The gate must be on any site. But it is important not only to choose the ideal design option, you should also understand the features of their installation. Even in the case when the gate is set by a professional team, you need to control its actions. Each type of entrance structure has its own specific installation rules.
The development of technology has led to the emergence of various types of gates, but in most cases, traditional swing products are used. They are made divided into two parts, each of which opens in its own direction. Both segments can be equipped with a self-contained electric drive. Quite often there are roll-back solutions, the canvas of which, when opened, moves to the side.
The movement of the entire structure, of course, occurs simultaneously and from one source of power (muscle strength or motor). For movement, a roller scheme is used, movement is on rails. Sectional doors are mainly used in garages and similar structures.
It is advisable to use roller shutters (roller shutters) for kiosks, stalls, pavilions and many other buildings. They are also used in display cases. With the help of roller shutter systems, full compliance with the required dimensions of the opening is ensured, as a result of which the level of thermal insulation and protection from extraneous noise are at a very high level.
It is necessary to equip gates in garages and in garden (suburban) areas, when you need to enter and exit without opening the main part of the structure. This is a very convenient and practical solution. Anti-theft gates are characterized by increased strength and resistance to destructive mechanical factors and targeted attempts to burglarize. Overhead door options have a variety of characteristics and, above all, the height to which the door leaf is lifted.
Before starting the installation of the gate, it is necessary to prepare supports (pillars), since they will have to withstand the load during operation for as long as possible. Supports made of:
- reinforced concrete;
Relatively light sashes (no more than 30 kg) can be hung on racks made of wooden beams with a section of 100x100 mm. An alternative to it are logs with a diameter of 160 mm. When the canvas has a mass of more than 30, but less than 80 kg, it would be more correct to use concrete or pipes with a diameter of 120 and a thickness of 4 mm. If a timber is chosen, its cross-section must be at least 140x140 mm, logs less than 20 cm are also impractical.
For the most heavy structures, it is recommended to install pipes from 14 cm in diameter with a wall of 0.5 cm and above, or channels, starting from 100x100 mm.
Hence it follows that you should not look for a universal option, it should be selected for the solution of a specific problem. It is also necessary to ensure that the supports for the gate and for the fence coincide stylistically and technically. On sandy, soft or periodically waterlogged soil, the excavations must be tied with a trench and reinforced lintels must be created between the elements to be connected.
Do not work with supports until the concrete has completely hardened. When the column is skewed, it is taken out and a bookmark is created again.
How to make a wireframe?
The posts are very important, but it is equally important to prepare a good structure for the gate itself. Their frame is formed from iron pipes, most often rectangular profiles of 3x5 cm are taken for work. The marking is made according to the dimensions corresponding to the door opening, after which the pipes are cut, and the fragments are welded with a horizontal seam. When working, it is recommended to use electrodes with a diameter of 0.3 cm. The method of work is as follows:
- place all parts on the ground;
- connect them by means of preliminary welding;
- carefully fit the fragments to the most strict quadrangle;
- boil the joints;
- reinforce them with sheet metal linings;
- repeat this work with the second set of suspensions;
- be sure to ensure that about 80 mm of free space remains from the canvas to the surface of the earth.
Key attention needs to be paid to the hinges. Both for the gates and for the wickets, they must be made massive. A couple of hinges per sash and the same number per wicket is quite enough to use. In the process of preparing the hinges, 6 metal plates with a size of 30x40 mm are needed, and the metal layer should be over 0.3 cm. Pipe cuttings are used to cut rectangles, which are straightened with hammer blows.
It is necessary to carefully check if there is any rust on the plates, and if there is, it is first removed.
Each loop is formed by a pair of pieces; a segment with a pin must be welded to the post, another fragment to one and the other shutters. The area to be welded is thoroughly cleaned, holes are drilled no more than 0.3 cm wide. Four holes need to be made in the plate going to the sash, and one is enough for the post.
But now the fabrication of the frame is completed, it is time, in fact, installation. Elements that are not designed for increased load are taken as racks for sliding and folding "accordions". because it is advisable to use pipes of a round or square shape, the cross-section of which varies from 640 to 1000 mm. But the device of gates and gates, in which the suspension mechanism is used, is different - the racks must be selected in the same way as those that are placed under medium and heavy sashes.
To avoid mistakes, it is recommended to contact professionals.
When putting the gate with your own hands, you need to make an underground segment of the racks exactly 1/3 of their height for each case. You can vary the adaptation to the severity of the valves by changing the size of the hole:
- for light gates from 0.25 to 0.35;
- under the average - from 0.35 to 0.45;
- for heavy - from 0.45 to 0.70 m.
If gate adjustment is required, you must immediately select a set of hinges that can be adjusted; constructions that do not have this option cannot be configured.
When fixing the swing gates, each of the canopies must be tied with wire, then they will not slide down when the lower gap templates are installed. When installing sliding metal gates, it is better to choose the console version with mechanics, since such a structure is unlimited in height and works silently. You can start installation even without a ready-made opening, but it is imperative to provide a direct fence from the opening side.
Sliding gates can also be made on rail tracks, this solution provides strength and resistance to strong winds, even if installed independently. At the same time, it is easy to create a structure up to 600 cm wide, but it is imperative to prepare the opening and systematically clean the mechanism in order to avoid difficulties when opening. To install the sliding gates correctly, you need to fasten them with a torsion spring to the ceiling of the room. Working with separate categories of gates has its own subtleties.
