Tiled flooring is an ideal finishing option in an apartment or a country house. It is suitable for interior and exterior decoration. The tile has a beautiful, aesthetically pleasing appearance, therefore, the decoration from this material is often preferred by lovers of interesting and modern design solutions.
Features of the
All types of renovation and finishing work have their own advantages, features and disadvantages.
This article will describe all the details of cladding walls, floors and other surfaces with tiles of all kinds, from the preparation stage to successful examples of finishing in various rooms and on the street.
First of all, when deciding to choose tiles for repair and work from all building materials, you should take into account the peculiarities of working with this type of cladding, without knowing which it will not be easy to carry out high-quality work with your own hands.
Tile is a material that can withstand high humidity, which is why it is most often chosen for decorating bathrooms and kitchens.
Also, the tiled cladding gives the room an aesthetically attractive appearance, conciseness, sophistication, solidity.
You need to pay attention to the choice of a suitable material from the entire offered variety. That is, the kind of material that will be used.
If the work is done indoors, for example, in a bathroom, then the wall tiles will have a glossy surface and all kinds of colors and ornaments. Floor tiles are heavier and more durable, with a rough surface.
Another feature of the tile material is its density and high price, so you need to work carefully, and use special tools for trimming, which are not always available even from the most household owners.
The main specifics of working with tiles are as follows:
- determination of the purpose of the work performed;
- thorough preparation of the work surface;
- analysis of working conditions (premises or street, season of work).
Tiled flooring advantages:
- high moisture resistance;
- beautiful view;
- durability (in rooms with high traffic, tiles as a floor covering are the best option);
- resistance to chemical attack;
- does not fade (if the cladding is made on surfaces in contact with ultraviolet rays);
- high environmental friendliness, natural composition;
- resistance to high temperatures, it is not flammable;
- easy surface care.
Disadvantages of tiled surfaces:
- Rather, a feature than a disadvantage when laying tiles is that it is a laborious process that requires clear marking and careful measurement of all surfaces from walls to floor, certain tools, knowledge and skills, and, most importantly, more time to complete the work from the initial stage before the final.
- The inability to quickly correct work errors, unlike, for example, painting or wallpapering. The laying surface must be carefully leveled. Wall preparation - 80% of the success of tiling.
- Inaccuracy when using tile glue - you need to clearly fix each laid tile so that the glue does not "float" at the end and the entire row is even.
- High thermal conductivity. The tile material is always cold, so if these are not walls, then the best option is to lay the tiles on a "warm floor".
- Tile is a low-porous material, even if the tile is matte, therefore it has a slippery surface, especially when wet, which must also be taken into account when working with it.
In order to have an idea of what kind of material to choose for repair or decoration, first we will figure out what kind of material it is - ceramic tiles, having considered the technology of its production.
Basically, this building material is made in two ways: by "squeezing" from natural rocks - shale or clay, as well as by pressing the finished crumb, which is close in consistency to powder.
The main characteristic of facing tiles is their moisture resistance. The absorption of moisture occurs directly by the "body" of the tile, and not by its surface. The most water-resistant material of all types of tiles - porcelain stoneware … The moisture absorption coefficient of this material is 0.5%. The ability of tiles to absorb moisture must be taken into account when laying them outdoors, as well as in winter.
Thus, according to the type of tile, ceramic tiles and porcelain stoneware can be distinguished.
According to the method of heat treatment, tiles are double and single firing. This characteristic can be determined by the "flame" icon on the packaging with tiles.
Single-fired tiles are more durable and suitable for flooring. Double-fired tiles are less durable and can be used for walls and decorative finishes on desired surfaces, including ceilings.
The material can be classified by the type of ceramic surface:
- polished - homogeneous porcelain stoneware.
Tile gives walls a beautiful decorative look thanks to the beauty of the underglaze pattern or ornamentation. Glossy tiles create a visual volume of the tiled surface. Smooth tiles are the most unpretentious and easy to use.
Tile is most commonly used for flooring. It can also differ in design style, as well as embossed tiles.
The tile is distinguished by the method of its polishing, which is not done to the end, only the first top layer. Due to this, the surface acquires a matte-glossy texture, which looks very beautiful in design cladding projects, and also carries a functional feature - such a tile, laid on the floor, slips less and withstands a large weight load, while maintaining its original appearance.
