The final stage of the renovation is finishing work. An important role in decorating a room is played by a competent selection of material, taking into account its properties and characteristics. A high level of interior decoration with hinged furniture and equipment, its reliable fixation is a guarantee of coziness and comfort in your home.
The most suitable building material for tiling the pool and dining area is ceramic tiles. The tile covering is a reliable and moisture-proof material. But on a strong and at the same time fragile tile, chips and cracks may appear if the holes are made with an ordinary drill for concrete, and not with a special tool.
The experience and advice of professionals, adherence to simple rules will help to avoid mistakes in repair and deformation of an expensive coating.
Ceramic tiles are the most popular material for interior decoration and building cladding, its small size makes it possible to perform work in the most difficult, textured and inaccessible places. The modern building materials market offers a huge selection of tiles. Before making the final decision on the choice of tiles, you need to know for what purposes and in what conditions it will be used, its properties and surface features.
The tiles are red and white clay, processed at high temperatures. Due to the different composition of the clay and the firing temperature, ceramics can be divided into types:
- by external features - glazed, with a heterogeneous surface, without processing, porous;
- according to the degree of heat treatment - with double and single firing;
- in size - wall and floor.
Important characteristics must also be taken into account:
- strength - affects the service life;
- durability - the ability to maintain decorative qualities, relevant for floor and sidewalk coverage;
- elasticity - the ability to bend during deformation and withstand significant loads;
- porosity - the ability to absorb moisture, resulting in less slipping in pools and bathrooms.
When choosing a material for cladding, you should pay attention to the undeniable advantages of tiles:
- a variety of colors, textures and shapes with a margin of safety and density;
- inert qualities of the material, resistant to chemicals;
- ecological safety of the composition.
The above features of the surface dictate the conditions for the implementation of work, under which the least probability of tile destruction is:
- at the stage of drilling, eliminate pressure on the ceramic surface;
- reducing the rotation of the drill and vibration of the electric drill (it is advisable not to use electrical mechanisms);
- lowering the temperature and moistening the metal surface of the tool will reduce the overheating of the drill, which will contribute to the high-quality implementation of the tasks;
- drilling from the back of the tile, on smooth and hard glazes, is often impossible.
Before you start choosing a drill, you need to choose the best working tool, meeting all the requirements:
- the presence of control of the speed of rotation of the drill;
- surface pressure control.
Several tool options are used depending on the hardness of the tile:
- perforator - electric shock machine for solid materials;
- hand drill - simple mechanism for drilling small holes;
- electric drill - a professional tool operating at low speed from a 220 Volt network, using a light feed;
- screwdriver - divided into battery and mains powered, used only at low speed no more than 900 rpm.
The most popular tool is a screwdriver, in second place is an electric drill with a speed controller.
The choice of mechanisms for work depends on several factors:
- hole size;
- scale of work;
- drilling before or after laying the ceramic.
To perform work on the improvement of the premises, it is necessary to opt for special professional drills for ceramics and plexiglass with increased strength. The principle of operation of such drills is completely different from tools for metal and wood, it is based on friction through abrasives. The use of another tool will lead to damage to the building material, irrational financial costs and will increase the duration of the cladding.
Drills can be classified into specific groups:
- drills for tiled surfaces - holes are drilled in the clay surface from 10 mm to 70 mm in size;
- feather (feather) drill - the appearance of the tip, similar to a feather, makes it possible not to use punching, the size of the depression can be up to 3 centimeters;
- diamond-coated bits - recommended by finishing specialists, have a high price and ideal performance, capable of making a deepening of up to 15 cm;
- drills with a head made of hard alloys (gear cutters) - a tool with one sharpened strip and a sharpened sharpening angle, drills up to 15 mm of the surface, has the ability to sharpen, suitable for smooth ceramics;
- lance-shaped victory drills - a low price and a limited period of use allows you to drill no more than 5 openings for dowels, the drilling process is carried out exclusively at low speeds with a deepening diameter of less than 1.5 cm;
- lance drills with diamond foil - reusable drills;
- ballerina - a special-purpose drill, consisting of a centering pen drill and a parallel cutter on the bracket, drilling for a socket is carried out with special solders on sharp metal parts.
For one-time use, you can choose an inexpensive victorious drill, sharpened on a diamond wheel. Performing the work accurately and carefully, using measures for stable cooling of the tool, the master has the opportunity to make several necessary holes.
Professional builders advise purchasing a set of drills for tiles, ceramics and glass measuring 3 mm, 6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm.
When selecting a drill, some characteristics must be taken into account:
- shank type - cylindrical (the most common) and with six edges (the most durable);
- diameter - defines the circumference of the recess;
- length - affects the size of the hole.
Getting started with tiles, you need to carefully study its characteristics and properties. Drilling should be carried out as accurately and carefully as possible, without violating the integrity of the coating, strictly observing the principles of drilling:
- hold the drill at an angle of 90 degrees to the surface;
- add momentum only when they have reached concrete;
- constantly cool the work surface;
- exclude overheating of ceramics and tools;
- choose the optimal pressure on the tool;
- turn off the reverse mode, perform smooth revolutions according to the movement of the clock hand;
- position the hole in the center of the seam (there is no protective layer at the edge and near the edge of the tile).
