Over the past decade, private home ownership has gained massive popularity and has become almost a trend in the modern world. People are increasingly trying to get out of the stuffy walls of apartment buildings by purchasing real estate outside the city limits. Depending on financial capabilities, cottages are built from scratch, houses in the village are rebuilt or summer cottages are re-equipped so that you can comfortably winter in nature, away from the bustle of the city.
However, not all city dwellers, having decided to move to the bosom of nature, know the subtleties of village construction, which we inherited from our ancestors. One of these subtleties is the presence of a vestibule, or simply a canopy, in a private house. The very usual canopy, sung in the lyrics and country prose of Russian classics.
What is it and what is it for?
A tambour in modern construction is a buffer zone between the street and the entrance door to a residential building. As a rule, the vestibule is small, but large enough to regulate the air flow coming from the street. This is especially important during the cold season.
When you open the front door of the vestibule, the flow of cold air does not penetrate directly into the house.
That is why our ancestors built a canopy - cold air dissipates in the transit space, allowing you to keep the warmth of the main living space, and warm air from the house does not escape outside when the front door is opened, since the vestibule door is already closed by that time.
According to modern building standards, the doors of living rooms should be separated from the street by at least three doors, this will maintain the optimal temperature of the bedrooms and will reduce heating costs.
But not all builders and the owners themselves agree to heed these valuable advice: many believe that the vestibule takes away extra square meters from the living space of the house and it is better to make a double insulated door. However, a double door retains heat better only when closed, and when opened, it lets cold air into the house directly, since the doors are so close that they open at the same time.
In addition, the canopy also served as an unheated utility room where it was possible to store garden tools, canned supplies for the winter, and also had an entrance to other utility rooms adjacent to the house. Nowadays, the entrance to the garage or to the boiler room is often made from the vestibule.
Another significant advantage of the vestibule is that, if it is present, a significant proportion of street dirt and water is not brought directly into the house. In the vestibule, you can leave outer clothing, shake off the snow and moisture of the rain, change shoes.
Types of vestibules in a private house
According to the principle of purpose, the vestibule can be divided into several types:
tambour-canopy. Unheated space serving as a buffer zone between the living quarters and outbuildings. It is a thermal cushion in heating the house, and also eliminates the need to go outside to get into the garage or boiler room. It is desirable to have at least one small window in the vestibule
vestibule-hallway. A warm room that is a continuation of the house. Here, as a rule, there are wardrobes for outerwear, shoe cabinets, mirrors and shelves for them.Such a vestibule is a continuation, and in fact a full-fledged corridor of the house, therefore it is insulated, heating and lighting are carried out
vestibule-veranda. Most often, this is a room attached to the house, which has a large number of glazed windows
This bright room in the summer season is used as a veranda and a place to relax, and in the winter it serves as a thermal cushion and prevents the porch from frost if the staircase is built into the veranda itself.
According to building regulations dimensions a vestibule in a private house must have a minimum room depth of 1.2-1.5 mso that the front door of the house can open freely and at the same time not interfere with at least one person who is in the buffer zone. This is done to retain warm air, which, when the door is opened, will not immediately mix with the outside air. By the time the street door opens from the vestibule, the door to the house is already closed, and, accordingly, the heat is saved.
Doors from the house to the vestibule and from the vestibule to the street should open outward.
This is a requirement not only of construction standards, but also of safety regulations.
Device and location
Since the vestibule serves primarily to significantly save heating, you should consider the maximum efficiency of its location and design.
In multi-storey city buildings, the entrances themselves serve as vestibules, in some of the houses separate vestibules for several apartments are designed, which become an additional utility room. In the entrances themselves, double doors are often installed with a vestibule on the ground floor at the entrance, this is also done to keep warm in the entrance in the cold season.
By the type of building in a private house, the vestibule can be built-in, that is, it can be located in the contour of the foundation of the whole house, or it can be a separate extension. In the first case, you can simply select the vestibule by installing a partition, and in the second, it is built as an independent building, according to all the rules and nuances of construction, starting with laying the foundation.
The tambour can be a frame built-in structure made of an aluminum profile, sheathed with material or fully glazed from ceiling to floor with a PVC profile. In this case, the vestibule will be an air veranda.
The entrance, located on the north side, is best protected from the wind by a built-in vestibule. It can also serve as a convenient transition to the garage, protect the front door of the house from rain and gusts of wind.
It is not recommended to build a glazed vestibule-veranda on the south and south-west side, since the sun in the summer will turn the room into a steam room, and the opportunity to relax on the veranda will be reduced to zero, since the sun will shine into the south-west windows of the veranda until late in the evening …
In the attached vestibule there is often a porch structure, and, accordingly, a staircase leading to the house. This will exclude the icing of the dangerous area, and will also allow you to get keys, shake off clothes, close and open the doors of the house, being protected by the canopy and walls from snow, wind and rain.
As a rule, the vestibule is built from the same material as the house. However, this is not at all necessary: a vestibule attached to a brick house may well be made of wood materials on a stone foundation.
