You can paint the ceiling, in principle, with any paint and in any color. It all depends on the imagination of the owner of the premises. White ceiling is the most common option, as white gives a sense of space and elegance. The choice of compositions for coloring today is so great that it is very difficult to choose which one is specifically needed to obtain the required result without special knowledge.
Features of the
When renovating premises, the following are mainly used:
- organic solvent based paints;
- water-soluble paints.
For the compositions of the first group, a sharp unpleasant odor is characteristic during the application and drying process due to the evaporation of the esters of the resins and solvents that make up their composition. In everyday life, they are called oil, but this is a common name that has almost nothing to do with the actual composition. Among them are oil-alkyd, nitro-enamels and epoxy paints. After drying, they all form a strong film that cannot be washed off with water.
Such compositions for painting the ceiling are today used only in rooms that are not intended for domestic use. Applied on surfaces not treated with gypsum-based plastering and filler materials (cement-based compounds only).
The second group includes paints for which water is a solvent. Common to them is the consistency of the emulsion, which includes particles of polymers, pigment and water. They are classified depending on the polymer used.
When painting, the surface dries to touch in 1-2 hours, completely - in 6-8 hours, the emulsion does not smell during operation and drying. It is not a mistake to name such paints as water-dispersion paints, since an emulsion is a kind of dispersion solution.
For the application of the water-based coating, the original surface must be carefully prepared. The composition of mixtures for surface preparation for painting does not matter.
Water-soluble paints differ from each other by the type of polymer that is their base, and there are:
Silicone and silicate compounds are used where additional properties such as water repellency, antifungal protection, and vapor permeability need to be imparted to the surface. They are semi-gloss, that is, they slightly shine.
For painting ceilings in premises intended for permanent residence, water-dispersion solutions based on latex, vinyl and acrylates are used. All these formulations, after application, give a deep matte, matte, semi-matt, semi-gloss or glossy surface.
Silicone and silicate are used when the painted surfaces are exposed to aggressive environmental influences (water vapor, evaporation of chemical reagents).
Water-soluble paints are produced in two types: base "A" and base "C". When buying, be sure to check this marking. What's the Difference? The pigment titanium dioxide gives the white color to the coloring composition. The more it is in the composition, the more "covering" (transmission through the layer or the density of one layer) the composition has. Accordingly, with the help of such a solution, it is easier to obtain a perfectly evenly painted surface with less consumption.
But since this pigment is not cheap, the price of the same volume from different manufacturers directly depends on its quantity.
Base C is translucent and intended for dark tones.On base A, which contains titanium dioxide, it will not be possible to obtain a dark color, no matter how much tinting paste is added. The color will still be in the pastel palette.
From the point of view of environmental friendliness and ease of use, there is practically no difference in water-soluble formulations. All of them are almost odorless, dry quickly. And the performance characteristics depend on the amount of polymer that makes up the base of the paint. The less it is, the less resistance of the painted surface to washing and abrasion. This is usually reflected in the name of the paint in numbers.
If you take cans with the same name (from the same manufacturer), then marking 2 will mean an ordinary, not very resistant paint. When painted with such a composition, tinted in color, after an attempt to wash the dirty area, a stain of a different color will remain.
No. 3 is more stable, there will be almost no stain. Inks with higher markings give a durable film that can be washed without problems or stains. The same labeling usually applies to reflective performance. The higher the number, the more the finished surface will shine.
To get a painted ceiling that looks like a stretch, that is, ideally flat in plane and color, its surface must be prepared.
Ceiling preparation includes the steps of removing the existing coating (whitewash or old paint) to the slab or drywall, sealing and gluing the joints between the floor slabs, if the slab is not one-piece, perhaps plastering the failed areas, filling the entire surface with several types of putty to eliminate defects in the form pores, scratches, followed by grinding the resulting surface.
