Porcelain stoneware slabs are a popular cladding material with a high level of strength. Accordingly, making any holes in products or cutting tiles is not an easy task. Special devices and work methods are required to carry out these procedures.
The hardness and high strength of porcelain stoneware is provided by the raw materials from which it is made and the production method itself. First, granite chips are mixed with clay, then the mixture is pressed under high pressure and fired. As a result, the slab is not afraid of overloads, has a high density and is not subject to deformation. However, despite its high strength, when machined, the material is fragile, which creates difficulties during drilling and requires a delicate approach to business.
Taking into account the qualities of the material, it is often used for finishing the floor in industrial plants and premises, where there is always a large crowd of people. In everyday life, porcelain stoneware is used for facing stairs and swimming pools, creating facades and fences, as well as for installing communication systems.
Features of the
High density is an undoubted advantage of the material, but at the same time it requires high strength from the working tool. To lay a cord or fix parts, the slab is drilled. Small holes are made with diamond-tipped lance drills, while wider holes require diamond or tungsten carbide bits. In this case, we will focus on diamond core bits.
The crown consists of a rod and a cup, along the edge of the cup there are diamond crystals. Diamond grit is applied by electroplating, which implies a denser concentration of diamond segments. The advantage of this coating method is its low cost.
The crowns have the following functional feature - they are able to reduce the face pressure at the time of drilling, which will protect the material from damage and speed up the entire course of work. However, their working life is extremely small, and therefore, with one crown, a plate of about 8 mm can be drilled no more than 5, or even 4 times. They are used to create a socket, switches and plumbing pipes.
How to choose?
Crowns are used to create localized holes in very hard materials such as porcelain stoneware. Diamond, being a mineral, is an extremely strong and metastable material, which ensures constant sharpness of the blades and does not require regular sharpening. When working with porcelain stoneware, such a tool is indispensable.
As noted earlier, visually, the crown looks like a rod or drill on which a cup is mounted. The lower part, which is a metal rod, is attached to a drill or hammer drill. The upper part - cutting - consists of a diamond coated edge. It can be notched or completely solid. In addition to the electroplating method of application, there is also a vacuum-diffuse sintering method, in which the crumb is, as it were, welded to the edge.
When choosing a diamond core bit, they rely on the following features:
- diameter - on the construction market, you can find crowns of various diameters, starting from 10-19 mm and ending with 33-83, 100 mm;
- the distance from one segment to another and their size;
- the presence of special through-cutouts for cooling;
- metal thickness - thin walls provide more accurate drilling, but at the same time, tool life is significantly reduced.
Also, crowns can differ in the presence or absence of a special drill with a double-sided cutting part and a wide end. If it is not there, then when drilling it is better to use the fixation using a stationary machine or a holder that will fix the electric drill. If there is a drill, no special fixation is required. However, if a drill is available, mark the work area with a wooden template or slightly tilt the center drill before starting.
The drilling process can be carried out with or without cooling. Diamond plating allows you to drill dry without adding water. At the same time, the vibration level increases and the tool can heat up to 450 degrees, which requires an extremely careful attitude to the equipment.
For more information on the types of diamond core bits, see the next video.
Of all the companies selling crowns and other materials, the most two companies are popular and widespread:
Anchor. Crowns can be purchased individually or immediately as a whole set. The set consists of 9 diamonds; you will need a drill of the same brand to work with them. The spraying method is electroplated. Good wet drilling segments provide excellent water supply to the cutting area. There are also segments for dry drilling in the crowns. The set includes crowns with a diameter of 25, 29, 38, 44, 70 and 73 mm. In addition, crowns of this brand can be 68, 35, 32, 54, 20, 57 and 83 mm in diameter. The price of such a set ranges from 1,500 to 2,500 thousand rubles
Bison… These porcelain stoneware drill bits are designed for wet drilling. The set includes diameters from 19 to 65 mm. Electric drills and stationary drilling machines are suitable for work, so water cooling is imperative. The products have a centering drill. However, bits for dry drilling can also be purchased by the piece; there is a wide range of diameters. The price is slightly higher due to the case made of carbon and high-quality steel - from 3000 thousand rubles
In order not to damage the stove and save the working tool itself, you need to follow several rules:
- You can only drill from the front side.
- To preserve the working life, the craftsmen drill a hole only 2/3 of the thickness. The remaining bottom is simply knocked out with a metal rod or a sharp blow from a hammer. In this case, the front side will turn out to be almost perfect, and the seamy part with chips will not be visible.
A hard chipboard sheet or a wide wooden board should be placed under the porcelain stoneware slab.
- The drilling process itself does not depend on the crown and the device, but on the pressure of the worker, so you should not press hard on the tool in order to reduce the number of chips from the wrong side.
- It is worth remembering that not all drills are suitable for crowns. If an electric drill is used, then it must have a low speed function and the ability to smoothly start. If a perforator is used in the work, then it should have functions to turn off the percussion mechanism and reduce the rotation speed of the cartridge. You only need to drill at right angles. Chipping may occur if the tool is tilted. Both the slab and the crown are susceptible to damage.
When working with a drill, it is recommended to install it on a machine or a special holder, which will immobilize the tool, which will greatly simplify the task and reduce the scrap rate.
- During operation, the crown can rub against the material and become very hot. Then, microcracks form inside the material, which violate its strength and can lead to severe deformation. The cutting function is also impaired, and the crown quickly fails. Therefore, the drill must be cooled either with a constant pressure of water, or make a puddle around and from time to time add water to it.
- In order to choose the right diamond core bit for porcelain stoneware, it is necessary to assess the hardness of the material itself, the thickness of the slab and the diameter of the future hole. The larger the diameter of the crown, the more expensive it is, so it is better to make holes of the same size. This will help avoid the need for additional purchases. You can immediately purchase a set containing commonly used dimensions, an adapter and a wrench that fixes the centering drill.