After buying a car, any car owner begins to think about extending the life of his "horse". Weather conditions, and especially sharp temperature changes and frosts, negatively affect the safety of the car - the body can become covered with corrosion, and the insulation gum in the doors can crack.
The crime situation in big cities also does not inspire confidence - recently even not the most expensive brands of cars began to be stolen more often for disassembly and resale for spare parts.
If there is an empty plot of land, then by all means you need to build a garage on it. A capital structure made of brick or stone is very labor intensive and expensive, and it will take a lot of space.
Alternatively, you can put a metal box, especially if the site, according to municipal regulations, is not intended for the construction of a permanent building on it. However, in winter, such a garage is not much better than an open parking lot, just with a roof, as it instantly freezes through and through. In the summer heat, the metal also warms up to cosmic temperatures, so sometimes it is even dangerous to keep a car in such a "gas chamber".
The optimal solution for any time of the year is the quick construction of a garage from sandwich panels. A similar structure is at a price several times lower than a stationary building, and is well insulated.
Features of the
To begin with, it is worth figuring out what a building material such as a sandwich panel or a sip panel is. The composition of the structure is already covered in its name - a sandwich, or a multilayer sandwich. So, insulation is clamped between two sheets of metal of different texture … All three layers are usually fastened using a hot press - a modern technology, for the use of which additional elements such as nails and screws are not required, therefore the likelihood of gaps between the sheets is minimized.
The main element in the metal sheet is the type of insulation, because the durability of the garage, and its resistance to temperature fluctuations, and, ultimately, the cost of construction depend on it.
Most often, mineral wool, foam, foam-based polyurethane or basalt fibers are laid between the two parts.… For the most part, these are lightweight materials, which even if they increase in size with a change in temperature, they will not be able to damage the metal bounding them on both sides.
The inner and outer layers of the panel often have different textures. So, a sheet facing the street is folded in the manner of an accordion-constructor with profiling, so that it is easier to keep heat and resist mechanical shocks.
On the inside, the material, on the contrary, is smooth, so that it is easier to attach it to the base frame. With subsequent finishing it is also possible to lay an additional layer of insulation or soundproofing material between the frame and the panel.
Sometimes in stores you can find sandwich panels with an outer sheet of wood with the addition of various polymers and composites to prevent wood from rotting or swelling in the heat. However, one should not rely heavily on such material - it is good only in southern latitudes with minimal rainfall.
For central Russia, metal sheets are still the best option when building a garage..
It is necessary to calculate in advance the number of panels required for the construction of a building, because they come in different sizes. The width of the sheet is usually standard - 1 meter, but the length varies from 1 to 15 meters, it all depends on the final needs and dimensions of the car.
To order, it is possible to manufacture panels of non-standard size, but it is easier and cheaper to assemble a box of ordinary sheets as a designer, fastening them together with a sealant. In the corner, the panels have recesses or the so-called locking part - it is important to check that the joints coincide everywhere, otherwise the puzzle will not be assembled in placeas the individual sheets will not fit together.
Advantages and disadvantages
The construction of a garage from sandwich panels has a number of undeniable advantages:
- The speed of construction of the structure, because the installation of the walls does not require special draft devices or a whole team of workers. It is also not necessary to wait for the onset of summer, since installation can be carried out at any time of the year. Damaged parts of the structure are usually repaired in one daylight hours, for which it is worth buying an extra sandwich panel or insulation.
- Significant price difference downwards compared to other construction technologies - concrete, brick or wood. The quality of such a garage, according to the reviews of car owners, is in no way inferior to a concrete analogue and much better than a metal one.
- Additional rather big costs are usually spent on the formation of the foundation for the garage, and in this case it is not always necessary. Sandwich panels are light enough, so they do not carry a large load on the floor as supporting structures. Sometimes it is enough to cover the existing site with rubble, and lay a panel with insulation on top.
- Sheets are quickly transported both from the store to the construction site, and subsequently to another site. The entire structure can be easily disassembled, transported to a new site and rebuilt with a minimum purchase of new building materials. Such situations are not uncommon if the owner sold his land plot or summer cottage and moved to another area, but did not want to part with his garage.
- The thermal insulation sewn into the panels allows you to safely store in the garage not only a car, but also other equipment and personal belongings all year round, without installing additional heating systems. In severe cold weather, the heat does not disappear from the room, but in the heat, on the contrary, creates a cool atmosphere inside.
- Some materials for thermal insulation of sandwich panels have, among other things, noise insulation properties. This is very convenient when the garage is located right next to a residential building, and the sound of a running engine or night repairs does not bother either loved ones or neighbors.
- A sandwich panel is a fairly safe material for household use from an environmental point of view. It is non-toxic, so no toxic substances will be released during a fire. Many panel modifications are treated with anti-corrosion and antifungal compounds, which significantly prolongs the life of the garage.
