Tiles are one of the most popular finishing materials. It is found in almost every home. It can be laid both on the floor and on the walls, which speaks of its versatility. Moreover, this finishing material is used in the design of a wide variety of rooms, from the bathroom to the living room. Today we will talk about how to glue tiles on walls in a home.
Features and Benefits
Tile is a widespread and demanded finishing material, as it has excellent characteristics.
First of all, you should pay attention to the rigidity and reliability of this wall and floor covering. High-quality tiles will serve for many years without causing any trouble to the owners of the home. As a rule, it is not so easy to damage this material, which once again confirms the durability and wear resistance of tile products.
Modern tiles are easy to maintain. This is one of the good reasons why many consumers choose it. If dirt or dust appears on the surface of this material, then it will not be difficult to get rid of them. It will be enough to wipe the desired area with a damp cloth and detergent.
The tile is a non-capricious finishing material, since it easily withstands both temperature changes and increased dampness in the room. Thanks to these characteristics, such coatings can be safely installed in bathrooms, toilets, kitchens, dining rooms, swimming pools and even saunas. The increased humidity of these areas will not affect the tiles in any way.
Of course, a lot depends on how the tiles were laid on the base of the walls. If all stages of the work were carried out correctly, then the material will last a long time and will not cause problems. But if you neglected some of the tiling steps or used low-quality materials, then the finish may not last so long.
Due to improper installation, such a coating can move away from the walls and even fall off.
It should be noted the beautiful appearance of modern tile materials. They are produced not only in plain colors, but also with imitation of other attractive coatings. For example, it can be a tile that repeats the pattern of a tree. Also in stores, spectacular coatings with drawings, patterns and beautiful prints are often found. They are often used in the decoration of bedrooms and living rooms. Such original design solutions are often used by experienced designers. So, with the help of suitable tiles, you can form an accent wall that will emphasize a particular style of interior.
It is quite possible to do the laying of tiles on the wall on your own, without contacting specialists. You can save money and gain experience in finishing work. However, in order for the tiled covering to reliably adhere to the floors, it is necessary to follow simple instructions and use the appropriate materials. Let's talk about this in more detail.
Types of tiles
There are several types of tiles that can be used for wall decoration in a particular room. Each of them has its own characteristic features, pros and cons.
Tile is one of the most common types of tile materials. As a rule, it has a glazed surface. Today, tiles are available in a wide range. Each owner will be able to find a suitable color option for himself.
As for the positive aspects of this finishing material, then they can be safely attributed to high wear resistance and durability. Tiles are often used not only for wall decoration, but also for floor decoration, as it can easily withstand heavy loads.
The pluses of tiles include:
- no fear of dampness and moisture, so it can be safely laid in rooms such as a bathroom, toilet or kitchen;
- resistance to aggressive chemicals;
- the tile does not suffer from temperature changes;
- does not lose the brightness of colors and positive properties under the influence of aggressive sunlight.
Most consumers note that high-quality tiles retain their original appearance for many years. It does not fade or dull.
There are no serious drawbacks to this finishing material, but you should pay attention to its coldness. As a rule, it is always cool in rooms with such decoration.
Ceramic tiles are made from clay, quartz sand and special components that are necessary to sufficiently reduce the sintering temperature value. Also, in such tiled coatings, special additives are often found, making their structure stronger and more durable.
Ceramics can be:
Glazed versions are single or double fired.
In the design of walls and facades of buildings, it is permissible to use special clinker tiles. This is a tile material made of ceramics, which is subjected to a single firing during the production process. In the composition of such coatings there is a special clay with the addition of coloring agents and fluxes. In order for the material to acquire the required shape, a common method of pressing or extrusion is used.
Such tiles are fired in a special tunnel kiln at a temperature of about 1200 degrees Celsius. Thanks to this firing method, the material gains increased strength and a pleasant smooth surface.
The main advantages of modern clinker tiles are:
- increased resistance to abrasion;
- reliability and long service life;
- no fear of chemicals and ultraviolet rays;
- ability to absorb water;
- unpretentiousness in care, rather easy surface cleaning.
Experts say that working with this material is very simple. But still, clinker tiles have their weaknesses. For example, it does not have the lowest price, especially when compared to simple tiles.
There are several types of clinker tiles:
- Technical clinker. This material is used for paving roads and sidewalks. Also, technical coatings are used in flooring in public buildings.