Homogeneous porcelain stoneware
Often used in the decoration of modern apartments and private houses. It has a rich color, natural pattern. Such tiles will decorate any interior. The tile is obtained by cutting from natural stone and its further polishing, therefore this building material has a high price category.
It is edged, it is seamless - a modern material that is distinguished by a considerable price. The main and very important feature of such a tile is a smoothly cut edge. Regular tiles have rounded edges that suggest gaps between each tile, that is, a tile seam.
Rectified tiles can be laid by docking one to the other … These ceramics, laid out on any desired surface, will look like one beautiful even canvas. It will also take less time to install such material, and the coating will have a very small, almost invisible gap, which creates a hygienically stable surface.
Rectified is produced in the same way as porcelain stoneware - based on clay, granite chips and mineral additives, only at the stage of grinding the edges are very carefully cut and adjusted to size for each subsequent tile. The moisture resistance of this material is very high.
This tile is distinguished by a variety of designs - from simple plain tiles to embossed design tiles and large tiles that can be used to make durable kitchen countertops, outdoor paths and house walls.
When choosing rectified porcelain stoneware tiles, it should be borne in mind that:
- the surface of the coating must be perfectly flat, otherwise, with an increase in humidity, it may deform and the tile will simply fall off, since there are no gaps between the squares that prevent shrinkage;
- for an ideal result, you need to carefully select and fit the tiles one under the other;
- on the horizontal plane, flaws in the material will be especially visible;
- work must be done as quickly as possible;
- the complexity of the cladding is increased by the utmost care when fitting the tiles.
A special type of cladding made from clay by pressing. This tile is used to decorate interiors in living quarters, most often imitating masonry. Also, the walls of houses are faced with clinker tiles.
This type of tile is resistant to low temperatures, moisture and bacteria. The tiles can be either matte or glazed; the color of the tiles can be chosen for every taste. Another advantage of this tile is that chips are not so visible on it.
You can also consider facing tiles based on their purpose:
- for street cover;
- for interior cladding - wall and floor;
- decorative tiles (clinker, wood-like, plywood-like, metal, mosaic, glass, smalt, cut according to the pattern, and so on).
Depending on what task is for a particular type of cladding, a specific type is selected.
Among modern methods of tiling various surfaces, there are three main types of laying:
- staggered (checkerboard-diagonal method);
- the classic way;
- seam to seam;
- using borders;
- with offset.
Before choosing an accessible and pleasant method, you need to consider the main aspects that should be taken into account:
- the size of the room - laying tiles in a certain way can narrow or expand the available space;
- how the furniture will be arranged in this room, where the cladding will be made;
- the level of illumination of the area so that there are no areas that will glare and glare, as well as places where the tiles will be especially darkened;
- the quality of the prepared surface. If improperly prepared, mistakes can lead to a decrease in the height (width) of the adjacent surfaces, laying tiles in a certain way can visually increase the space, for example, the height of the ceiling.
Before cladding, it is imperative to completely renew the future surface for laying the tiles - if necessary, make a new screed, which will have to smooth out all the roughness and irregularities.
When the cladding method is selected, it is necessary to calculate the surface to be coated.
Here the main unit of measurement is the dimensions of the tiles to be laid. It should be noted that wall tiles are much smaller than floor tiles in size. Wall tiles can be square and rectangular, from 150x150 to 500X600 mm. Standard - 200X300 mm. Floor tiles can be of any size, up to 1000X1000 mm.
You also need to know that the thickness of the floor tiles is slightly larger than the wall tiles. Standardly it is 7-9 mm for wall-mounted specimens and 8-14 mm for floor-standing specimens … Thicker tiles can also be used for walls, but cannot be used for floors - they are quite fragile.
For the calculation, it is necessary to measure the surface parameters as accurately as possible - length and width (height) … If it is a wall, then the length must be divided by the size of the tile - this will be the number of tile elements in a row, and then divide the height by the size of the tile - this will be the number of rows. Next, you need to multiply the indicators. The end result is the right amount of ceramic tiles.
