When buying an apartment, whether it be one-room or five-room, it is important to take into account a number of factors, among which the main one is the layout. The degree of convenience, the arrangement of furniture, comfort, stylistic possibilities depend on it. To understand how to make the right choice, it is worth understanding the intricacies of the layout itself and the design prospects that it reveals in each case.
Today on the housing market you can find the following types of apartments:
Each variety obeys the interests of its time and has its own characteristics, which are determined by the footage, functionality, and the number of household members.
This variety is inherent in the time period from 1954 to 1961. These apartments are rare today, they are found in 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-storey brick houses, which were the first built according to standard designs. Most often they represent a layout with a total footage of 32 to 50 sq. m for one-room apartments and from 80 to 110 sq. m - for four-room layouts. The characteristic features of such dwellings are the ceiling height, amounting to 3 m, the presence of a balcony and built-in wardrobes. The bathroom can be separate or combined.
These apartments were built in the period from 1958 to 1967. Houses of 4 and 5 floors without an elevator consisted mainly of panels, bricks, later they began to be made from blocks. In fact, they are small-sized apartments with an inconvenient layout. The ceiling height is from 2.5 to 2.7 m, the bathroom in such apartments is combined, the internal walls have low sound insulation. The total area of a one-room apartment of this type does not exceed 33 sq. m. A small space is allocated to the kitchen, in which it is difficult to place more than a table and a chair.
These apartments replaced the Khrushchevs in 1968: they were built until 1975 in five-story panel houses, including block rooms and options for small families. Isolated rooms appeared in them with windows looking at different sides of the building, which were a rarity in Khrushchevs. In the hallways of apartments of this type, space is provided for a built-in hallway. Combined units are the norm exclusively for one-room apartments. At the same time, the layout of the rooms resembles the cramped Khrushchev, but the walls in them are made of reinforced concrete, which at one time made it possible to accelerate the construction to the detriment of the apartments: they became cold.
These apartments first appeared in 1968: they were built until 2005 in 5-, 9-, 12-storey panel, brick houses. Unlike their predecessors, they have a comfortable layout, they are characterized by the presence of bay windows, artistic decoration. They are apartments for 1 - 4 rooms with a separate bathroom, ceiling height - 2.5 - 2.8 m, a spacious kitchen, a loggia, built-in wardrobes and storage rooms. Windows in such apartments are often located on two sides.
These apartments appeared in 1977, such houses were built until 2006. They are characterized by panel, block, brick houses of 9, 12, 16 floors. The standard ceiling height of such apartments does not exceed 2.5 m, their standard series are distinguished by an isolated layout of rooms, which can be 1, 2, 3, 4. The peculiarity of such apartments is a separate bathroom., the presence of a loggia with a depth of 1.4 - 1.5 m, built-in wardrobes and mezzanines. Room windows can face different sides of the house.
Apartments built in 1996 are considered to be modern. Their construction is carried out on a large scale, which depends on the regions and the premium class of housing. Classic options are designed for 1, 2, 3, 4 rooms, they are distinguished by the large space of each of the rooms (residential and non-residential). The ceiling height in such apartments is usually 2.8 m, although in early buildings it did not exceed 2.5 m. The bathroom is spacious and separate; with an individual approach to construction, it can be made combined, making one large toilet room.
In addition to standard and typical solutions, which include the "small family", non-standard approaches to planning are especially popular today. These include varieties with a free, circular, angular, Czech, European layout, as well as "butterfly" and "vest". Unlike the old layouts, they do not have the atmosphere of gravity inherent in small-sized layouts. They can be one-, two-, three-, four- and five-room, at the same time comfortable.
The original layout is a studio apartment. It is open: all rooms, with the exception of the bathroom, are combined together. This creates space, the arrangement is subject to the zoning technique, where each piece of space has its own purpose.
Duplex apartments are premium plan varieties: these are luxury apartments with two floors connected by stairs. They often have ledges, columns, partitions, visually giving the space a division into functional zones. The design of a two-level apartment has no boundaries: it can be decorated in a classic, modern, vintage or ethnic style, bringing together rooms with similar wall, floor and furniture finishes. In other cases, the stylistics may be different, although abrupt transitions of temperament are unacceptable.
Features of the
Despite the fact that all layouts are different, differ in footage and perspective, they are individual. Even the old "Khrushchev" or "Stalin" buildings can now be given a cozy look, thanks to which the apartment will become visually more hospitable and comfortable. Each type of layout, including linear, is subject to the rules of the established regulations, which prohibit the demolition of load-bearing walls, the placement of "wet" zones with the risk of leakage in places where the neighbors have living rooms below. Each apartment has a diagram with the location of rooms, their footage, design features, and an indication of the cadastral number.