Preparation directly depends on the initial state of the floor slabs and the chosen paint. In houses where they have been living for many years, they can be whitewashed and already painted sometime.
If the ceiling was whitewashed, then the whitewash must be washed off. This is done with hot water, a roller, a spatula, a sponge and an old terry towel. Whitewashing in sections is moistened with a roller with hot water once or twice, removed with a spatula, after which the floor slab is washed with a generously moistened sponge and wiped with a terry towel.
Correctly removing the whitewash should result in a clean gray concrete ceiling. It is acceptable if there is a whitewash that has eaten into the pores. After that, the ceiling is putty, depending on the chosen paint, from two (for deep matte) to five times (for glossy).
If the surface was previously painted with water-based paint, check how the old coating adheres. Sometimes, if the ceiling has been executed perfectly, it will be enough to wash off the dirt and paint it once in the direction of the light falling from the window.
To assess the quality of the old coating, the ceiling must be wetted by making a small draft. It is necessary to moisten up to two times, holding for 30-40 minutes. If defects in the form of bubbles or paint delamination are revealed, they are cleaned off with a spatula and coarse abrasive. Defective spots are putty with a polymer finishing compound, and after it has completely dried, they are sanded "to zero" with a painted surface.
Transitions and flows of putty are unacceptable. A new layer of paint will accentuate them, the ceiling will be damaged.
Renovating or repainting your ceiling is a snap. To correct all irregularities, you must first clean it, remove the chandelier and prime it thoroughly.
Choice of tools
To apply the coloring composition, you will need two rollers of different sizes, a soft brush, a bath with a corrugated surface for wringing, a telescopic extension.
The brush should be soft so as not to leave bristle marks. You should never buy fully synthetic brushes, as they become unusable after five to ten minutes of use.… Natural bristles have a tendency to "fall out" from the ferrule, remaining on the painted surface.The best option is a mixed bristle brush. It serves for a long time, does not lose pile.
The roller should not be made of foam or synthetic fine thread. The first leaves bursting bubbles, which are then visible to the naked eye. The second one loses the villi-threads, which are extremely problematic to remove. For painting the ceiling, a roller coat with a pile of various heights is selected.
The higher the pile, the more shagreen surface you can get. If a perfectly smooth ceiling is required, the pile height should not exceed 6 mm. Rollers with a very low pile (the so-called velor), if they are of poor quality, by the manufacturer will leave diagonal stripes from the seams on the ceiling surface.
A wide roller is used to roll the main surface, the small one is used to roll out the paint applied with a brush. This is due to the fact that the texture of surfaces painted with a brush and a roller differs from each other. If you do not roll out the paint composition applied with a brush, then visually this place will look darker or lighter than the main surface. The pile height of the rollers must be the same.
The bath is necessary to squeeze out excess paint from the rollers in order to avoid uneven application of it. The telescopic extension allows you to paint the ceiling while standing on the floor, rather than crawling on a ladder. You can also use a spray gun.
How to dilute?
The putty and sanded unpainted surface of the ceiling looks quite dignified. Defects, if any, will appear only after applying a layer of paint. Amateurs believe that paint is capable of hiding their flaws in itself. This is a completely wrong approach. On the contrary, it highlights and reveals all defects that remain after surface preparation.
Only after applying the first layer can you clearly see all the scratches, small and not very pores, slugs from one layer of putty to another. Therefore, the first layer, which, in essence, is a surface primer, must be done with a highly diluted composition. It is necessary to dilute it in certain proportions.
If defects appear, they are eliminated, and after that the main layers of the coating are applied. If there are pores that are trying to hide with paint, then they will be visible more and more with each layer. As a result, the more poured onto the defect, the more voluminous and more noticeable it is. For the main coloring, the water-dispersion composition must be diluted without fail if it is thicker than the consistency of kefir. Otherwise, you can get pebbled areas that differ from the rest of the ceiling surface.