The vestibule door does not have to be done before entering the house. If it is possible to make a spacious entrance, then the entrance to them can be on the side of the house. This will further keep the heat cushion between the house and the street. The plan of a one-story house with a separate vestibule can be designed in such a way that you get a spacious glazed veranda that goes around the whole house or part of it.
The material for covering the floor, ceiling and walls of the vestibule is selected depending on the purpose and type of extension.If this is a vestibule-hallway built into the thermal circuit of the house, then the finish will fully correspond to the interior. In this case, it is necessary to insulate floors and walls, carry out heating, install windows with double-glazed windows or do without window openings at all in order to retain heat as much as possible.
The cold attached vestibule, which serves as a vestibule, can be trimmed with polycarbonate - it will protect from wind and rain, create an air cushion.
Arrangement of the interior of the vestibule
The internal arrangement of the vestibule depends on its secondary purpose. If you want to make the extension as functional as possible, it will not be difficult. If the dimensions allow, then even in a cold, unheated room, you can arrange furniture for garden tools, heaters and thermal curtain systems, as well as shelves for items that are used only in the warm season.
Despite the fact that the main function of the cold extension is to create a protective zone in front of the entrance door, which does not allow the door to freeze at low temperatures, it can also perform more diverse tasks. So, even not complete insulation of the extension can create an optimal microclimate for a gradual transition to frosty air. For example, if you are dressing a child or waiting for a family to gather, some of you will have to stand fully clothed.
In this case, the cool veranda will not allow the already dressed ones to overheat, while at the same time eliminating the need to wait in the frosty air.
The attached room does not provide for the sources of the main heating, since this is an unnecessary and not cost-effective consumption of resources. Insulation can be the materials with which the walls and floor are sheathed. In frame buildings, niches are provided for insulation inside the sheathing, and materials with heat-saving surfaces are suitable for brick extensions.
If possible, you can insulate a certain area of the floor with a heating cable laid in one of the corners. This place will serve as a shoe dryer in the autumn-winter period, and at the same time maintain a certain temperature throughout the room.
For information on how you can insulate the walls from the inside, see the next video.
Ideally, openings for windows are laid in the design of the vestibule. This helps to save energy - in the daytime you do not have to use artificial lighting. However, in a spacious insulated vestibule with large window openings, you will have to take care of high-quality glazing of the openings, otherwise warm air will not linger in the room. In the case of a vestibule-hallway with windows, built into the thermal circuit of the house, it is necessary to install double-glazed windows, as in all living rooms.
If the vestibule-veranda does not imply additional heating, then you can glaze the window openings with ordinary windows. This will solve the lighting problem and protect you from rain and wind.
If the extension room does not carry the function of storing valuable things, then the door can be the most ordinary one, with a simple lock. Its main function is protection from bad weather and atmospheric precipitation, as well as the aesthetic function of decorating the front entrance of the house. The front door to the house itself should be not only reliable protection from intruders, but also high-quality insulated, not allowing warm air to escape. Ideally, the space between two doors should read one and a half to two steps of an adult, so that one of the doors has time to be closed when the other is opened. Thus, both doors of the vestibule, with the correct distance from each other, will save energy costs.
Installation of the roof is assumed only in the projects of vestibules, which are an external extension to the main object.For the roof of the extension, a certain configuration is required for the slope of precipitation, as well as fastenings inside the room, that is, a sufficiently strong base and frame. Do not forget about the drainage system so that rain drops do not fall in a stream on the space in front of the door.
Heating systems are often installed between the roof slope and the ceiling, which are a thermal curtain of heated air streams.
The problem of lighting the vestibule is easily solved by window openings in the room, however, if the vestibule assumes a completely closed room, voluminous in size, then it is necessary to install artificial lighting sources so as not to stumble in the dark and be able to use wardrobes for clothes and household items. Depending on the size of the room and its purpose, as a rule, overhead lighting is carried out, not too high power, and, if necessary, additional sources near the mirror.
Interior design options
If you do not strive to maintain all the decoration of the house in a certain style, then most likely the vestibule will serve only as a practical zone for keeping warm, a transition to household buildings and a place for storing the necessary things. In this case, the design of the room can be absolutely anything, the main thing is that the materials are of high quality, durable, and cleaning the room does not cause trouble. The most economical option would be wall cladding with chipboard plates, which can be decorated with plastic panels from the inside.
If the vestibule-veranda serves as a summer kitchen or a resting place in the warm season, and glazed openings allow you to admire the beauty of nature, then the vestibule must be designed in accordance with the style chosen in advance.
A glazed vestibule in a two-story house can serve as a kind of showcase for a cottage, which can be decorated with bright garlands for the new year, and in the summertime you can relax on it in a rocking chair. From the vestibule of the first floor, a staircase can lead to the same glazed balcony, which is a continuation of the glass veranda.
If the house is wooden and sustained in one of the country style directions, then the vestibule, reminiscent of a village cellar, will become a beautiful addition to the general style of the house: summer preparations, dry herbs, elements of rustic antique utensils on the shelves will create the necessary atmosphere at the very entrance to the house.
See below for more details.