Today, a large number of materials can be used to complete interior finishing. Water-based paint is popular, which has many positive characteristics that are not inherent in all types of coloring compositions.
This material demonstrates good adhesion, variety of types, fairly simple application. Caring for the painted surface does not require special skills and equipment. But it is important to be able to choose the right paint for your renovation.
Features of the
Water-based paint contains fillers and polymers (sometimes latex) in water. In addition, an adhesive emulsion is added, due to which the adhesion of the composition becomes possible, and last of all, the pigment, which gives the paint the main color sound.
Initially, paint components do not dissolve in water, so its production is carried out in several stages:
- adding pigments and polymers to water;
- grinding (dispersing) the components of the composition;
- introduction of other additives using a special mixer (dissolver).
After that, the paint is considered ready, it is packaged and sent to stores. In this case, the proportions of certain substances in the compositions of different manufacturers will differ.
It is thanks to the component features that the paint got its name. An emulsion is a dispersed system. This composition is distinguished by the presence of a mixture of microscopic droplets of two insoluble liquids. As a rule, these are water and polymers.
Another name for the paint is water-dispersion, since it is based on aqueous dispersions of polymers. They, in turn, contain suspensions of fillers and pigments, auxiliary additives (emulsifiers, stabilizers). Water-based emulsion paint does not contain organic solvents, which explains its environmental safety and non-toxicity.
Advantages and disadvantages
Water-based paint has a number of advantages, among which the most significant are:
- Environmental friendliness of the composition. It is due to the lack of organic solvents. Therefore, the paint is suitable for application in institutions for children.
- Non-toxic. This paint does not smell when applied and while drying.
- Fire and explosion safety, which are explained by the peculiarities of the paint composition.
- Low abrasion.
- Resistant to aggressive media, including alkalis.
- Moisture resistance allows such coatings to be wet cleaned.
- Gas and vapor permeability guarantees the maintenance of the microclimate in the room, the absence of the "steam room" effect.
- Compatible with most surfaces.
- Ease of application.
- The long shelf life is 24 months. However, only the paint for which the conditions prescribed by the manufacturer have been created is stored so much.
Like any material, water-based paint has "disadvantages":
- Susceptibility to bacteria, fungus, mold, which actively multiply when paint is applied in damp, insufficiently heated rooms. The problem in this case can be solved by preliminary cleaning the wall from mold and mildew, processing it with special compounds. When choosing a water-based paint for such premises, preference should be given to compositions with an antibacterial and antifungal effect.
- This composition is not suitable for unheated rooms and outdoor work, since at low temperatures the painted surface is covered with cracks.
- The impossibility of applying the composition on surfaces coated with adhesive and varnish, as well as on metals. However, if necessary, cover metal areas with "water emulsion", the latter are primed in several layers. After that, the paint fits perfectly and adheres to metals.
Types and characteristics
The composition of the water-based paint can vary by the presence of certain additives. This, in turn, affects the technical properties of the paint: its appearance, scope, application features.
There are the following types of interior "water emulsion":
Polyvinyl acetate. The basis of this composition is a polyvinyl acetate emulsion, which is a very white, thick, homogeneous substance. It is also the basis of PVA glue. It can be plasticized (frozen at 0 degrees, afraid of frost) and unplasticized (withstands up to 4 freezing cycles). Plasticizers and stabilizers are added to the polyvinyl acetate emulsion. With regard to coloring pigments, they may or may not be present. The content and ratio of the components of the composition, as well as the production processes are regulated by GOST 28196 89. After application to the surface, water evaporates from the emulsion, and the rest of the substances solidify, acquiring hydrophobic characteristics. After drying, a porous semi-matt surface is formed. Curing time at a temperature of +22 - 2-3 hours
The popularity of this type of coating is due to its good hiding power (the parameter of the decorative characteristics of the coating, which affects the color properties and the degree of gloss), the possibility of painting porous surfaces (brick, concrete, plaster, cardboard), obtaining a strong and attractive film, and a high drying rate.
You can get the right shade by purchasing paint of the desired color. or adding color to white paint. In the latter case, it is recommended to apply at least 2 coats of "water emulsion" to obtain a good result. Finally, it is worth noting the minimum price of polyvinyl acetate paint in comparison with other types of water-dispersion compositions.
At the same time, the paint is not suitable for rooms with high humidity. When applied to surfaces made of chalk, clay, limestone, metal, the paint begins to peel off, and with excessive mechanical stress, it cracks.