Making an opening for dowels to fix the toilet, you must comply with some requirements:
- drill the cladding only with a drill with a feather for tiles, and concrete with a percussion tool;
- the size of the recess in the tile must be larger than in concrete to maintain the integrity of the tile;
- Drive the fastener very carefully.
Making a circular hole
At the stage of installing the tiles or after laying them, circular holes of large diameters must be made to install the fittings for electrical appliances and switches in the planned places. There are several options for accomplishing the task:
- cut a hole with a grinder - outline a contour on a tile that is not fixed to the surface, smoothly cut with a diamond disk for dry cutting from a convenient edge, holding the tile;
- cut with a jigsaw - draw a line on the front side, slowly cut the required figure with the cutting thread of the tool;
- make a cut using a glass cutter and tongs - along the marked contour of the future hole, make a groove with a glass cutter (trying not to crush the tile), break off all unnecessary parts with tongs, sand the edges with fine-grain sandpaper;
- use special-purpose tools - drills with a cylindrical working part or ballerina drills.
The design of a ballerina is similar to a compass. The drill is fixed in the center of the circle to be cut, the cutting tool made of carbide inserts makes a circular indentation (size from 3 cm to 9 cm).
To obtain a high-quality and large opening with a large diameter, it is necessary to use bits with a diamond film or tungsten carbide sputtering. The high price of the tool will pay off by working with high quality indicators. Compliance with the instructions is an important step in the drilling process:
- it is unacceptable to exceed the speed of work above 500 rpm;
- mandatory lowering of the temperature of the metal surface with water;
- pasting the drilling site with masking tape;
- stationary drilling equipment is the key to effective performance of the assigned tasks, if there is no center drill in the set with the crown.
The readiness of the tile for drilling without the possible appearance of cracks is determined by light tapping on the surface. A dull and dense sound is a sign of a fearless start of work. Choosing the right drill bit is an important step in the finishing process. The size of the drill must exactly match the size of the planned opening. For the installation of dowels, drill bits for tiles, with diamond foil or victorious are suitable. Large depressions are made with crowns or ballerinas.
The biggest problem with tiling is the glazed layer, which has a high strength. Marking the place of drilling and fixing the drill can be done in the following ways:
- by punching - the deepening of the conical figure is performed with a fastener, by scratching a small point on the surface;
- gluing - fixation on the surface of the adhesive-coated film tape;
- marker label - applying a rough mark to the drilling site with a special felt-tip pen.
After installing the selected drill in the tool, be sure to turn off the hammer mode and move it to the drilling position. It is necessary to start work at low speeds, placing the drill perpendicular to the surface. This will help keep the drill in place. After deepening the tip into the ceramic, you can increase the speed. A high speed will reduce the time spent and speed up the process, but will lead to overheating of the surface. Cooling with water will not only lower the temperature, but also knock out the ceramic dust.
The work of the drill with a cutting element with a diamond sputtering segment is carried out at high speed. A rigid fixation of the instrument will help to avoid displacement and destruction of the veneer. The use of liquid will reduce the degree of temperature and the likelihood of damage to the instrument. The diamond film of the cutter makes it possible to drill dry ceramics at a low speed. Safety glasses are a prerequisite when working as a ballerina.
Having set the required diameter, start drilling at low speed, holding the tile. Hold the drill in one position, work accurately and with care.
To work on smooth glaze and to reduce slippage, follow these simple guidelines:
- make indentations in the center of the future hole with the sharpened side of the file;
- stick masking tape;
- apply a markup with a clerical knife for correction;
- turn off the percussion mode of the drill.
When working with unlayed tiles, experts have deduced a simple sequence of actions:
- soak the ceramics in water for at least 40 minutes;
- place the tile on a flat and smooth wooden or concrete base;
- having indicated the place of drilling, fix the tile with masking tape;
- carry out work according to the same rules as on the wall.
The secrets of professional craftsmen will help to facilitate drilling and improve the quality of work:
- drilling a hole near the edge will split the tile;
- at low drilling speeds, special drills can be replaced with drills for a metal surface;
- a wooden chopik will help reduce the size of the groove;
- an installed debris spatula at the drilling site will help to reduce cleaning time and reduce the level of contamination;
- to obtain a hole of a certain length, it is necessary to mark the desired distance with a marker on the drill, which will allow you to stop work at a certain moment;
- work only with a sharp drill, use a machine and an emery wheel for sharpening, and a diamond wheel and coolant for a victorious drill;
- it is forbidden to change the movement of rotation of the drill head;
- personal protective equipment for eyes, face and hands - safety and the ability to avoid the contact of fragments on the skin;
- trial work is carried out on unnecessary tile remnants;
- the resulting chips are cleaned with sandpaper and hidden under decorative rings.
Novice builders need to carefully study the experience of professionals, this will avoid mistakes and disappointment in the repair.
For information on how to properly drill ceramic tiles, see the next video.