For any calculation of the material, it is imperative to add another 10% to the final result obtained for errors and rejects, as well as for trimming tiles. If the surface is not uniform (doors, pipes, additional pieces of furniture), it is better to sketch on graph paper, taking into account the size of the tiles, or to do 3D modeling in a computer program.
Wall laying is best done from the bottom up, and in order for the sawn-off surfaces to look beautiful, you can use the advice of the masters:
- measure out the initial tiled row on the wall;
- measure the small length of the edged tile that remains at the end of the row;
- add this small length to the length of the whole tile and divide the resulting figure by two;
- the end result is the optimal, uniform length of cut tiles to be measured at the beginning of the row and at the end. In the middle there will be even beautiful whole tiles.
Next, we will consider the main methods of laying tiles:
- Standard way of laying tiles … This type is the simplest and most common. It consists in the parallel placement of square or rectangular material seam in seam. Even with this layout method, the aesthetically pleasing end result can be improved by making the ornament from tiles of a different color. It should be noted that such a layout is best done from the bottom row.
- Diagonally … The main nuance of this type of laying is that each element is laid at an angle of 45 degrees. In this case, it is better to use plain and square tiles for the best result.
- Offset layout … For laying in this way, you can use square and rectangular tiles. The tile in the next row should be aligned in its middle with the junction of the two tiles in the top row. This type of masonry makes it possible to create a beautiful floor design in the bathroom, hallway or on the kitchen wall. The same method can be used diagonally, but in this case the percentage of edged tiles will increase significantly, and in this case it will be necessary to clearly monitor the thickness of the seam when laying.
- Modular placement … This type of installation depends on the selected module, tiled in different sizes or in a specific order. Laying consists in sequential repetition of the selected pattern - the module. You can also purchase ready-made tiles with a pattern and lay them out in a modular manner.
- Cladding imitating parquet masonry … This method is also called herringbone. It can also be alternated with additional ceramic mosaic inserts. Most often, this type of layout is used for tiled flooring. Tiles should be rectangular in size for optimal results, most often such tiles are selected "under the tree". The masonry principle is to place each tile at an angle to each other in a standard parquet pattern. This option assumes a minimum amount of waste.
Seamless cladding… This tile masonry can be accessed with porcelain stoneware tiles. This type of tile can be installed without a seam, as the edges are already properly polished
When all the stages of the repair and facing work have been thought out, the material has been selected, the design project has been drawn up, it is time to prepare all the tools necessary for the surface renovation process. To have an idea of what to use when preparing the surface, as well as when directly lining it, you need to familiarize yourself with a detailed description of the necessary devices.
You can completely do without expensive modern tools if you have a basic set of consumables: a large notched trowel, chisel and hammer.
At the stage of measuring surfaces, you will need a plumb line and a level. A plumb line can be made by hand by tying a round sinker to a small rope. You can buy a laser level - this is used by professional builders, or you can use the usual one. Also, to measure the rows of tiles on the surface, you will need a strong large construction pencil with a soft large lead, a metal bending ruler and always a tape measure.
At the stage of removing old building materials from the surface, you will need either a hammer with a chisel or chisel, or a hammer drill with a special nozzle. The old primer and glue are cleaned off with a grinder. New soil is laid on a flat concrete surface with wide spatulas or a self-leveling mixture is poured; here, for accuracy of pouring, a level is also needed.
Next, a primer solution is applied to a completely dry surface, which is leveled with a special roller with a needle surface. In this case, the length of the needles should be greater than the height of the primer layer.
Layout of tile material
At this stage, you will need wire cutters to remove unnecessary trimmed pieces of tiles, a glass cutter, a tile cutter or a grinder for thick, dense tiles. You may also need a spatula to pick up the glue mass, a hand-held construction mixer if you need to stir the dry mixture, a bucket to dilute the mixture with water. At this stage, you need to learn more about adhesive solutions for tiling.
Types of tile adhesives:
- Based on a mixture of cement and sand … The most budgetary glue option. It is also possibly more environmentally friendly if the composition and properties of the original cement are known. Depending on the tile, the solution is prepared more liquid or thicker; PVA glue is added for better adhesion. The proportion of cement and sand is 1: 5 (if the cement is less durable) and 1: 6 if the cement is more durable. It is better to sift the sand before mixing, and when buying cement, pay attention to the date of manufacture, it is better to take a new one. If there is no date, you can check the quality of the cement by squeezing it in the palm of your hand - it should not collect into a lump.