Acrylic. The main components of acrylic paint are water-dispersion mixture and polyacrylates. It is the presence of the latter that provides increased moisture resistance of the paint, it is also called "washable" and is suitable for rooms with high levels of humidity. At the same time, the painted layer is characterized by vapor permeability; mold and fungi do not form under it. Due to its good elasticity, the paint is suitable for application not only on walls, but also on the ceiling. At the same time, it demonstrates compatibility with almost all types of working bases, including metal ones. The latter types must be pre-primed. Due to its resistance to UV exposure and abrasion, the painted surfaces retain their presentable appearance and brightness of the shade, even when exposed to direct sunlight and with regular damp cleaning
Latex paint - this is the general name for several types of "water emulsion", which contain latex. This additive can be present in acrylic, acrylic silicone, acrylic polyvinyl acetate and acrylic styrene butadiene paints. The main feature of latex-containing compounds is the ability to form a special "crystalline" surface structure, which acquires the properties of increased moisture resistance and resistance to aggressive media, including alkaline ones. The finished coating is characterized by a higher density than other types of "water emulsion"
Depending on the appearance of the painted surfaces, or rather the gloss / mattness indicators, the latex "water emulsion" can be of the following types:
- strongly matte (CM 0-5);
- semi-matte (MP 11-29);
- matte (M 6-10);
- highly glossy (SG 90-100);
- glossy (G 60-89);
- semi-glossy (PG 30-59).
To achieve a particular effect of a painted surface, it is important to pay attention to the specified characteristics of latex compositions. So, for example, when applying paint over wallpaper, matte will emphasize the texture of the latter, while glossy will blur it and distract from the features of the texture. Latex paints have all the "pluses" of water-dispersion compositions, but at the same time they have greater strength and resistance to abrasion. However, it is necessary to use latex paint only in heated rooms, as otherwise its quality deteriorates.
Silicate water-based paint consists of water dispersion, water glass and color pigments. It has all the qualities inherent in water-based paints (environmental friendliness, air permeability, fire and explosion safety). In addition, painted surfaces have increased moisture resistance and retain their properties for a long time. The service life of such paint is up to 20-25 years. The presence of special additives prevents mold and mildew infection of painted surfaces
The peculiarity of the composition of silicone products is the presence of silicone resins in it… This allows the paint to be used on most surfaces. Other advantages include the ability to cover surfaces with small (up to 2 mm wide) cracks. After drying, all defects are hidden, a flat smooth surface is formed. The paint can be used in rooms with high humidity and even be applied on semi-damp substrates. Due to the high vapor permeability, it is possible to avoid the formation of mold on the painted surface and fungal formations. It is important that the hiding power characteristics are also at a height - one layer of paint is enough to obtain an optimal staining result
The painted surface does not attract dirt, so cleaning is extremely rare. Naturally, such technical qualities become the reason for the higher cost of the product.
The main components of mineral paint are cement and slaked lime, thanks to which the paint adheres well to brick, cement and concrete surfaces. If a polyvinyl acetate emulsion is present in the mineral enamel, then the dried surface will be resistant to the effects of fats and oil products. A significant "minus" of mineral compositions is a short service life
Colors and designs
Among the advantages of water-based paint, color variety is noted. However, more and more often, you can find white or transparent paint on store shelves. A small bubble of color is acquired for them - a composition saturated with pigment, which, when added to the "water emulsion", gives it the desired shade. The use of liquid colors allows you to get complex colors that are not commercially available. In addition, by changing the concentration of the color in the paint, you can achieve the effect of gradation when painting the surface. In other words, it will be possible to change the color intensity from more saturated to restrained.
Today experts recommend abandoning ready-made solutions and use colors. This is due to the fact that during the production of colored paint, a single shade is obtained, the equipment is not capable of displaying tones or halftones. As a result of staining with ready-made compounds, the degree of illumination of the working bases and their material are not taken into account. This is why dried surfaces can lose volume, and the room itself can become dark and small.
But if it is necessary to use achromatic black, gray paints, it is better not to waste time on tinting, but to purchase a ready-made composition.
When tinting water-based paint, you should adhere to the following recommendations:
- The ratio of the components should be selected exactly in the room where the painting will be done. In this case, a test batch is first prepared, with which a small area is painted. All proportions are recorded. After drying, the result is evaluated under daylight and electric light. If you are satisfied with the result, start preparing the paint and painting the entire surface.
- When adding color to the paint, do not pour out the contents of the bottle immediately. It is better to do this in small portions, literally drop by drop, regularly mixing the composition. This will allow you to achieve the desired intensity of the finished product.