- The panels are available in a very rich color palette, so you can always match the garage in the color of the residential building or the surrounding outbuildings. Certain types of sheets are suitable for painting, so that you can periodically change the exterior of the structure or renew it.
- Having erected the main frame and "planted" panels on it, we can assume that the garage is ready. Such a minimum configuration allows the building to be operated in a comfortable mode and, in principle, no additional finishing is needed. It is, of course, possible to decorate the walls from the inside with decorative materials, but this will already be a matter of aesthetics, and not a harsh necessity.
There are only a few disadvantages of sandwich panel structures, and even then they are conditional:
- If the panels are not connected correctly and gaps have formed between the joints, then cold air will seep through the cracks. In winter, places of poor sealing simply freeze through. You can fix the problem with a small piece of a new panel and a roll of insulation placed on the sealant.
- The above-described plus of panels - in the absence of a full-fledged foundation, can turn into a minus in case of natural emergencies. So, during a hurricane, the garage can fold like a house of cards or separate from the base if the frame was not sufficiently attached to the foundation or the site for it. To avoid such an annoying misunderstanding, dig deeper the corner beams of the frame into the ground, or better pour some concrete in these places.
- During the fastening of the panels to the base, they can simply be damaged, but not to holes, but only to the level of a cosmetic defect - a chip or scratch. If the roughness is very conspicuous, just cover it with a suitable color paint in several steps.
Building a garage from sandwich panels yourself is not a difficult task. However, even for such, at first glance, a simple and fast-assembly structure a detailed study of the plan and drawing of the drawing is required … In any case, the plan will always look like a rectangle, but its dimensions depend on the area of the available territory and the wishes of the car owner.
Of course, the perimeter of the garage cannot be larger than the perimeter of the area allocated for it. However, even in conditions of a minimum footage, you can come up with several design options, taking into account the terrain, the number of cars and the side on which the gate will go.
According to the standard for a B-class passenger car, you need to build a garage at least 6 meters long and 4 meters wide.
If you plan to build for two cars, then, accordingly, multiply the standard area by two. The variant in which both cars stand in a row next to each other assumes an area of 6X12 meters.
When the site allows you to capture at least one more meter for construction, you can separate one parking space from the other with a collapsible plasterboard partition so that the owners do not interfere with each other. This solution is especially relevant for the inhabitants of town houses, where both the house and the garage are divided by several owners.
When it is impossible to increase the width of the garage, a less convenient, but economical construction in terms of the occupied territory is erected, where one car stands behind another. Yes, this is not so comfortable, especially if the first person to leave for work is the one whose car is locked farther from the entrance and you need to constantly negotiate. However, the undoubted advantage of a garage with an area of 12X6 or at least 12X4 meters is that both cars are always under a canopy and warm.
Separately, at the request of the owner, an additional entrance door is installed to the existing entrance gate. If one of the walls faces the street, then it is better to cut one or two windows in it.… So it is more convenient to work, and the room will be better ventilated.
If the window joints are properly insulated, then the windows will not affect the depressurization of the room in winter.
Gates for garages are made in two versions: ordinary hinged, sliding shutters in two directions and a large roller shutter in the form of blinds. Sash-gates, of course, are more familiar to the Russian consumer, but they cannot always be fully installed and opened, because this requires additional space.
The roller shutter system is gaining more and more popularity, because its advantages are obvious: it takes up less space, opening upwards and not outwards. Such a panel can be put into automatic opening mode, while leaving the possibility of a mechanical function.… It happens that the electronics fail or freeze in severe frost, and then you have to open the shutters with your hands.
Undoubted convenience - the ability to redirect the gate opening function to a remote control panel. When it is very cold or dark, and the owner wants to enter the territory of the house as soon as possible, roll shutters with a similar device are irreplaceable.
It is also not difficult to design a two-story garage from sandwich panels. On the upper tier, you can store personal items in the manner of a pantry, or leave seasonal rubber.
A staircase often goes to the second floor, leading directly to the house. In winter it is very convenient, but from an environmental point of view, it is not recommended to take such a step.so that exhaust gases do not enter the living area. It is impossible to arrange an additional parking space on the second tier.because the prefabricated structure of sandwich panels is too light for such loads.
A separate item for the image in the drawing is the roof, which comes in a standard layout of two types - single-slope and gable. The first option is simple to implement, but applicable only to areas with an arid climate. Otherwise, the flat top simply will not withstand the onslaught of large volumes of snow accumulating on it.
For a gable roof, you need a more complex frame, and a water pipe to boot, but it is a more durable solution for any garage.
Recently, detailed drawings are needed rather for order, because in large hardware stores you can find a completely ready-made kit for self-assembly of a garage from sandwich panels. The difference in price between the step-by-step purchase of each item separately and the ready-made set is minimal, but you can be sure that no detail is forgotten.