- Waterproof clinker. It is often used to decorate hydraulic structures.
- Facing. A similar tile covering is used to decorate various components of buildings. These can be walls, stairs or floors.
This finishing material appeared on the market not so long ago, but has already gained immense popularity among consumers. It is a variety of well-known ceramic tiles, but it has a higher strength and wear resistance.
Porcelain stoneware boasts not only excellent performance characteristics, but also an effective design. It is its surface that best conveys various imitations. For example, fashionable decorative coatings for brick, stone or wood are especially popular today. Provided that it is laid correctly, porcelain stoneware exactly repeats the structure of other materials and is not immediately recognizable.
Ceramic granite is recognized as an environmentally friendly and absolutely harmless material.
It is created from:
- kaolin clay;
- quartz sand;
- metal oxides;
- coloring elements.
Modern porcelain stoneware tiles can withstand significant loads. At the same time, it is rather difficult to damage it. That is why this material is chosen by many consumers.
If you prefer more original design solutions, then mosaic tiles are what you need. It is distinguished by unsurpassed external performance, which can radically change the image of the interior and give it a zest.
A distinctive characteristic of the mosaic is that it does not need to be laid on the base in the form of many separate elements. Often, such coatings are combined into a single canvas or an original panel. For walls, this finish is a great option.
Mosaic tiles have a number of positive qualities, for which many consumers choose them:
- These coatings are characterized by their durability and wear resistance.
- They are not afraid of high humidity.
- The mosaic is not afraid of temperature jumps.
- It is possible to customize the mosaic canvas with your own hands to the desired size.
A relatively "young" finishing material is PVC tiles. It is possible to replace the standard design with tiles.
Original vinyl tiles have a structure consisting of several layers, which include PVC and polymer. In addition, PVC materials are composed of quartz chips. Thanks to this component, the material is stronger and harder.
PVC tiles are available in several varieties:
- With a lock connection. Such tiles are connected to each other using special spikes and grooves present in their design. It is necessary to lay such materials on a pre-prepared crate. At the same time, there is always a gap for ventilation between the cladding and the ceiling. According to home craftsmen, the installation of these elements is not the easiest and fastest.
- With glue attachment. Glue is applied with a spatula to the back of such parts and is evenly distributed over their surface. Then the tiles are pressed tightly against the prepared walls and rolled with a rubber roller to get rid of the air. If excess adhesive appears on the finish, then they should be removed with a clerical knife.
- Self-adhesive. It is necessary to carefully remove the paper layer of protection from the bottom, after which the tiles must be firmly pressed to the surface of the bases.
Such thoughtful finishing materials have many positive characteristics:
- They are represented by a large assortment. PVC tiles can have almost any color and print.
- This material is moisture resistant.
- It is durable enough.
- It fits easily and quickly.
- It is cheaper than ceramics, which attracts consumers.
- It has good soundproofing characteristics.
- Undemanding to care for.
As for the weaknesses of PVC materials, the following nuances can be attributed to them:
- This finishing material can hardly be called environmentally friendly, since it is synthetic.
- PVC tiles do not last long (up to 10 years).
- Such coatings can be damaged by contact with solvents.
Beautiful glass tiles are often used in the decoration of both residential and public spaces. Glass perfectly combines with many materials in the interior, which speaks of its versatility.
It is recommended to refer to such a tile when decorating a small room., as it visually expands the space. These mirror materials look very expensive and fancy. In stores, you can find glass tiles with matte, multi-colored or patterned surfaces.
If you want to create an interesting ensemble and make the environment more voluminous, then glass tiles are quite suitable for this. You can choose materials in black and white colors. The checkerboard laying of tiles will visually change the layout of the room.
Many consumers opt for these finishes, as they have a beautiful design and do not require complex maintenance. Dust and dirt can be easily and quickly removed from the surface of such materials without resorting to aggressive chemical compounds. But if they are still needed, then you do not have to worry that the finish will suffer, since the glass tiles will not suffer from contact with chemicals.
Glass tiles can be safely installed in the bathroom, toilet and hall. In all cases, this finishing material will refresh the interior and make it more aesthetic.
Such a beautiful tile is available with different parameters. It can be not only standard square or rectangular options, but also long stripes. The latter elements can be easily combined with ceramic matt and glossy finishes.