- Dry adhesive mixtures … An important plus of such mixtures is that all the ingredients for the glue are already prepared in the right proportion, you just need to add water. All adhesives for tiles on the construction market differ in properties, special additives and prices. But a high price does not always mean high quality. The main thing here is to follow the instructions on the package in detail, and, of course, you need to buy a fresh mixture.
It should be noted that it is not recommended to take quick-drying adhesive mixtures for ordinary masonry, since in this case there is a high probability that the tile will fall off in the future.
Among the universal adhesive mixtures, one can note Ceresit formulations, it is suitable for small tiles, up to 100x300. For large tiles, it is better to take reinforced glue, which will withstand heavy loads of furniture weight and pressure. For instance, Knauf brands.
- For rooms with high humidity, a special moisture-resistant glue is produced.
- Glue Bergouf brands suitable for transparent and translucent tiles, as well as mosaics. It contains special white cement.
- For outdoor use, brand glue is suitable Vetonit.
- Also, ready-made adhesive mixtures are available in liquid and pasty form.
When choosing an adhesive, you should pay attention to its future consumption and drying time, as well as take into account possible masonry defects when choosing an unsuitable type of adhesive.
At this stage, you will need a wide notched trowel to apply and level the adhesive mass on the tiles, as well as special crosses to mark the correct and even width of the joints in all places. Wedges and spacers are also used for these purposes if installation work is carried out, for example, on the floor. You may need a small wooden board or rubber mallet, which you need to tap lightly, placing it on the sides and top of the tile for a tighter adhesion of the adhesive.
If the tile is laid on a surface near a door or on a protruding surface, you will need a silicone sealant, aka sanitary silicone glue, to fill the empty space under the sheer layer of the tile. Masking tape may be needed to protect the treated surface.… A drill with a special attachment is needed to cut the necessary holes in the tile, for example, for a socket.
Here you will need some mastic and a rubber spatula. If you want to make seams with an aesthetically pleasing groove, a special rubber spatula tube is used. For embossed tiles, you can use a construction syringe for easier glue application and cleaning afterwards.
Any mastics can be used, including those based on epoxy resins for more expensive tile materials.
Ceramic tiles can be used to refine surfaces both indoors and outdoors, from walls, floors and ceilings to decorative elements in the kitchen, in the corridor, hallway, on the fireplace, stove, countertop.
On the street, tiles can be used to cover the balcony, porch, veranda. Tiled cladding gives a neat, beautiful look to all surfaces, can be laid out according to the finished drawing with beautiful patterns or even imitate a wooden covering.
Before performing the facing work, when the amount of material has already been calculated and purchased, it is necessary to prepare the desired surface for the start of work. This is the most time-consuming, complex and time-consuming process necessary for the further implementation of tiled works.
General rules for the preparation of all surfaces:
- antibacterial treatment;
- new primer.
The ideal coating for tiling should be absolutely flat, smooth, protected from moisture and fungus. When laying tiles, there must be good adhesion to the surface, therefore, at the final stage of preparation, it is necessary to carefully clean and sweep the surface, remove all unnecessary particles of dirt and debris, remove existing foreign stains.
Consider the step-by-step preparation for finishing different types of surfaces:
The first thing to do is remove the old coating. Summarizing all types of floors, we can conditionally distinguish between concrete and wood. But since the surface is horizontal, this is not so easy.
For the process of removing the old ceramic coating, you can use a chisel and a hammer or, more effectively, a hammer drill with a special chisel attachment. With regular concrete and laminate flooring, it will be much easier.
For all types of floors, regardless of the initial state, you need to measure the highest point and focus on it when leveling and sealing cracks and cracks.
The floor in new houses can also be uneven, but in this case, all work will be carried out immediately, without removing the old covering.