There is everything here - not only, in fact, panels, but also frame profiles, screws, clamps and fasteners. In some modifications, tape seals for joints and pieces of insulation for gluing especially problematic areas have been added. Each kit has step-by-step instructions, so you don't need to have special professional skills here.
If none of the ready-made kits is suitable for a specific site with a non-standard layout, it can be ordered according to an individual project. Yes, this option will be more expensive, but here all the wishes of the owner will be taken into account.
For the construction of any garage from sandwich panels, approximately the same step-by-step execution algorithm is used:
- preparation of the territory for the construction of the object, that is, cleaning it from construction and other debris, leveling the surface for a site that replaces the foundation;
- if the territory is too uneven, then a recess is dug under the foundation, and then it is erected according to the chosen method - either with layers of pebbles and rubble, or by pouring concrete;
- installation of a metal frame-base according to the type of a constructor, its reliable adhesion to the floor with brackets, heaters and sealants;
- finishing the finished base with sandwich panels by analogy with plasterboard structures, that is, screwing to the frame, but at the same time butt-to-end joint with an adjacent sheet, falling into each other with the locking parts;
- sealing seams and joints of the finished structure with additional heaters and sealants;
- inset of gates and windows;
- elimination of cosmetic flaws on external panels in the form of chips and cracks due to careless work;
- additional finishing of the interior space with insulation, installation of lighting equipment, installation of shelves and other minor interior repairs at will.
Depending on the terrain, the car owner decides whether to make additional efforts to build the foundation.
If the site is uneven or consists of poorly strengthened and loose soil, then it is better to insure the construction of the garage by pre-filling the base for it.
The most common methods for creating a foundation are strip or columnar … The second option is more laborious, since support pillars and piles are mounted in the soil.
As a lightweight stage for the rapid construction of a garage that does not require unnecessary equipment and hands, it is worth considering the tape method.
The manufacture of any foundation begins with a step-by-step marking of the territory with a clear outline of the contour and boundaries of the pit. Then they proceed to the main stage - digging out a base with a depth of at least half a meter.
If the soil in the region is unstable, subject to tremors or complete freezing in winter, it is better to deepen the trench down to one meter so that there is where to add additional layers of soil and waterproofing.
The first layer with which the base is tamped is sand. It should occupy at least one fifth of the entire depth of the pit. Also, one-fifth of the hole should be occupied by the next layer - gravel and crushed stone.
Before laying the third tier, it is better to install formwork - a fence made of a double row of wooden beams, naturally, outlining the boundaries of the foundation and being fasteners for subsequent materials. Above the crushed stone is laid with a dense layer of oilcloth, since polyethylene is a good waterproofing agent and a base for the ground. However, you can take any other polymer material for waterproofing, but film is the most economical option, no worse than any composite analogue.
When the third layer is fixed to the formwork, you need to make sure that it goes horizontally along the entire perimeter, and vertically goes beyond the pouring everywhere the same and no more than 20-30 cm … Concrete is poured next or ready-made concrete blocks are laid - it all depends on the strength of the soil. So, for more stable soil, you can simply put blocks, and for terrain prone to landslides, it's better to play it safe and fill everything with concrete yourself.
If it is assumed that the fill level will coincide with the upper point of the formwork, then nothing additional is necessary to mark - the edges of the wooden beams should be immersed in liquid concrete, which will serve as a signal mark for the required level. When, by design features, there is a desire to make the foundation below the level of the end of the formwork, then in the corners it is worth noting the line along which the material should be poured.
To make the base more stable, a reinforcing mesh can be laid under the concrete. After applying the last layer, immediately, without waiting for drying, it is necessary to remove irregularities and bubbles formed on the surface with a special spatula, otherwise the foundation will very soon begin to crumble.
The whole structure should be allowed to dry for about a day, and then covered with a thick plastic wrap to allow the foundation to "brew" and reach the required strength condition. It should be allowed to shrink completely for at least a month, and only then proceed with the installation of the frame under the garage … This does not mean that for four weeks the foundation will simply stand covered, and nothing needs to be done with it. On the contrary, almost every day it is advisable to moisten it with special compounds so that it is finally fixed on the ground.
If the base was laid according to a lightweight version of concrete blocks, then bypassing a month of waiting, you can immediately proceed with further actions.
Before installing the frame, it is necessary to lay a layer of waterproofing material, and, if desired, insulation.
Now you can prepare the screed under the floor. Someone does this immediately after the foundation has shrunk, while others first completely build the garage, and then prepare the floor at a convenient pace under the roof. If at the same time with the screed there is an arrangement of an inspection pit, then it is better to first build the entire structure, and then tackle the bottom, after all, both the floor and the pit are not work for one day.