- You should prepare the entire volume of paint at once, otherwise in the future (when tinting in small portions) you risk not picking up a similar shade. Of course, if the work surfaces are large and the whole process takes a long time (the paint starts to harden in the bucket), then this recommendation is irrelevant. In this case, you need to carefully record the proportions of paint and color used and monitor their observance in subsequent preparations of the composition.
Please note that only snow-white paint can be tinted. In the presence of yellowish and other pigments in it, the staining result is unpredictable.
The decor of the painted "water-based" surfaces in most cases is achieved not by paint, but by using various materials and techniques for applying the composition. The application of paint to decorative plaster is quite popular. In this case, the base color is applied to the dried plaster surface with the first layer. It is important that the coloring composition fills all the depressions and protrusions of the surface, this is usually achieved by painting with a spray gun. The next layer (of a different or the same shade as the base, but more intense) is applied with a sponge or bald roller.
Crumpled newspaper or damp rags can produce relief or abstract stains. To do this, blot the painted and uncured surface with a piece of newspaper or rags, after wrinkling them. The application of paint with a textured roller has an unusual effect. It has a certain pattern on its surface, which is transferred to the area to be decorated. When choosing this method, it should be borne in mind that paint consumption will increase.
In addition to using special tools and improvised tools, you can choose special acrylic paints that provide the desired decorative effect. To obtain texture, it is better to purchase acrylic, silicone, silicate or mineral versions of water-dispersion paints. The composition of the paint can contain quartz chips or other natural filler. The result of staining will be unusual visual effects, a sense of volume, imitation of various surfaces. The painted surface is uneven, embossed, reminiscent of a rock. To simulate a surface made of wood or cork, Marseilles wax is used. After drying, the surface is covered with a special wax.
For rooms with high humidity and surfaces that require frequent wet cleaning, it is recommended to use a glossy water-based paint. In addition, it allows you to achieve glossy, even surfaces, while the quieter matt paint has a porous structure that attracts dirt. Painting the ceilings with a glossy composition allows you to visually "raise" them, increase the area of the room. But if the ceiling height is about 3 m in the room, the glossy finish is lost and it looks inexpressive. Glossy paint gives a strong mirror effect.
An interesting result can be obtained using a pearlescent composition. Its peculiarity is that with different incidence of light, the surface shows many shades within one color palette. In other words, volumetricness, versatility of color is achieved. Refraction of color is possible due to the introduction of the smallest pearlescent color into the paint.
Scope of application
Possessing many advantages, interior water-based paint loses them when applied to external surfaces. That is why such formulations are suitable exclusively for interior work. "Vodoemulsions" are suitable for decorating walls and ceilings not only in residential, but also in office and industrial premises. At the same time, it is better to choose a special paint for the ceiling, it will have a thicker consistency, convenient for distribution.
Due to its environmental friendliness and non-toxicity, "water emulsion" is actively used to decorate surfaces in children's and medical institutions. Most water-dispersible formulations show good adhesion to basic types of work surfaces. When applied to some of them (for example, metals), they need to be pre-primed. The most versatile product in terms of compatibility with working substrates is an acrylic product. When applied to porous surfaces, the gloss / mattness of the paint is also important. For porous surfaces, it is better to use glossy and semi-gloss options.
Surfaces that are subject to frequent wet cleaning (in public places or in the kitchen) are recommended to be painted with latex compounds. Even after several years of active operation, they retain vapor permeability, resistance to moisture and an attractive appearance. In rooms characterized by high air humidity (kitchens, bathrooms, washing and swimming pools, houses of old buildings), it is better to paint the walls and ceiling with silicate compounds, and if it becomes necessary to protect the surfaces from mold and mildew - silicone ones.
The ideal paint for wallpaper is latex. When applying other types, it is possible that the wallpaper gets soaked and its texture is disturbed. And latex paint strengthens them, making wet cleaning possible. It is more suitable for non-woven than paper wallpaper. Moreover, the latter should be designed for painting.
If it is necessary to paint a tree, then you should choose "water emulsion" with a special mark on the package. Such compositions not only fit perfectly on wooden surfaces, preserving their original texture, but also protect them from decay, mold and mildew. For wood, only matte versions are used, since the gloss "eats" the natural beauty of the material.
Often there is a need to paint not walls or ceilings, but small elements rooms, for example, radiators. In this case, the coloring composition applied to the battery must withstand high temperatures and protect the surface from corrosion. For these purposes, matt acrylic paint is optimal (gloss will draw attention to irregularities and defects in the coating). Do not forget that the paint should be designed for application to batteries, and it is better to paint it outside the heating season.