Features of the layout are ledges, niches, built-in racks, podiums that change the height of the ceiling, and columns. Other nuances of the premises include a beveled perspective: it is not uncommon to notice beveled walls when entering an apartment, giving the space a triangular shape. This is extremely inconvenient and prevents the arrangement of furniture, gives the room the feeling of entering a tunnel. The same can be said about narrow corridors and tiny hallways: they often lead to similarly narrow rooms located perpendicularly, which cannot be ignored when arranging a home.
Sometimes the technology is not followed during construction, so you can see the obvious curvature of the walls: they can be skewed in height, differ in width and length of two opposite ones. The disadvantages include the floors, which, starting from the entrance door, are poured at different levels. By leveling them, the ceiling height is often reduced visually. In other dwellings, a bevel of the floor is noticeable from the front door: it resembles a slide.
A problem that spoils the appearance of rooms is narrow doorways, arches and doors, which are also inconvenient for the opening side. This design visually makes any room look like a cage with limited space. Especially in this case, people with excess weight suffer: the minimum width of doorways can be 70 cm. Often the height of the arches, which visually makes the ceiling squat, becomes the cause of internal imbalance.
All the features of each particular apartment, indicated in the diagram or visual, require an attentive approach to a harmonious arrangement. It is important to create an atmosphere of home comfort so that household members do not feel the stress associated with an incorrect and ill-conceived layout. It is important to turn the disadvantages of rooms into their advantages, especially if they cannot be demolished. Today, the basis of any layout is space: this is what needs to be demonstrated through design. Consider the pros and cons of layouts.
Advantages and disadvantages
The main thing to start from when drawing up a stylish design project is the footage of the available space. Consider the size of each room.
Depends on this:
- choice of stylistics direction;
- shades of finishing materials;
- arrangement of furniture;
- finishing materials.
Today the construction market offers to the attention of buyers building materials for repairs for every taste and budget. Whatever the space, even the smallest, everyone can make it outwardly attractive, cozy and comfortable. And today, to carry out these works, there is no need to contact construction teams, which often do not perform repairs at a professional level. Everything can be done independently, and at a professional level.
Depending on the specific type of apartment, the advantages of a modern layout include the presence of:
- central lighting devices, which is convenient for the main light of each room;
- windows, thanks to which light enters the rooms;
- radiators, which allows to ensure the proper level of heat in each room of the apartment;
- bathroom and water supply;
- sockets for a stationary stove, which allows you to place a stove for cooking food in an apartment;
- an entrance door that can be made extremely reliable and durable;
- space for the hallway, which allows you to take off outerwear and shoes directly at the front door;
- bay window, which allows you to favorably emphasize the features of the space, giving it an unobtrusive organization;
- niches, which allows you to design rooms with a visual increase in the available space.
Disadvantages that are visually impossible to beat are skewed and broken perspective. Moreover, it is the first one that sets strict design restrictions; with a broken perspective, it is easier to find a way out, starting from the existing layout scheme and design project. To do this, it is not necessary to contact experienced designers: one project can cost a round sum (up to 300,000 rubles). It is more expedient to buy building materials with this money, and the main ideas should be borrowed from professionals, using their basic techniques.
The principles of harmony
Often, at first glance, it becomes clear what needs to be done in a given apartment, taking into account its layout. It usually becomes immediately clear whether it is worth buying or not. The choice is made based on the amount of work, the area, not forgetting about the number of rooms and residents, their gender and age. There are several design rules that allow you to give an apartment a luxurious appearance and a cozy atmosphere.
Whatever the footage of each room, you need to recreate the lighting level in it as close as possible to natural daylight. Having often visited rooms with small window openings located on the north side, natural light hits the eyes.
This means that you need to create the right level: a lack of light makes the room uncomfortable and is the cause of a depressive state. It is replenished through compositional lighting: you need to use a ceiling lamp, wall sconces, lamps, floor varieties.
Where it is not possible to place massive lighting, it is worth resorting to the reception of stylists, placing LED spotlights around the perimeter of the room. Since they differ in the direct direction of the light flux and cannot illuminate every corner of space, they must be used in several pieces, directing the lamps so that the light does not hit the eyes, but at the same time provides the proper level of light. You can fix them on the ceiling, walls, furniture. Each such light bulb differs in power and temperature of the luminous flux, which is expressed in Kelvin with the designation of the degree of heat. Choose warm light: yellow will create tension in the room, cold will develop depression.
