Garage doors are an expensive design, so many car owners strive to make and install gates on their own. The technology of assembling garage doors on your own is not as complicated as it seems, and if you strictly follow the instructions, the “house” for the car will gain reliable protection.
The process of building a garage door structure begins with the design and drawing up of detailed diagrams and drawings. This does not require special skills. Take paper, ruler, pencil, measure all dimensions. First determine the width. It should be equal to the width of the car body, but have an additional tolerance on both sides of at least 30 cm. To make the measurement more accurate, it is better to take it at several points, and then stop at the arithmetic mean. Then measure the height. This is easier, since the garage, as a rule, is built for a specific car, so the required parameter is already available.
Now you can create a drawing while thinking through all the structural elements in parallel.
The swing gate scheme is the simplest:
- draw two rectangles, indicate their dimensions;
- if you want to have sashes of different sizes, indicate this in the drawing.
Drawings for other types of gates are made similarly, but it must be remembered that lifting and sliding types have only one section. Here you need to be careful when determining the stiffeners. When drawing a sectional door, the number of sections is taken into account.
Types of structures
There are several types of garage doors.
Their main element is a sash that moves parallel to the garage wall.
Among the main advantages of these gates are:
- reliability of work;
- service life;
- saving space;
- relatively low price.
The main disadvantage is that such sliding gates can be mounted only in garages with a wide facade. Its width should be at least such that the sliding sash can fit entirely on it. Such gates can be made and installed by yourself. The leaves are made in almost the same way as the leaves of conventional swing gates. The difference lies in the installation: guides and rollers are used instead of hinges.
The door leaf consists of separate segments, which, when lifted, are refracted and go under the ceiling covering. They are based on a lever-spring device and guides with a chain drive. Making sectional doors at home is almost impossible.
Their advantages include:
- multifunctionality. There are gates for low and high openings in various widths;
- high heat and noise insulation characteristics;
- ease of use;
- saving space in front of the garage.
Disadvantages - relatively low burglar resistance and high cost.
This is a design in which the sash, when opened, rises under the ceiling covering. Lifting is carried out by means of a hinge-link mechanism. The design of overhead gates is rather complicated. To make them yourself, you need to have good engineering experience and special knowledge. A novice craftsman can try to assemble a ready-made factory-assembled gate himself.
The main advantages are increased burglary resistance and space saving. The disadvantage is the increased requirements for the space under the ceiling.
If there is not enough space, then the swing gate will not work.
Automatic roller shutters (roller shutters or shutters)
This design is rare. It has not received widespread use due to its unreliability. Such gates consist of aluminum strips that slide into a box under the ceiling. Roller shutters can be installed in guarded objects and in heated garages.
This design includes several separate canvases, connected to each other by a dense flexible material (rubber, synthetic fabric). They fold up when opened. When closed, the canvas stretches, completely closing the opening.
The most unpretentious system that does not require the use of expensive materials and time-consuming installation. The box for it is made of a metal corner, the sash is made of iron sheets. The operation of the gate is simple, but the reliability indicator is extremely high.
The advantages of the system are as follows:
- maximum design simplicity;
- function without electricity;
- low price;
The main disadvantage is the need for free space in front of the garage for opening the doors. This causes some discomfort in winter: in order to open the gate, you must first clear the space in front of it from snow.
Since swing gates are quite simple to manufacture, it is better for novice craftsmen to opt for them.
As mentioned above, the manufacture of swing gates is simpler and less costly than the manufacture of other types of structures, therefore it is the technology of their creation that is worth considering. Self-production of swing gates does not require hard-to-reach and expensive equipment. The materials can also be purchased at any building mall.
Before starting work, you need to stock up:
- metal corners for the manufacture of the supporting frame;
- steel profiles;
- shaped pipe;
cladding material at your discretion:
- wood paneling;
- metal sheet or sheathing made of corrugated board.
- steel strip or reinforcing bar;
First of all, you need to figure out the height and width of the future entrance structure. The smallest value of the width should be such that the distance on both sides from the car to the gate frame is 30 cm or more. The minimum width is 5 m, but the generally accepted door width ranges from 2.5 to 3 m. This size guarantees comfortable access to the garage. When determining the width of the gate, take into account the distance between the frame and the perpendicularly located wall. It should be at least 80 cm.
The height of the structure is calculated according to the size of the vehicle. An opening of 2.5 m is required for a minibus. An ordinary car needs 2-2.2 m.
To avoid inconsistencies with the garage plan, experienced experts recommend creating sketches of the gate during the design of the room.
Tools and accessories
Along with the materials, you need to take care to have accessories and tools on hand, such as:
- angle grinder (grinder) with a set of grinding and cutting discs;
- welding unit;
- locksmith's square, tape measure;
- construction level, hydro level;
How to make and install correctly?
Assemble the box (frame) with your own hands. It consists of two structures in the shape of a rectangle, which will be further connected to each other. On the outer side of the box, hinges are welded to install the sashes, the inner one holds the gate in the opening. They are made from the 65th corner.