First of all, the flaps need to be connected to the racks in the prone position, only when this is done, the racks are introduced into the wells made in advance. Under the elements, you need to put bricks, bars or other materials that will help keep the ground clearance from 10 to 15 cm. The doors should be supported by slopes, and after the most accurate verification of their placement in the horizontal and vertical planes.
After accurate placement, the bases of the posts are concreted and wait for the mortar to dry in the next 3 or 4 days. Only after it has completely hardened can the gate be safely used.
On an uneven surface, you first need to find the highest point with which the bottom face will touch. When the structure is removable, the approach is noticeably easier, especially when setting the required height. You can even immediately mount the racks, and only after their installation, fasten the sashes. It is advisable to fix the canopies on racks and sashes when they are lying on the ground, then remove them and put the posts. The tops of the posts must be placed in one line so that their height is exactly the same.
Small differences in height can be eliminated by placing washers in the sheds or outweighing the sheds themselves. Lightweight gates are sometimes attached to originally mounted posts; but if they are heavier, such a step is incorrect. Heavy hinged gates on masonry or masonry should not be rigidly interlocked. If you do this, mechanical, vibration and wind loads will rapidly destroy the struts.
Sliding (sliding) gates, like swing gates, begin to be mounted with the installation of supporting structures, removing the soil, laying the pillars and concreting them. The difference is revealed when they begin to prepare the foundation: it should be made on the basis of a banquet, which includes a channel (1/2 of the opening length) and reinforcement. It is necessary to remove the soil under the base when the welding of the bench is completed. The bottom of the trench is covered with a mixture of gravel and sand, only after that the frame is placed there.
Pouring the banquet with a layer of concrete should be preceded by wires that will supply current to the electric drive. In most cases, their input is organized in the middle of the foundation. On a level-adjusted working platform, pipe blanks are laid out from a profile, which are tacked using a welding machine. Having adjusted the dimensions and angles, it is possible to weld the pipes completely, pipe parts of a smaller section go to the crate.
The beam is pushed into the doorway, then the supporting trolleys are attached and the frame is welded to the beam. The completion of the work is the attachment of the upper bracket; each block is coated with primer and paint. After putting the frame in place, you can start working with the sheathing. Usually sliding gates are sheathed with the same decorative materials as swing gates. The automation process starts with attaching the gear racks to the drives. Such a rail will control the course of the canvas.
Sectional doors can be installed even in small spaces, because the door leaf at the moment of opening goes to the very ceiling. The main material must be processed with polymers so that it retains its consumer qualities for a longer time. Sometimes such gates are equipped with strong window openings to ensure natural light, and the use of sandwich panels to create a leaf improves thermal insulation. Installation of sectional doors requires the use of:
- a set of keys and screwdrivers;
- screwdriver and hammer drill;
- building level.
Having opened the installation kit, experienced people first check if everything is in stock. Sectional doors can only be installed if the lintel and ceiling are strong enough. It is desirable to have a lintel of 30 cm and more, this helps to reduce the cost of the structure. The opening is plastered, fragile coatings are removed to the very base. The floor is leveled horizontally so that the canvas fits better. The guides are installed only after the attachment points are indicated.
The slightest misalignment can severely damage sectional doors, therefore, instead of wooden gaskets, connoisseurs recommend using metal spacers. Following the guides, control parts and a lifting device are attached. The canvas should be placed as carefully as possible so as not to break an expensive product. It is better to check all parameters repeatedly than to fix problems later.
Sectional doors in most cases are mounted together, because it is much easier to work with a partner.
Setting up automation
The programming of automatic electric drive circuits should be carried out with the participation of professionals. Even when there is no firm decision on the use of automation, you need to take care of laying and securing the cable in advance. When connecting it to home networks, a plastic or metal tube is used. According to experts, it will be correct to bury the wire 0.2-0.3 m into the ground, and the bare edges are insulated as carefully as possible using insulating tape or special devices.
When choosing an electric motor for an entrance gate, it is necessary to take into account that it is capable of driving only leaves of a certain mass and geometry. Adjusting the equipment will be useless if the motor is simply not able to withstand the installed structure.
It is most practical to paint any gate with a spray gun, but if it is not there, you can limit yourself to a brush. It is advisable to use protective devices - special glasses and gloves. In the case when there is heaving soil on the site, it is required to make a frame of steel reinforcement and concrete at a depth of 150 cm, and support pipes are welded to the reinforcement.
A foundation of at least 1.5 m must be created if a pillar is being mounted made of brick, concrete or natural stone. Embedded elements welded to the pipe must be removed outside the perimeter of the post, then loops are welded onto them. When all this is completed, the product is covered with bricks and a pillar is formed, the inside of which is filled with concrete. It is important to remember that the cement must harden for at least 7 days. Double-sided suturing is done in such a way that its material is flush with the pipes of the outer frames.
One-sided suturing is performed with a shift of the inner pipes to the edges. To attach the facing materials, it is required to use self-tapping screws or rivets. The cleaning of metal from traces of corrosion is achieved not manually, but with an angle grinder with a metal brush, and the treatment is completed by applying gasoline or a solvent. Further improvement of the surface is achieved with a primer under the enamel paint. When welding, it is required to grind all the resulting seams.
At the summer cottage, it is advisable to use a forged lattice or a Rabitz mesh as a canvas. An alternative is presented to them:
- Sheet steel;
- professional sheet;
- forged details for decorative purposes.
Regardless of the design used, it is required to verify the installation of the posts and the suspended sashes using a level. Be sure to leave technical gaps in the gaps of the flaps and above the ground, this will allow you to freely open the gate in case of distortion, shifts (crumbling) of the soil, snowfall.
For information on how to install automatic sliding gates, see the next video.