For a garage made of sandwich panels, after pouring the foundation, it is necessary to mount a frame on which metal sheets will be mounted. The design of the frame is not particularly different from those that are erected with their own hands when sheathing the walls inside the room with drywall. Vertical and horizontal profiles are taken, fastened together with a screwdriver and self-tapping screws, as well as special jumpers and brackets.
To increase the stability of the structure, you can add metal or wooden beams, launched diagonally in the form of a tape and fastened to the base at the points of contact.
If there is no confidence in the reliability of the U-shaped profiles for connecting vertical and horizontal bases, then welding and mounting beams on bolts are used. However, in ready-made kits for assembling a garage, fastening systems based on self-tapping screws are already provided, since they are easy to use and require a minimum of additional equipment.
When assembling from metal strips, the distance between them should not be less than 50 cm … It is understandable - the more fastening points, the more reliable the whole structure. Do not forget about window and door openings - for them you need to leave an empty space with the possibility of inserting the corresponding elements.
Between the foundation and the frame, it is necessary to fix the so-called basement girder - an interlayer that not only strengthens the adhesion, but also has hydrophobic properties. After that, we proceed to the installation of the roof frame - the principle is the same, only the profile is one and a half times wider than for the walls.
The last, but most important stage in the construction of a garage is the direct modular installation of sandwich panels to the walls and roof of the frame. Most often, the sheets are fastened vertically, since the total height of the building usually does not reach 5-6 meters. The panels should not touch the floor, and even more so the foundation - a layer of waterproof material is laid between them.
Like the usual drywall construction, the fastening of the sandwich panel in the garage box must be butt-joint, starting from the corner of the room. Such sheets have Tetris-type locking parts, and by inserting one part into the grooves of the other, you can create the most reliable fastening. The panel is screwed to the frame with self-tapping screws along the lower and upper profiles, and so that the self-tapping screw does not go deeply into the core of the panel and does not damage it. The ideal step between the self-tapping screws is about half a meter.
At the end, it is necessary to lay the places of the locking joints and joints of individual panels with each other with insulation, most often based on mineral wool, and then walk through these zones with a moisture-resistant sealant.
Roof panels come with a slightly different locking structure, where the joints overlap to create a better seal. After the completion of the installation, the places where the roof transitions into the walls are also carefully finished with a special material to create a warm environment and a sealant, and in the corners the entire structure is sheathed with strips and separate corner sheets of sandwich panels.
A sandwich panel is a fairly unpretentious material to use, but when working with it, you should still follow a number of recommendations:
Initially, the panels are sold in hardware stores in a factory protective film. After transporting the material to the construction site of the garage, do not rush to remove it. The outer shell of the sandwich structure is rather fragile, so it is possible not to calculate the impact force during installation and inflict light damage on it in the form of cracks and chips. It is only worth pushing back those sections of the protective coating along which the direct installation is taking place, and the parts not involved in the work can be left under the film
It is also prohibited to attach any heavy objects such as ladders or other bulky equipment to the outer shell of the sheets. The walls can simply fold, since the material is, in principle, lightweight, and the structure has not yet been strengthened. In this case, it will not be possible to avoid all the same decorative damage to the upper paint layer. The ladder during installation can only be supported on the frame
If the scratches are still formed, then you can easily eliminate them yourself, at least visually. Choose a paint to match the garage and retouch the roughness in several layers. The main thing is to choose waterproof and frost-resistant paint, or better enamel, and then the garage will serve in its original form for many years
For cutting sheets of sandwich panels of the desired size, not every type of equipment from a home workshop is suitable. So, it is better not to use the beloved grinder of the "grinder" type, because it gets very hot during cutting. From such a high temperature, both the inner layer of the insulation and the metal sheet of the panel itself can be damaged. For cutting this rather thin material, an ordinary hacksaw, metal scissors, in extreme cases, a jigsaw, and even then working at low speeds, are suitable
Examples of finished buildings
The unusual design is a variant of the garage in the American country style, that is, a village barn house. The garage is designed for two cars, but for one there is a completely covered room, and for the other there is an open shed on pillars. Such a project is convenient when working with dacha equipment, which is used every day, and it is faster to drive it out from under the canopy.
The attic floor serves as a small storage room for car inventory. A separate door has been cut into the side of the entrance gate. Solar panels are attached to the gable roof so that the garage can independently generate electricity for its own lighting.
A two-car garage in vibrant red-orange hues blends in with the surroundings. The gate is made in the form of a roller shutter system. The roof, despite its single-pitched simplified design, is installed at an angle, so snow and rain can safely fall on the ground.
The garage fits well into the ensemble together with the residential building, since the sandwich panels are selected to match the color of the house. The combination of white and brown in the gable roof area echoes the silhouette of the main building. The gates in the form of a retractable shutter system look in the opposite direction from the entrance to the living quarters, which contributes to a normal environmental situation in the yard.
For an overview of a two-story sandwich panel garage, see the following video.