In the case of purchasing a car, it is logical to think about a home for him. That is, about the garage. Typically, the requirements for this structure are as follows: reliability, strength, safety. As far as possible and aesthetics. Especially if the garage is part of the house and its appearance should harmoniously fit into the surroundings of the building, as well as the adjacent territory.
Gates are primarily responsible for safety in the garage, most often these are lifting structures, less often swinging ones.
Lifting gates can be roller shutter, sectional and swing gates. All listed types are different both in design and in price.
Lift-and-turn - the most budget-friendly design, at the same time extremely practical and reliable … Perhaps they can be called even the most durable and reliable garage doors.
When opening, the leaf of the sash takes a horizontal position and goes up to the ceiling. The mechanism is driven by springs, rollers and guides. The latter determine the position of the gate, transferring them from the horizontal to the vertical plane and back.
Thanks to the balancing system - the gate shield is stable when hanging. Because of it, the canvas can be easily moved even by hand if there is no electricity. The automation of the movement depends on the electromechanical drive.
Choosing this type of structure, it is important to understand the principle of its operation, regardless of whether it is planned to install it yourself or purchase a ready-made structure
- The gate consists of a frame, leaf and guides. The steel frame is the main part of the mechanism as it moves. It is made from pipes that have a rectangular cross section.
- Opening the sashes simultaneously drives the roller mechanism and the lifting arms. Due to this, the shield begins to move depending on how the guides are located. Further, the canvas is fixed at the top parallel to the ceiling, as if by a visor.
- The springs are in a free position when the gate is open. When closed, the springs are stretched.
- The drive can be installed both on the ceiling and on the headroom.
Types of lifting and turning structures
The main types of design of overhead gates, otherwise they are called sliding with a turn of 90 degrees, are:
- on counterweights.
Hinged design - more common, nothing hinders the movement of the shield, and the springs need to be carefully adjusted.
With counterweights - a cable is attached to the frame, and a counterweight is attached to the winch on the opposite side. This type is suitable for massive gates. Most often they are installed in industrial plants and in fire boxes.
In addition to the listed devices, there is an author's version - on 4 levers. It was developed in Ukraine. This model is prefabricated, you can assemble it yourself. This is the so-called Z-system.
Doors with a chain are, most often, sectional. In the up-and-over design, the chain is used to lift the door mechanically.
It has its advantages:
- The mechanism is assembled on a lute frame, thanks to which the gate is easy to transport unassembled.
- The model does not use guides, therefore, their installation is not necessary. The rollers and bearings are also not involved.
- Can be used not only in the garage, but also outdoors.
- Installation of the drive is possible.
- Inexpensive construction.
- The actuator uses special springs as well as gas springs.
- Sheathing the sheet with sheet metal gives a burglar-resistant structure.
Preparatory work before installation
It is better to install this type of gate as overhead gate with the help of specialists, since installation requires a large amount of materials, consumables, fasteners, and in addition, you need to purchase an automatic drive.
But no matter what decision is made, before starting work, you need to measure and calculate the dimensions of the canvas, calculate the materialswhich you will need for installation. You also need to buy and deliver all this to the installation site.
Of course, you cannot do without a drawing of the future gate, which should show such important elements as:
- both guides are vertical and horizontal;
- brackets for attaching both guides and springs with a hinge.
To calculate how much and what materials will be needed, it is important to know such parameters as:
- opening height;
- its width;
- lintel height;
- shoulder width.
These figures are enough for an approximate calculation. The number of consumables is calculated after the main materials have been calculated, based on their quantity.
The opening and walls are located strictly in the same plane. To achieve this, the walls and ceiling inside the garage are plastered.
After that, a steel corner is fixed to each outer corner. Then you can proceed directly to the installation.
Materials for up-and-over doors
The best materials for the shutters are materials such as:
- sandwich panel;
- board made of boards upholstered with tin;
- monolithic construction.
When choosing a gate, it is important to think over what kind of appearance the canvas will have.
This part of the structure will always be in sight and the aesthetic component depends on it. There is no need to think that only a large investment of funds can give the canvas an attractive appearance, although, of course, the most effective options are costly.
Speaking of aesthetics, it should also be noted that here the owners' imagination for the decor of the door leaf truly knows no bounds. This could be:
- false wall, in color, absolutely merging with the wall of the house - the doors become visible only at the moment they are opened;
- cassette design with glazing elements;
- corrugations made of steel - vertical, horizontal, lateral or their various combinations;
- corrugations made of wood - with the same options and preserving the texture of the material, impregnated with antiseptics from decay and mold;
- steel with finishing, for example, "under a tree";
- film coating, stylized as a woody texture;
- frieze overlay or a fishbone pattern;
- aluminum models with stainless steel elements;
- bezels and much more.
The color palette is no less varied. Any color is possible.
Advantages and disadvantages of the lift-and-turn design
The design of this type of gate has the following advantages:
- The canvas is solid, when closed, it is a solid wall. Also, very often it has a built-in locking system, which further increases the resistance to burglary. In addition, the use of such a type of decor as a "false" wall makes the gate almost invisible from the street, which also makes it difficult to break into the garage.
- If all installation and installation requirements are met, the doors are practically immune to rust and other negative environmental factors. In addition, many facing materials contain impregnation against rot, mold and other phenomena harmful to the coating.
- Tightness. The closed gates are tightly pressed against the door frame due to their design.
- Possibility to install plastic rollers, which will ensure silent operation of the gate, as well as additional springs, which will make the opening and closing process safe.
- No extra space needed to open the gate. When they are closed, they are a continuation of the wall; when they are open, they are parallel to the ceiling.
- Cladding with any material is possible, decor in any way - from glazing to false panels.
- You can open it either manually or automatically, most often using a remote control. Accordingly, the gate can be either with a mechanical drive or with an automatic one.
A combination of both is most commonly used.
- Excellent insulation due to the tightness of the structure, it is also possible to install additional thermal insulation.
- Can be installed in a garage for one or two cars.
- And, of course, do not forget about the simplicity and ease of use.
Swing gates also have disadvantages, such as:
- Quite a high price. The design consists of an electromechanical drive, an insulated canvas, a stainless steel frame, so it is not cheap. And if such facing materials as, for example, solid wood or cassette design are used, the price increases even more.
- Difficult installation, it is best to do this with the involvement of specialists, at least for consultation, especially if you plan to use expensive materials.
- It is recommended to install this type of door in rooms without heating.
- A large number of materials and consumables required for installation.
Installation is possible only in rectangular openings.
- When the door is open, the opening height decreases by approximately 20 cm, which can be important if the car is planned to be placed high in the garage.
- If a part of the door leaf is damaged, the entire leaf will have to be changed completely; partial replacement is not possible.
- When carrying out thermal insulation work, it is necessary to take into account how much the insulation weighs, since the spring mechanism of the gate is designed for a certain weight of the gate.
If the weight of the sash with insulation increases greatly, counterweights will have to be installed.
- This will have to be taken into account when decorating the gate. The total weight of the blade and frame must not exceed the permissible spring load.
- When opening the gate, the machine must stand at a distance of at least 1.5 m from the garage to avoid damage to the vehicle. If there are snowdrifts in front of the gate, opening the gate can become problematic.
For an overview of overhead gates, see the following video.