The production of water-based paint is carried out both abroad and in Russia. The leading brands are:
Dulux is a British manufacturer, specializing in the production of building materials. Paints and varnishes are of the highest quality, and therefore at a considerable price. You can buy Dulux paint in containers of 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 liters. The price for a container with a volume of 10 liters starts at 4500-5000 rubles. In this case, the paint consumption according to the manufacturer's statement is 13-17 l / m2. The advantage is a wide range of products designed for different areas of use. There are many multi-purpose compounds for interior use (Dulux Trade Diamond Matt, Dulux Trade Ecosure Matt, Dulux Trade Diamond Eggshell), for damp rooms (Dulux Trade Supermatt) and for kitchens (Dulux Realife Kitchen Matt), as well as for surfaces, subject to frequent washing (Dulux Trade Vinyl Silk)
Dulux Trade Vinyl Soft Sheen (applied to paintable wallpaper), Dulux Light & Space Matt (reflective material), Dulux Magic White (has a color indicator) should be noted among the brand's unique formulations.
Caparol - paint from a German manufacturer, which is another leader in the world market. For a composition for walls and a ceiling with a volume of 5 liters, you will have to pay about 750 rubles. Moreover, the cost of paint is affected by its moisture resistance. The higher the last characteristic, the higher the price of the composition. Consumption averages 90-150 g / m2. There are also product varieties that differ in scope. Interior paint can be universal (Caparol Alpina Matllatex, Caparol Malerit), for surfaces susceptible to mold (Caparol Fungitex-W), washable (Caparol Samtex 3 E. L. F.). For batteries and radiators, the manufacturer offers Caparol Alpina Heizkorperlack
Tikkurila - the products of the Polish manufacturer are perhaps the most famous in Russia. This is due to the high quality of the paint and its affordable price, wide product variation and richness of colors
Tex. The advantage of domestic paint "Tex" is its versatility. It fits well on concrete, brick, plasterboard, wood and plastered bases, there are compositions for wallpaper (fiberglass, non-woven). However, this paint is not suitable for use on surfaces subject to heavy contamination. Increased whiteness of paint, economy of consumption and affordability - this is what causes the popularity of the material in the market of paints and varnishes
When choosing a water-based composition, you should start from the type of surface on which it will be applied. For walls made of concrete, brick, wood, as well as plastered surfaces, you should buy acrylic paints with a latex component. For the ceiling - acrylic, latex, acrylate compounds.
If it is assumed that the surface will be subject to active abrasion, for example, the walls of the kitchen, nursery, then it is better to apply glossy and semi-glossy versions. For bathrooms and other areas where it is excessively humid, choose silicate, silicone (if there is a tendency for mold to form on surfaces) or latex paints. They have hydrophobic properties and good vapor permeability.
When purchasing, it is important to evaluate the following product specifications:
- The composition of the paint. In the presence of organic solvents and phenol in it, you can safely conclude that this is not a water-based paint, regardless of the beliefs of the seller.
- Paint consumption per 1 m2. The lower the coefficient, the more economical the consumption and, accordingly, the less composition will be required to paint the room. It should be remembered that the manufacturer indicates the paint consumption for ideal surfaces (plastered, perfectly smooth, when applying paint in one layer). If we talk about real consumption, then on average it is 150 g / m2 with a single layer and 250 g / m2 with a two-layer application.
- Viscosity of the composition (that is, the ratio of the content of water and other elements in the paint). This indicator influences the choice of paint application tool. So, if you are going to paint surfaces with a brush, the viscosity should be in the range of 40-45. When applying with a spray gun, a composition with a viscosity of 20-25 should be selected.
- Complete drying time. It is important to understand here that the time range specified by the manufacturer (usually from 2 to 10 hours) is valid only if certain conditions are met (usually a temperature of 22-25C, air humidity - no more than 60%).
- The criterion for assessing quality should be the price. A real "water emulsion", the main components of which are imported from Europe, cannot be cheap. The price for 1 liter of paint on average starts from 100 rubles.
- Product weight. A liter of water-dispersion composition ranges from 1.35-1.5 kg. That is, a 10-liter bucket of paint cannot weigh less than 15 kg.
- Paint can only be purchased in certified heated stores … When frozen, the product loses its properties.
- For additional protection of an acrylic or other water-dispersion layer, it can be varnished. For these purposes, a universal varnish for interior work is used. In addition, varnish may be required to create a decorative texture on painted surfaces.
You will learn more information about the features of water-based paint in the following video.