Cut 8 pieces of the corner corresponding in size to the height and width of the gate (4 pieces of each size). Lay out the corners on a flat surface, assemble the frames. By measuring the angles and diagonals, achieve perfect proportionality of the elements to the opening of the garage wall. Weld parts of the structures.
Insert the finished rectangular elements into the opening, adjust to the installation site. Weld the inner and outer elements together with crossbars made of reinforcement or metal strip, breaking the height and width of the gate into equal segments.
When using reinforcement, you can make holes in the wall, and then drive pieces of a reinforcing bar of the required size into them, fixing them by welding on the frame. Typically, the connecting pieces are welded over the edges of the opening.
Assembly and installation of sashes
Guided by the drawings, measure and cut the elements from a 40x40 mm equal angle corner, place them on a flat plane. Assemble the base of future sashes and doors (wickets). Align by measuring the diagonals and corners of all rectangular frames and weld. Cut two pieces out of the sheet. They should be 40 mm longer than the length of the garage opening, but cut different canvases across the width. One should be 20 mm less than the frame width, the second - 20 mm more.
Weld the canvases with the frame, while making sure that the canvases protrude 2 cm beyond the frame along the perimeter. A similar protrusion should be on the wicket. This is done in order to close the gaps between the box and the frame. This design will prevent excess moisture and drafts from entering through the gaps. When welding the sheets, do not make a continuous seam. Better to do a dotted line weld using the 1x5 principle.
The final stage is the welding of the hinges. The lower segment of the hinge with the pin is fixed by welding to the frame, and the upper segment to the gate leaf. For reliability, you can strengthen the fixation of the hinges by means of metal plates. In the place where the hinge is fixed to the box, an iron bar can be installed to increase the welded area. Place the gate leaf in the place indicated in the drawing. Make sure that this position allows you to easily open the gate. Mark the location of the second segment of the lower loop. Weld it along the markings, aligning exactly vertically.
Without loading the lower hinge, hang the sash. Mark the location of the upper hinge on the door and frame, remove the flap. Weld the hinge segments according to the markings, hang the gate leaf, test its movement. If it opens freely and remains in the given position, then you can start mounting the second part. This process is similar to the one already given.
After mounting in one of the leaves, install the wicket, proceeding in the same sequence as for the doors themselves. Install handles, hooks, locks, latches after complete installation of the sashes.
In a heated garage, it is advisable to sheathe, insulate and seal the gates. Also, don't forget to grease the hinges.
Installation of other door models
Roller shutter and folding models presuppose the use of ready-made devices for opening and closing, therefore, they are mainly purchased in a ready-to-install form, and also made to order, having created a circuit in advance. In such situations, you can only assemble and put the door frame with your own hand, then hang the canvas, guided by the attached description.
A box is not required to mount a sliding gate. The independent creation of such gates is reduced to the assembly of one large canvas. To do this, you can apply a procedure similar to that used when assembling a curtain with a wicket. For the installation of such structures, guides are placed above and below the opening, along which the canvas will move in the future. All equipment is purchased ready-made.
Installation is limited only to the assembly of parts according to the instructions.
For each of their types of gates, their own recommendations are appropriate.
The "sore spot" of such gates is the hinges. High load provokes rod breakage, hinge displacement, longitudinal deformation and other malfunctions. Systematic lubrication of the hinges will help to delay the occurrence of such breakdowns. The second problem is sagging. It may appear due to the lack of cross members and deformation of the structure frame. In this situation, aligning the sashes or replacing them, as well as installing spacers, will help.
They have many small moving parts, so bearings, rollers and hinges should be lubricated at least once a year. At times it is worth controlling how evenly the gate moves when opening and closing.
To increase the service life of a sectional door, you need:
- Remove accumulated dust systematically using warm water and a dirt remover.
- Avoid contact with aggressive chemical compounds.
Compared to other models, they do not need special maintenance or care. Sometimes they need to be washed in order to maintain a respectable appearance. You can paint them yourself. You can also apply an anti-corrosion compound to them.
Successful examples and options
Exterior finishing of garage doors can be minimal. The structure is simple in form, smooth metal, monochrome gray color - everything should be in moderation, strictly, constructively. This option cannot be called faded, since such a solution is in perfect harmony with brick walls of any thickness.
Here is a combination of like-minded colors. The pink brick is "diluted" with a dense red square of moderate intensity. The shiny surface looks very attractive, it only evokes positive feelings.
In this sample, the surface texture, its evenness and neat longitudinal gray stripes attract attention. Notice also the gates covered with rectangles. The decorators obviously preferred the effect of maximum naturalness. The elegant yellowish color scheme is organically combined with the white uprights. It fully matches the color of the walls and roof.
The authors of this project tried to show the contrast between white and black colors. They completely and completely managed to carry out their plans: the style unity is emphasized by the same type of construction material.
Such a stylization "under a tree" is also possible. Dark rectangles with diagonal fibers are favorably set off by lighter stripes located on the borders. The dark elements of the anchorage subtly blend into the even darker frame of the building. Pinkish vertical elements are slightly visible at the edge.
For do-it-yourself lifting gates, see the following video.