If you want to bring something truly unique and fashionable to the interior, then you should take a closer look at the beautiful glass mosaic. As a rule, it consists of small sparkling tiles. Such details look especially impressive in environments with white, beige, blues, reds and blues.
These finishing materials have the same advantages as conventional tile options, but are more fragile. They should be handled and handled very carefully so as not to damage them.
How to glue?
Wall tiles must be glued using the following materials:
- Adhesive solution. You can stir it yourself by taking sand and cement, or you can purchase a ready-made mixture that does not need to be prepared for finishing work. Use a spatula to apply the adhesive.
- Priming. A primer is necessary to ensure the best adhesion of the materials. In addition, it protects the walls from contact with dampness and moisture, which have a detrimental effect on any substrates (even if they are made of durable concrete).
- Putty. It is recommended to lay the tiles on perfectly flat floors. To get rid of significant differences in the surface, it is worth using a starter putty. Most often, you can do without the finishing layer and immediately proceed to laying the tile material.
- Crosses. These small pieces are needed to fix the distance between the individual tiles. As a rule, they are made of plastic. With this mixture, you can fill in the voids left in the joints. In addition, the grout perfectly masks minor defects and gives the surface a more aesthetic and neat look.
- Silicone sealant. It is necessary for high-quality and reliable insulation of joints. Thanks to the sealant, the joints between the tiles are protected from moisture penetration. In addition, curbs and skirting boards are glued with this tool.
- Antiseptic. This is a special liquid that is needed for the treatment of walls and joints between tiles. It prevents the development of mold and mildew.
You can start laying wall tiles only after high-quality preparation of the bases. To achieve good adhesion of the tile adhesive, it is better to plaster the walls in advance with a cement-sand composition. This will also require beacons - it is much more convenient to work with them.
It is not necessary to grout when applying the plaster. The main thing is to achieve a perfectly flat and neat base surface. There should be not the slightest defects on it.
Aligning the walls
If the walls in the room are curved and have significant differences, then they can be leveled with plywood or ordinary drywall. This material is inexpensive and durable. It is not subject to decay. Of course, if we are talking about finishing in the bathroom or in the kitchen, then it is worth buying waterproof sheets of drywall, which tolerate such conditions without problems.
Plasterboard is installed on a metal frame, pre-made from a high-quality profile.
Ceramic tiles should not be laid on the plaster surface immediately, especially when it comes to decorating a bathroom. First, a special fiberglass mesh is attached to the leveling sheets. It is recommended to do this with a construction stapler. After that, you need to putty the base with high-quality tile glue and let the composition dry thoroughly.
- If the room where you plan to lay the tiles has neat walls (without irregularities), but there is a layer of acrylic-based paint on them, then it will need to be cleaned.
- If the floors were previously covered with lime, then they should be primed before gluing the tiles.
- If the walls were finished with a water-based emulsion, then you need to walk on them several times with a wet rag. After complete drying, the overlap must be primed.
- Old wallpaper must also be removed from the floor surface.
After leveling the walls, you need to level the floor as well. To do this, use a cement-sand screed and beacons.
Before gluing the tile material, it is necessary to mark the bases.
To do this, you may need the following tools:
- Level. Better to use the bubble option.
- Rule made of aluminum with a length of 200-250 cm.
- Special breaker thread.
- Steel dowels.
- Plank with smooth edges.
The markup is done as follows:
- On the screed parallel to the wall, you need to lay the rule (on the edge). Then a level is placed on it.
- In the course of this work, the highest point on the screed is revealed.
- Moving from this point, on the adjacent overlap, you need to make a mark with a pencil. It will be zero.
- After that, just above the first mark, having made an indent of 10 mm, one more line needs to be set on the wall. Thus, there is a margin for the adhesive layer and the thickness of the tile itself.
How to glue with your own hands?
If the preparation of the walls and their marking were done correctly, then you should not have any problems with laying the tiles.
Consider the process of gluing such a finish in stages:
- It is recommended to lay the tiles on the walls in sections so that the adhesive does not freeze and dry in the bucket. In addition, in this way it will be much more convenient to align the skewed rows.
- If the tiles are of different sizes, then the adjustment should be made by reducing or increasing the joints between them.
- To keep the tile joints even, small plastic crosses should be used. They need to be inserted in the corners of the tiles.
- If you are gluing tiles in the bathroom, then to align the rows in height, you need to lay plastic wedges (under the first row).
- You need to glue the tiles with mixtures with a cement base or mastic.
