The most common way to use ceramics in interior decoration, apart from dishes, is to cover various heating devices - fireplaces or stoves. In the era of centralized and gas heating of apartments and houses, the need for stoves for heating living quarters has decreased, but such alternative heating devices do not lose their relevance, being a colorful and useful item in the interior of living quarters.
Features of the
Variants when the stove in the room is not only an element of the general style of the home, but also serves for heating, suggest its competent decoration and cladding. However, not all tiles can be used for this purpose. The technological process of facing a stove or fireplace assumes that the material will meet certain requirements. Tiles for stoves and fireplaces are a special material, since the conditions of their use are directly related to the exposure of the product to high temperatures.
Basic material requirements:
- an attractive appearance is a prerequisite due to the fact that a heating device, be it a fireplace located in the center of the living room or a stove in the kitchen, are the main subject in the room, which sets the direction for the whole design idea;
- environmental friendliness, ensuring the safety of the operation of fireplaces and stoves, since when heated, harmful and toxic substances that a tile may contain will begin to evaporate;
- heat-resistant properties of the material, suggesting that it will be resistant to heat up to 1000 degrees. Manufacturers put special designations on the packaging - the letter "T" indicates that the products are intended for facing fireplaces, the presence of a number of numbers indicates the number of tile firing. The larger the number, the better;
- high rates of thermal conductivity and heat capacity are responsible for the ability to provide heating of the room;
- the level of thermal expansion of the product should be no more than 8%;
- good moisture resistance of the tile - the level of water absorption is 3%. Manufacturers designate this characteristic with the letter "E", next to which the corresponding percentage is prescribed;
- the thickness of the product must be at least 8 mm;
- resistance to burnout and temperature fluctuations;
- resistance to mechanical stress, which is ensured by the fine porosity of the material. This indicator is referred to as "PEI" with Roman numerals adjacent. The fewer pores a tile has, the stronger it is. For facing fireplaces, you must purchase material with the number IV or V.
The range of tiles that manufacturers now offer is very diverse, even with such high material requirements. The design and color are selected taking into account the general style in the room, the color scheme of the walls in the room.
The fireplace will take center stage and attract attention, which is why its decoration is always done in bright colors, very often adhering to ethnic trends in the design. For example, the traditional Russian stove has always occupied a central place in the house; it was called "Mother" and was decorated in accordance with traditions and functional features.
Furnace cladding has a number of specific functions:
- reducing the time required to heat the room;
- providing convenience in caring for the device - it is much easier to wash the tiles than, for example, a plastered surface;
- attractive decor;
- increase in heat transfer and heat capacity of the furnace;
- psychological aspect - according to most psychologists, the presence of a traditional stove in a house has a good effect on the general atmosphere in the home, as well as the mood of others.
Refractory tiles for facing stoves and fireplaces are very diverse. Most often, these types of ceramic tiles are used for such work:
- porcelain stoneware;
- fake diamond;
- natural marble.
Tiles (ceramic slabs) are very susceptible to strong temperature changes, despite the fact that the material has good heat resistance. Furnaces with such tiles are best used with small matte elements.
Ceramic tiles should not be used in rooms where the air temperature can be negative. The technology of laying this material involves the use of special heat-resistant glue or mastic. The tile has a zero water absorption rate, so the use of cement or clay mortars for facing work is impossible.
Sometimes the tiles are laid without adhesive - in metal frames.
The tiles are box-shaped with a relief or smooth surface covered with enamel. The specific structure of the tiles, due to which an air gap forms between the stove brick and the tile, increases the tile's ability to retain heat. Tiled tiles are produced and painted by hand, which is why they have a fairly high cost. This material is the most sustainable among the entire range of tiles. In addition, the tiles have good heat dissipation.
Heat-resistant tiles are fastened to steel wire installed in the seams of the masonry, or a ready-made stove is lined with it, but this process is very laborious. This variety is considered the most beautiful material for decorating heating devices.
Clinker tiles made by mixing a number of shale clays, chamotte powder and various dyes. The colors range from red to orange, yellow to brown, or white to beige. The surface of the product is not glazed. This stove tile is characterized by good frost resistance due to the density of the material. That is why it can be installed in rooms where there is a sharp drop in temperature.
However, this type of tile cannot be used for devices whose inner walls are stacked of oven bricks. This limitation is due to the large difference in the structure of both materials, as well as in terms of thermal expansion. Fireclay or acid-resistant stove tiles is an expensive material that is made by hand. Refractory clay and stone flour are the main components used in production.
The production technology of this finishing tile requires firing the material at a temperature of 1300 degrees. The high cost of tiles is justified by a number of its advantages:
- absolute fire resistance;
- does not crack and does not wear off;
- small level of sliding;
- resistant to static loads and extreme low and high temperatures;
- does not react with aggressive media.
It is produced in single or paired form and does not require additional surface insulation. Majolica is a tile made of fired clay with a decorative pattern and a glazed surface. Each element is made by hand, so the material is sold at a high cost. Majolica perfectly accumulates heat.
Terracotta tiles very often used for cladding. It is affordable, heat-resistant and fine-pored, imitating a natural stone finish. It is distinguished by a long service life, as well as a natural color characteristic of clay with a rough surface. Terracotta does not have a shiny surface; it is in great demand for decorating heating devices in Provence style private houses.