Step-by-step implementation of preparatory work:
- When the amount of unevenness in the floor has been clarified, you need to prepare the necessary material for leveling. If the uneven surface is large, about 10 cm, the screed will need to be done on expanded clay; if medium - filling can be made of cement with sand; if very small - up to 3 cm, a simple self-leveling screed, which is also called "self-leveling floor", will do.
- Next, you need to check the floor for cracks, irregularities, roughness. If there are elevations, they need to be chipped off and polished, cracks and cracks widened, primed and treated with a special soil solution.
- Remove all dust and debris from the floor surface, even foreign stains, to maximize adhesion.
- Next, the process of preparing the moisture protection is carried out. Most often, special mastic is used for this, which is used to fill the places where the floor and walls form corners, the space under the pipes, as well as all existing cracks. Also, for these purposes, in the same places, a special polyethylene backing is used, often the entire floor space is covered with it, leaving large overlaps against the walls - this method of waterproofing will be good, for example, for a bathroom.
- At the last stage, the floor is filled with a correctly selected screed. After it dries, you can lay the tiles, starting from the comfortable side, taking into account all the features of the pattern.
It should be noted that each type of screed has its own drying period. It should also be noted that when the screed has "grabbed", you can walk on it, but this does not mean that it is completely dry. Usually, the time for complete drying is indicated on the packaging with the building material, but if there is no such information, then you can use the following formula for calculating the drying time.
This formula depends on the screed material:
- Plaster screed … If the thickness is less than 40 mm, it dries for a week, sets in 3-4 hours, i.e. 10 mm dries for 42 hours. If more than 40 mm, then for every 10 mm you need to add 90 hours;
- Cement and sand screed … If the thickness is less than or equal to 40 mm, then every 10 mm is 7 days. If the screed is more than 40 mm, then for each 10 mm you need to add 14-15 days. That is, it will take two or even three months to dry a cement-sand screed 80 mm thick.
After the new screed has dried, for better adhesion, the floor must be primed using a special roller. When the primer dries out, you can mark the future tiled rows and start laying the tiles.
Old wood floor… In this case, there are two options for preparation - to remove the old wooden covering, if it is uneven, and work with a concrete base, or if the parquet flooring is strong, work with it, taking into account the additional load on the floors
If the parquet is strong, then for preparation it is also necessary to think over the level of "raising" the floor, then fill absolutely all the cracks between the boards with polyurethane foam, then cover the floor with a special waterproofing solution.
After drying, put a reinforcing mesh, apply a special compound for wooden bases on top, which is leveled by itself. When the mortar is dry, you can lay the tiles.
If the parquet flexes, remove all boards, leaving strong logs that need to be treated with a fire retardant. Fill the spaces between them with heat-insulating material or expanded clay.
Next, a flooring is made of a vapor-insulating material, then two layers of GVL sheets are attached with a minimum distance from the walls for possible thermal deformation. At the end, they will need to be sealed with construction foam. Next, the gypsum fiber flooring is primed, the soil dries up, after which you can start tiling.
Old concrete floor… At the preparatory stage, it is necessary to assess the condition of the old screed and calculate the height of the future floor, taking into account the layer of glue and the height of the tiled masonry, taking into account the height of the door sill. Further, you can wipe the existing minor cracks with the help of a tile adhesive solution, prime the ready-made even screed and start working
If the floor screed falls apart, then it must be dismantled with a perforator, leaving the overlap, and then follow all the same stages of the preparatory work.
Preparing the walls
Any walls must be washed and degreased thoroughly before laying the tiles. If there is a layer of old paint or wallpaper, plaster, as well as old tiles, all these materials must be carefully removed, cleaned and leveled with a level, then carefully plaster.
If the wall is brick, carefully rub all the cracks so that the surface is even.
Further on the surface, you need to apply special notches with a chisel, which will increase the adhesion of the tile adhesive to the surface.
All types of plastered walls need to be carefully primed further … If it is drywall, then the seams between the elements must first be widened, then filed at an angle of 30-40 degrees to the middle of the width, then carefully primed.
As soon as the surface is ready for tiling, you can proceed directly to the most important stage of work.
Regardless of the surface of the future cladding, before installation, you need to make a markup and fix a special metal, plastic or other stop, on which the first row of tiles will be laid.