- The mastic is applied to the floor or to the tiles themselves. The layer should be thin and level with a notched trowel.
- If the glue on the wall begins to dry, then it is better to clean it off and apply a fresh layer, otherwise the tile will not hold reliably.
- The tile must be pressed against the floor surface, but it is not worth pressing too hard. After that, you need to check the masonry using a level. This is to make sure that the newly glued tile is exactly in relation to adjacent elements.
- To make sure the rows are even, use a long level.
- Never leave voids on the base. To do this, it is worth tapping the surface with a rubber mallet to notice the characteristic sound.
- Glue protruding from the seams must be removed immediately.
A day after laying the tiles, it is necessary to grout the joints. Experts advise buying a high quality ready-made mixture for this.
If you purchased a dry grout, then it must be diluted in accordance with the instructions on the package. After that, the composition must be applied to the seams with a rubber spatula.
After 30 minutes, when the grout begins to harden, it should be sanded by removing excess elements with a damp sponge. If a white coating remains on the tile, then it can be removed with water or felt.
To seal the joints between the bathroom and the wall, you need to use a silicone sealant.
In the kitchen, tiles are installed in a similar way. Before starting work, it is also necessary to get rid of irregularities and defects in the walls. It should be borne in mind that the tiles in the kitchen are laid with an apron where the stove and sink are installed.
In these areas, high humidity is always kept, therefore it is necessary to buy a moisture-resistant finishing material, then provide it with proper care.
If your house has wooden walls, then the tiles can be laid out on them, but for this you should use a special epoxy-based adhesive or silicone glue.
In this case, you also need:
- Prepare the surface for the installation of tiles.
- Attach reinforced mesh.
- Apply a layer of plaster to it and wait until it is completely dry.
- Then the tiles are glued.
- When the masonry is dry, you need to grout the joints.
The tiles can be laid out on the foam block. For this you need:
- Apply the previously prepared glue to the substrate. To do this, you should use a spatula with teeth.
- Place the first tile against the wall and press down firmly.
- Next, you need to check the correct fixation of the material using a level. Keep in mind that you are given no more than 15 minutes to level the finish.
- The rest of the tiles should be laid out in the same way. Do not forget to place plastic crosses between the elements.
- After a day, the crosses are removed and grouting is performed.
Grouting and cleaning
At the end of finishing work, grout the tile joints.
To do this, you can use the following tools:
- Fugu (suture filler).
- Special rubber trowel.
- Stationery knife.
First, you need to remove plastic crosses from all seams. Then all inter-tile gaps must be cleaned from the adhesive to a depth of about 5 mm. A sharp blade of a small utility knife is best for this.
After thorough cleaning of the tile joints, pour 0.5-0.8 liters of warm water into a medium-sized container. Then you need to add dry grout to it (if you purchased such, and not the finished version). After that, you need to mix the composition to get a homogeneous mixture.
When you have thoroughly mixed the grout and it is ready to work, you need to take a rubber trowel and fill the areas between the tiles with it. After that, you need to wait 30-60 minutes (average drying time). Then the finished surface must be wiped with a sponge well moistened with water. Next, the overlap is re-processed with a piece of rags.
So that you do not have problems associated with finishing the floors in the room, it is worth using exclusively high-quality and durable materials (and mixtures) from well-known brands. Poor quality tiles will not stick securely to the wall base and will simply fall off over time.
In all cases, remove the old finish from the walls before gluing the tiles. Not the slightest pieces of wallpaper or paint should be left on the substrate, since these elements will prevent sufficient adhesion of the materials.
Do not use large quantities of glue. This can lead to the fact that over time, the tile will begin to move away from the base, and then completely fall off. However, the glue solution should not be too small. This can also lead to unreliable retention of tiles on the walls.
If you notice that the tile has moved away from the base, then do not be alarmed. The parts that have fallen off should be returned to their old place. To do this, you need to clean the free surface and cover it with glue. Place the tiles on the prepared area and remove excess adhesive (if any).
When choosing wall tiles, keep in mind that too many seams can lead to the penetration of moisture and moisture into the finishing material. Over time, mold and mildew can develop in these areas, as well as an unpleasant odor of dampness. It can be very difficult to get rid of such defects. That is why experts recommend giving preference to larger tiles, between which there will be fewer seams.
For information on how to lay tiles on the wall yourself, see the video below.