Before painting the ceiling, it is first "circled" around the perimeter, starting from the corner farthest from the window. With a brush, carefully paint over the joints of the ceiling and walls, grabbing a strip from 4 to 6 cm wide, and roll out the paint after the brush on the ceiling with a small roller. If a ceiling plinth is provided, it is painted at the same time. This is due to the fact that it is simply impossible to paint over the corners with a large roller. It can also stain walls or leave paint drips on the baseboard.
The roller is wetted in the paint so that it is completely saturated with it. If there is even a small, non-wetted area, there will be "unpainted". For even application, the roller must be wrung out after soaking so that the paint does not drip from it in a stream and does not drip everywhere. Since the primer was applied in the light, the second layer should be applied in the perpendicular direction, that is, along the window.
The last layer must be applied in the direction of the light. You can paint in sections of 1 m by 1 m, with the approach of each subsequent square to the previous one, or in strips a width of slightly larger than the width of the roller. In any case, the roller will roll until it is practically dry.
When all the paint collected by the roller has remained on the ceiling, you immediately need to roll out the possible paths of drops that form along the edges of the roller yourself.If this is not done, stripes will remain on the ceiling that are visible to the naked eye. Each of the layers of paint is applied in one pass. If you apply in areas that will have time to dry, you will get visible boundaries between them. We must always remember that paint, like any material, also has its own thickness.
When applying the coloring composition with your own hands in perpendicular directions, unpainted surfaces are practically excluded. If, nevertheless, any of the areas "shines through", correct it with a small roller, be sure to roll the paint dry so as not to get a stain that differs in texture from the main surface. All work must be done in stages.
For information on how to properly poke the ceiling without streaks, see the next video.
If it happened that during painting you overlooked areas on which more paint was applied than on the neighboring ones, they will look like dark spots due to the higher relief. In this case, before applying the next layer, it is imperative to grind them with a fine abrasive.
If, during the preparation of the ceiling, small concave areas (pits) were invisible, after painting they will look like spots due to light hitting the relief. Any slide in oblique light gives a shadow. In this case, you need to level such places with neighboring ones using a finely dispersed finishing putty. After that, grind the edges of the area to zero with the rest of the surface so that the boundaries of the area are not visible, after which you can first roll it up with a small roller, diluted with a solution, and then apply the last layer of paint to the entire ceiling.
To track all possible surface defects during work, and not after reaching the final result, illuminate the ceiling with an oblique light using a carrying lamp.
To avoid a striped ceiling, all operations are done in the perpendicular direction
Any layer is applied only after the previous one has completely dried. Otherwise, the soaked, not yet dry and not hardened putty will stick (“wind up”) on the roller, and you will have to putty on the resulting defects.
When the temperature in the room changes, the paint can "shrink", that is, shrink in places to such an extent that cracks can occur. To the same can lead to its too fast drying. Therefore, it would be best to turn off the heating elements, close the windows and leave a bucket of water in a freshly painted room.
Do not paint with water-borne compounds on surfaces that have already been painted with alkyd or oil paints. For example, they are not suitable for tiles. After drying, the painted canvas will go into small cracks - this is the so-called craquelure effect. But if you are styling your room for an antique, it may be appropriate.
If the ceiling is already painted, done perfectly and you just need to freshen it up, just vacuum it, go through with a slightly damp microfiber cloth. It will be necessary to re-paint it only if the paint has turned yellow from time to time. You can only wash it with clean water.
If the painted ceiling was poured by neighbors from above and there are stains from rusty water on it, go through this section first, and then the entire surface of the ceiling with a solution of chloramine ("Whiteness"), and the stains will disappear.
In the manufacture of the ceiling, in no case should you use paint polishing nets. They will scratch the entire surface. Now in any hardware store on sale there are fabric-backed nets and water-repellent sponges with an abrasive coating. The size of the abrasive according to the technology should decrease with each subsequent layer. Using such a tool, you will get real pleasure from your work and excellent results.