This variety is used for indoor and outdoor work. Often used in baths and saunas, both the oven itself and the walls near it are faced with it.
For facing the fireplace also buy porcelain stoneware tiles … The material is made from several types of clays - a mixture of quartz sand and marble or granite chips. In the role of dyes, metal salts and oxides work. The tile has a dense structure and excellent resistance to low and high temperatures. The surface of the material can be different, for example, matte, polished or embossed. This variety gives the finish to the showiness and naturalness.
Porcelain stoneware does not fade in the sun and perfectly imitates a natural stone finish, which is why it is very popular. The tiles are laid with hot melt glue. For stoves located in the yard, a frost-resistant glue composition is used. Porcelain stoneware does not differ in high heat capacity.
Another great option for finishing stoves and fireplaces is fake diamond … This material does not require a high level of professionalism and experience from the installer. The stone is of different sizes, so it perfectly hides all the unevenness of the stove. In the process of laying the stone, it is imperative to clean off the excess mortar from the back side.
Marble is a natural and very beautiful material for expensive interior decoration. In addition to its high cost, additional costs will be required for the services of a designer-decorator, as well as precise cutting of the material and the services of a master-stacker.
Where is it used?
Refractory tiles for fireplaces and stoves are used primarily as a decorative element for the surfaces of heating devices. With tiles, these objects can be transformed into real works of art, giving a stove or fireplace an individual style, or decorating according to specific cultural traditions. An excellent example is the Russian stove, which is still used in homes for its intended purpose or as a bright element of room decor.
The tile is not used for finishing the space around the stove, working and internal surfaces.
All types of refractory tiles must have a quality certificate. Only with supporting documentation can we say that the material will meet the declared characteristics.
Finishing and decorating the facades of the stove is a long tradition that has not lost its relevance today, when fireplaces and stoves in houses most often perform only a decorative function. The fireplace is a symbol of the family hearth, which will decorate and complement the interior of the living room or kitchen, and facing the device with ceramic tiles will make it possible to harmoniously fit it into the overall style of the room.
To implement these ideas, manufacturers offer a variety of tiles, products that imitate natural materials, as well as exclusive options for finishing. For example, tiles of blue and white color in the Gzhel style will become a bright decorative element that will emphasize individuality and complement the style of the room. Gzhel fits perfectly into both English and Russian interior design.
Small home fireplaces are very often faced with patterned tiles, but large-sized stoves, which are entirely covered with author's painting or handmade tiles, can be seen much less often, since the pleasure is not cheap. An excellent option for cladding large heating devices is a combination of finishing materials, for example, painted tiles and beige tiles.
Alternating tiles or creating a specific image allows you to create an original decor on the surface of a fireplace or stove.
The uniqueness of the tiles has always attracted attention, because even a small-sized multi-colored or embossed panel will give a unique appearance to the device. Many designers use glazed tiles with small cracks applied to them, which gives the effect of antiquity.
Bright embossed inserts on the sides of the stove, strict horizontal or vertical stripes made with tiles, give freedom to realize the most daring fantasies.
Before buying a tile, you need to decide on the type of oven on which it will be laid. There are many designs of these devices, and each has its own characteristics regarding the specifics of the materials used in the process of its manufacture, shape and other equally important parameters. A very important indicator that allows you to classify furnaces is their degree of heating. It can be high, medium and low.
Craftsmen specializing in surface finishing of such heating devices give several recommendations regarding the correct choice of furnace material for cladding:
- There should be no geometric defects on the tiles. To check this, you need to compare the samples with each other;
- The thickness of the product should be 6-8 mm;
- All products must have the same shade;
- Tiles with any defects cannot be taken into work;
- It is better to purchase square products, they have good rigidity and strength, and it is also convenient to cover the surface with them;
- The material needs to be bought with a small margin;
- Any damage must be absent on the reverse side of the products.
Even elite types of tiles can be produced in violation of technology, therefore, before buying, you need to make sure that there are no various chips, scratches and other flaws.
Beautiful examples in the interior
Ceramic clinker tiles are an excellent "imitation". Thanks to the use of this material, you can get almost any type of finish, for example, for brick, wood or natural stone. The fireplace decoration, imitating stone, will give the interior austerity, luxury and grandeur, like the ancient fireplaces in the castles of the Middle Ages.
Tile cladding is rightfully considered the most refined and striking example of stove decoration. In creating a decor from such material, there are no boundaries for imagination. A huge selection of a wide variety of patterns, colors and shades equates the decoration of the stove with tiles with high art. Such devices will delight and delight for years with their appearance, whether it be a small fireplace in the living room or the hall of an apartment, or a Russian stove in a country house.
In Russia, tiled stoves were very popular during the reign of Peter I. Now these devices are experiencing their rebirth. Facing the fireplace with blue and white tiles, brick-like material or luxurious marble - all this became possible thanks to the variety of types of refractory tiles. Nowadays modern technical possibilities are easily combined with nostalgic images of a bygone era.
For an overview of fireclay tiles in the design of a fireplace, see the next video.