then we take glue type "A".
- Ease of use;
- Suitable for home use;
Here are some helpful tips from the pros:
- The nose of the tube with glue should go deeply inside the seam;
- The layer is applied along the entire length, protruding no more than 4 mm above it;
- It is convenient to quickly remove drops from the surface with a rag;
- The excess should be removed after complete drying so that the glue does not move away from the edges;
- It is better to hold the tube of glue with both hands;
- Glue is an aggressive chemical, therefore it is necessary to observe safety measures and work only with rubber gloves and a respirator;
- During operation, ventilation is required, after airing the room.
The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of using it on floorings with insulation or a soft base. The joints come out uneven and inaccurate, and the seam is visible to the naked eye and greatly spoils the appearance of the floor.
The easiest but unreliable way. This is because none, even the best adhesive tape, is designed for a long-term load and over time its adhesive capacity weakens. In order to glue it, only a flat floor without bumps is suitable. Based on this, it is better to prime the entire surface before work with a special strengthening soil.
In this way, linoleum will turn out to be glued only on a fabric basis.
- We put in order the areas under the proposed joint, ground, remove the debris;
- It is important that the edges are straight and fit tightly to each other without gaps, we adjust the drawing;
- We glue the adhesive tape to the floor. With one hand, carefully remove the protective tape, and with the other we firmly press the edges of the sheet;
- Upon completion of the work, it will not be superfluous to roll the joint well with a roller for better adhesion.
- Ease of execution;
- The connections are weak;
- The junction is noticeable.
The method is considered rather temporary, in the future it is necessary to glue the linoleum in other, more reliable ways.
The method is used when moving from one room to another (for example, between a corridor and a kitchen), fastening materials on top of linoleum allows you to close two pieces and close up the seams. Metal thresholds connect two materials of different structure. The range of sills is not too extensive, but you can find a suitable color option. This is a simple docking that does not require special knowledge and skills, which is why it is the most widespread.
- The purchased nut should already have ready-made holes for self-tapping screws. We measure the desired size (the bar is applied to the floor and the places of the holes are marked) and cut off;
- With an electric drill with a 6 mm drill, holes are made according to the marks made. Plastic dowels are inserted into them;
- Now we apply the finished bar and fix it with self-tapping screws in the marked places.
- Reliable sealing of joints and transitions;
- Reasonable price. The runners are sold in 2-3 meters, so 12 pieces will be enough.
- It will protrude over the floor and cannot be hidden by anything. Perhaps this fact will be very unpleasant for someone;
- Sometimes it is difficult to pick and match the color, especially if there is a complex pattern on the linoleum.
For details on this method, see the video below.
Of course, the most successful examples of welding are cold or hot.
They will reliably hold the two canvases together and keep them in this state for a long time. The choice of method depends on the type of linoleum itself, the purpose and configuration of the seam. However, it is better to refuse hot welding in a domestic environment. It is more expedient to use cold, which does not require special skills and knowledge, as well as special expensive equipment.
Perfect installation implies the absence of joints, but even if they could not be avoided, the joints can be made almost invisible and resistant to mechanical and chemical stress.