Algorithm for laying tiles on the wall:
- mark the first row of tiles on the wall with a simple pencil and fix the stop along the lower edge of the first of them;
- to make lighthouses - mark the places on the wall where a tile large in size or weight will be fixed;
- the tiles in the bathroom must be laid out from the bottom corner;
- for beginners who are laying their own hands for the first time, it is better to make the first bottom row completely along the entire wall;
- all seams must be sequentially fixed with special crosses; the seams between the tiles themselves are needed so that it does not crack and does not fall off the wall when it dries;
- each time you need to check the placed tiles horizontally and vertically;
- if there are edged tiles, it is better to lay them at the end of the work;
- after the completion of the masonry, you need to wait until the glue sets (usually 10-12 hours is enough), then remove the crosses and clean the tiles, after grouting all the joints between the tiles, immediately removing the excess from the surface of the tile with a sponge.
Laying tiles on the floor slightly different from wall mounting. It is better to start laying the material on the floor in a simple way starting from the first row. If you plan to make a drawing, you need to determine the center of symmetry by drawing two lines from the middle to the middle of two opposite walls, and start from there. From the second row, laying should be started in small rooms.
Having previously marked the tiles of the beacons, you can apply glue - with a wide spatula with teeth at an angle of 60 degrees. The area of application should be slightly less than a meter so that the glue does not have time to dry.
If the floor tiles are large enough, then the glue should be applied to the surface of the tile itself, then laid on the glue solution and lightly tapped on the wooden board placed on top for better adhesion.
The seams are also marked with crosses. Their maximum width is usually no more than 4 mm.
When laying, do not forget to check whether the tiles lie flat and, if necessary, dock it.
After all the floor tiles have been laid, you need to immediately remove all the crosses until the mortar has hardened. Further you need to wait twenty-four hours for the glue to dry … Then you need to grout the joints and clean the tiles. The total drying time of the glue is usually indicated on the package, usually 24-48 hours.
Nevertheless, if the room is humid or the work is carried out in winter, then about 12 more hours must be added to the total time.
Do not walk on only the laid floor covering. Masters advise you to wait at least seven days before the glue solution is completely dry.
How to lay tiles with your own hands, see the video below.
Tips & Tricks
If the task is to lay the coating with your own hands, it will be useful to know some useful information that will help in this difficult matter.
For example, for a stronger adhesion, the adhesive must be applied both to the surface and to the tile itself with a notched trowel. You need to glue it so that the grooves on the wall and on the tile are in a perpendicular position.
The correctness of application and future adhesion can be checked by gluing the tile with the adhesive applied to the surface and pressing it slightly and then removing it. On the inside, the adhesive should cover 90% of the surface.
The thickness of the adhesive layer can often adjust some irregularities in the base, but only not more than 1 cm.
For large tiles there is a special a set of devices for a clear styling. It includes a pistol, caps, a clamping bar … All tile elements are fixed exactly along the seam while the glue dries, and then leveled by sliding the caps. Heavy tile elements made of special materials can be fixed with a special elastic adhesive of extra strong hold.
The side edges of the tile joints in the bathroom can also be treated with a special waterproof silicone sealant, after having previously glued the tile itself with construction tape. Such a composition dries quickly enough, about 20 minutes, so the tiles must be cleaned of residues as soon as possible.
Next, wash the seam with ordinary soapy water.
If there is old paint on the walls under the tiles, it can be knocked down with a chisel or a special paint remover, which is left on the surface for 10-15 minutes, then the residues are removed.
After the entire tile is fixed and the glue solution underneath is completely dry, the entire surface can be treated with a special water-repellent agent.
Successful examples and options
- In addition to the usual wall and floor decoration with ceramic tiles, this material can be used to make a beautiful skirting board. For this purpose, large slabs are suitable, they will withstand possible blows and will not fall off. Such a plinth will look spectacular on a wall painted to match and protect its lower part from dirt.
- Another finishing option can be used in a country house for facing steps on the veranda - a beautiful pattern will highlight each step and give the stairs a stylish look.
- Special moisture-resistant clinker tiles can be used to decorate a place next to the garage.
- Also, from smalt and fragments of ceramic tiles left over after repairing the main surface, you can make a great decor for a glass vase or table lamp.