With regard to the number of lamps and their design, it is worth starting from the size of a particular room. If the ceiling in it is high, there is enough space, you can equip a suspended structure from several rows on the ceiling, decorated with a mass of shades or candles and crystal decor. If the ceiling is low, it is better to use a surface model instead of a chandelier on suspensions or chains. It will not hide the height of the ceiling, it will look harmonious against the background of furniture and additional lighting, which should differ from the main lamp in the size and simplicity of the decor (sconces, floor lamps should not interrupt the beauty of central lighting, although they can be performed in a single style).
Consider the rule: the smaller the room space, the simpler the lighting design and the smaller its size.
In apartments with a lack of space (for example, "stalinkas", "brezhnevkas", "Khrushchevkas") There are two ways to solve the change in layout flaws:
- global renovation with the demolition of internal walls;
- visual change of space.
The first method involves combining two adjacent rooms. This allows you to give the space of the apartment spaciousness, to save it from the disadvantages and limitations of the layout. Alignment can be complete when the wall is removed completely, or partial. In the second case, the width of the doorway is increased, or they are performed by two, leaving part of the vertical plane as a kind of partition for dividing the space.
This design move allows you to add light to the rooms: the combined rooms will have two windows, so more daylight will enter them. Often this approach involves increasing window openings.
A visual change in the existing space is carried out on the basis of a zoning technique, which provides for the division of the existing space into separate functional zones. It would seem that this is dangerous for small rooms, but no: this is what saves rooms with an unsuccessful layout from inconvenience. Special zones are created on the walls, which unobtrusively indicate the purpose of the equipped area.
The visual work to increase the space of the room is as follows:
- the walls are pasted over with light wallpaper or sheathed with a light finish, taking into account the environmental friendliness, practicality, ease of maintenance of the material used;
- to give space, textured materials with a small embossed pattern are used: this way you can add light to the room and visually erase the boundaries;
- doorways and doors are decorated with light-colored materials;
- you can combine cladding materials with each other.
Among the materials worthy of consideration as wall cladding, it is worth highlighting:
- wallpaper and photo printing;
- Wall panels;
- decorative plaster;
- stucco molding;
- brick and stone.
Each type of raw material used is selected strictly taking into account the conceived style and the available footage: for example, you cannot sheathe a room with a minimum of space with wall panels, this hides valuable centimeters of the area allotted for the arrangement. But if there is space and a rectangular column, you can use brickwork or a mirror sheet, decorative plaster or even concrete to finish this design feature, which is especially appropriate in a creative style. The pattern of wall decoration also matters: if the room is large, it can be large, although excess size is unacceptable: a giant print will begin to put pressure on households at a subconscious level, causing an opinion about its own helplessness.
The smaller the room, the lighter the walls should be and the more modest their design.
Floor covering is one of the key components of the harmonious design of any apartment. It is selected according to specific characteristics, practicality, reliability, durability and the ability to maintain resistance to high humidity, which is typical for most apartments.
Among the variety of floor coverings presented for sale, materials in particular demand are:
- parquet board;
- linoleum tiles;
- self-leveling floor;
- porcelain stoneware.
Each type of floor is selected individually, taking into account the specifics of the existing base. If you wish, it will not be difficult to make any of them: today manufacturers produce floor finishes, thinking in advance about the ease of installation. For example, the convenience of linoleum when laying in small rooms is that it does not need to be glued to the surface of the base. Special crosses are provided for the tiles, so the seams will be even and identical in width.
The cork floor is notable for being easy to install and creating pleasant tactile sensations when touched (warm and slightly springy).
Some types of flooring have the advantage of being compatible with each other. So you can zone the space of rooms, using materials of different degrees of abrasion in different places, the permeability of which is different. For example, in the hallway, a combination of parquet and linoleum, tiles and linoleum is appropriate.
In the kitchen, you can combine porcelain stoneware and laminate, in the living room you can accentuate the floor with a self-leveling epoxy floor, combining it with a plain surface and a print.
Style and design
The style of any apartment depends on your own preferences, the degree of illumination of the apartment, and financial capabilities. Of course, making a colorful design, mixing several stylistic directions in one apartment is undesirable, and even more so in one room. When arranging it, it is necessary to combine space, functionality, aesthetics and remove all unnecessary things from the interior. At the same time, the amount of decor used in the form of figurines, massive lamps, sinks, vases, paintings depends directly on the existing style and footage of a particular room. In other words, the larger it is, the more accessories, although their number is often moderate, otherwise they will lose their expressiveness and significance.
If the footage of the apartment allows, it is performed in a classical style, implying classics, neoclassicism, Italian style and classicism. The directions are characterized by solemnity and elements of palace paraphernalia. This is an abundance of gilding in the decor of furniture, lighting fixtures, mirror frames, wallpaper, decorative accessories. Furniture for the arrangement is selected massive, mainly made of natural wood. Carpets are desirable to provide a homely atmosphere.
The ceiling can be multi-level, finished with decorative plaster or plaster stucco with gold edging around the perimeter.
To learn how to re-plan a two-room apartment in a classic style, see the next video.
This style is one of the most popular when arranging a small apartment. Its principles are functionality, obedience to geometric shapes and the absence of everything superfluous. This is embodied in a set of furniture parts and accessories: often they are not at all. The style is given by the accuracy of the composition, its simplicity, laconic lines and finishing materials used. The priority is cabinet furniture with a flat type of surface, dividing the space into separate functional zones with lighting for each of them. In this style, some elements of other design ideas (for example, Scandinavian, Japanese, industrial style) can be traced.
This direction is characterized by aesthetic sensuality. This is luxury combined with spaciousness and smooth lines of interior details. Ceilings can be decorated with plaster stucco, wood, caissons and moldings. Unlike the classical trend, Art Nouveau focuses on modernity, it does not immerse household members in the atmosphere of the past. Furniture in this style should be compact, at the same time beautiful, with a fancy shape. Wood, which is one of the foundations of the style, can be present in the form of wall panels, stairs with carved lace.
Forging, the use of stained-glass windows, the use of light shades of the color palette are appropriate here.
This style, in addition to spaciousness, demonstrates the latest technological advances. Everything obeys this principle: furniture should be made from modern raw materials, including synthetics, reinforced glass and stainless steel. Of course, the use of solid wood for the floor is not excluded, but it is better if laminate or tiles (with a heating system) are used as the flooring. One of the characteristic features of the style is the metal type of surfaces, which can be located in any detail, be it lamp decor, wallpaper, porcelain stoneware or furniture frame. A variety of abstract lamps, clothespin lamps and floor lamps with chrome legs are welcome.
Loft and grunge
These directions can be recognized immediately: they resemble an abandoned industrial facility, adapted for living quarters. Their calling card is the use of brickwork.
The direction is characterized by a deliberate demonstration of communications, multilevel ceiling, the presence of beams or their imitations. Both directions have an open plan, they are characterized by panoramic windows, an abundance of light and the presence of expensive branded furniture. In modern interiors, the layout for dividing functional zones includes the presence of partitions that are not characteristic of these styles. The difference between the two directions lies in the attitude towards design: the arrangement of the loft should resemble separate corners adapted for life. Grunge is more comfortable: it often has a fireplace area, windows may have curtains.
A kind of cult of practicality and functionality. There is a place for furniture made of metal, glass and plastic, while leather and natural wood are undesirable. For the floor, use laminate, linoleum or tiles. Any furniture used must be ergonomic, durable and affordable. The priority is built-in wardrobes, armchairs without armrests, convertible tables and sofas.
The style does not tolerate an abundance of decor: it is considered a relic of the past, notes of the bourgeoisie. Everything in it should be strictly to the point, while performed in neutral colors. The ceiling should stand out through layering and color contrast.
An original vintage direction that welcomes all kinds of hand-made and antique furniture in style. The highlight of the style is the presence of a false fireplace, which helps to create an atmosphere of home comfort. Furniture of this design should be rare: these are old dressers, armchairs and beds with an aged surface type. The interior is distinguished by an abundance of light, which is achieved through the light colors of the decoration and the furniture itself. For the floor, use parquet, tile or laminate in light wood shades. Furniture is often decorated with covers or capes with bows and frills, as well as decorative pillows with floral prints. Hanging crystal chandeliers are placed on the ceilings.
Whatever the design, it must match the temperament. If in a bachelor's apartment you can decorate the wall with paintings with beautiful female figures, then in the house where the family lives, such decor will be inappropriate. At the same time, it is unacceptable to move zones to other rooms: if a separate room is allocated for the nursery, there can be no drawings of children's themes on the wallpaper in the living room. So the space is deprived of clear organization and harmony. For the convenience of the arrangement, you can use specially designed programs that will help you complete the layout in 3D. Their interface is quite simple, the catalog is thought out to the smallest detail, so that the interior will look realistic.
Any of the equipped rooms should have its own set of furniture, leaving space for freedom of movement after placement. For example, in a small-sized living room with a minimum of free space, it is worth putting transformer furniture: a compact folding sofa, a similar armchair and a coffee (side-down) table. In a room with a footage of more than 20 squares, you can arrange upholstered modular furniture by choosing a larger number of modules for the convenience of placing each household. There is a place for everyone in a 5-room apartment, so you can not huddle, but assign each room its own purpose, not forgetting about the study and home library.
Which one to choose?
Having analyzed the main types of apartments and the features of their layout, the question of choice usually arises, which is often perplexing. Old houses are worthy of consideration as a purchase only if their area allows to provide all future households with space, while the house is in fair condition. It is unlikely that someone will like to live in a "Khrushchev" with a lack of ceiling height and room area of such an apartment: everyone wants to buy a cozy option in which to live safely, and there is enough space.
If the question remains open, there are a few tips to take note of:
- start from financial possibilities: it makes no sense to pay monthly for extra square meters;
- the family needs space and a separate corner for everyone, otherwise the atmosphere in the apartment will be heavy;
- look at the height of the ceiling: if it is low, it will seem that there is no air in the apartment;
- choose the footage taking into account convenience: options in which a small kitchen and living room are unacceptable (it is difficult for family members to fit in them);
- choose an apartment without sloping walls and a broken perspective: incomprehensible protrusions will interfere with repairs;
- do not choose the option with small windows facing the north side: an increase in window openings does not always give the desired result (they may skew);
- the same applies to doors: their width and location should not impede freedom of movement;
- give preference to options with isolated rooms: they are more convenient and more complete.
The dimensions of each apartment are individual and depend on the number of rooms in the total area, for example:
- Living room "stalinka" the average is 16 sq. m, the bedroom and the nursery account for at least 9 m (for each room), 7 squares are allocated for the kitchen;
- "Khrushchevka" more compact: from 14 sq. m, the average bedroom is 6-7 sq. m, a nursery - from 6 squares, the kitchen is sometimes very tiny - 4.5 square meters. m;
- Hall "Brezhnevka" has a minimum footage of 15 sq. m, the bedroom and the nursery are more spacious than the "Khrushchev": they are allocated from 8 squares, leaving 6 - 7 square meters in the kitchen. m;
- In a standard apartment everything is compact, but acceptable: the living room should be from 15 sq. m, bedroom - at least 12 sq. m, nursery - from 10, kitchen - at least 7 sq. m;
- These are approximately the dimensions apartments with improved layout: at least 16 squares are allocated for the living room, at least 12 squares are allocated for the bedroom, 10 for the nursery, and for the kitchen between 6.5 and 10 square meters. m;
- Modern apartments in terms of footage, they are similar to varieties with an improved layout: they have an identical area for a living room and a bedroom, while the nursery can be more compact (9 square meters), and the kitchen is larger (on average 9 square meters).
These data are approximate. In each case, the footage may vary. For example, a typical "stalinka" with two rooms can have dimensions from 44 to 66 square meters, a "Khrushchev" for two rooms - 30 - 46 square meters. m, "Brezhnevka" 38 - 53 sq. m, standard and improved - up to 56 square meters, modern - up to 107 square meters. m. Of course, the area is 40 and 60 sq. m. m is different. A big difference poses some barriers in the arrangement (which is possible with space, it is unacceptable with a lack of footage). In a small apartment (for example, 33 - 35 sq. M), every centimeter of usable area matters.
Interesting examples and best options
To clearly see what a harmonious and functional layout of an apartment in an apartment building can be, taking into account the style, you can refer to the design examples of the presented photo gallery.
An example of the free arrangement of all the necessary functional areas: the lack of light in the dining area can be compensated for by means of separate ceiling lighting.
The option of compact placement of a bathroom and a kitchen, simplifying communication due to the neighborhood, while the planning center is not mastered and creates a visual effect of spaciousness.
A rational example of a compact arrangement of furnishings with a narrow corridor and a compact kitchen: the living room and bedroom are spacious, in the kitchen the lack of space is made up by the bar counter.
An unusual layout of an apartment with a bay window: the disadvantage is a narrow corridor, the zoning of the living room with a dining area is quite successful, a place for the working area is reserved for the bay window.
An original way of planning a square apartment with a balcony: a welcoming guest room with a dining area, large windows, a cozy bedroom, a kitchen and a compact bathroom.
Reception of the rational use of space, taking into account the constructive protrusions of the walls: the original placement of the bar counter instead of the dining table.