A garage is a home for a car, in which the optimum temperature must be maintained throughout the year. This is necessary so that the car is always in good condition and that the owner of the garage building is comfortable working in this room. It is to comply with these conditions that such a procedure as the insulation of the garage is performed. Many car owners decide to insulate their garage on their own.
But before starting the implementation of this process, you must familiarize yourself with all the nuances of the procedure, the types of materials for insulation and a detailed algorithm of actions.
Features of the
Insulation is the decoration of the walls of various parts of a garage building or a gate with a layer of material that retains heat inside the building in the winter season and does not allow the garage to heat up excessively in the summer. This technology allows you to maintain a stable temperature range, which will have a positive effect on the operation of the car or other devices that you store in this room.
It is necessary to insulate the garage, because if this is not done, condensation may form on the surface of the car - excess moisture that is released as a result of contact of the heated surface of the car with cold air. If this phenomenon occurs regularly, then the risk of corrosion on the car body increases, which can significantly reduce its service life.
In the summer, an uninsulated garage heats up a lot, which also contributes to the disruption of the car's functions, because it is undesirable to store the car at too high a temperature. Even an indicator of +20 degrees is unfavorable.
To effectively and cheaply insulate a garage building with your own hands, you need to take into account a number of features of your building. These include:
- The material from which the garage is made. Each raw material has a different resistance to heating and cooling, has a different heat capacity and characteristics. Therefore, some buildings require a denser layer of insulation, and in the case of others, it is enough to do with small layers. In addition, garages made from certain materials, such as brick buildings, tend to have a standard lightweight wall thickness. The gate is often made of corrugated board, which is even less resistant to temperature influences.
- Specifics of the particular area of the garage where you wish to stabilize the temperature. In different zones, not only thermometer readings may differ, but also air humidity.
- It is imperative to separate the concepts of insulation and ventilation. One process should not interfere with the other. At the same time, pay attention to the layout of the building, especially if the garage has non-standard dimensions.
- Garage rooms can be insulated with their own hands only from the inside or outside. But the double-sided version of insulation is ideal.
- An important factor is the heating of the premises. For heated garages, insulation is carried out using a special technology. A different type of material may also be required.
- The area of the garage structure also determines the factor of the amount of heat loss. The larger the garage has, the more thoroughly it must be insulated.
Material selection: varieties
To independently equip a garage with a thermal insulation system, you can use a huge number of different materials. Each of them has unique features that should be taken into account in the process of insulation.
Mineral wool is a special material that allows a room to "breathe" if there is a heat-insulating layer in it. It is presented in the form of mats of various thicknesses, which consist of special fibers that retain heat. The texture of the coating depends on the place of insulation, since a soft material is used for interior decoration, and a harder one for the exterior. Such insulation has a number of positive qualities:
- versatility of use (the material is used to insulate various surfaces, including walls, floors, gates, various partitions);
- low level of thermal conductivity;
- affordable price.
Among the disadvantages of insulation, one can note the impossibility of its operation in conditions of high humidity. Under the influence of water, the structure and thermal insulation properties of the mats deteriorate. So that the mineral wool does not lose its qualities, it must be protected with a special vapor barrier layer that will prevent the effects of moisture. Basalt type of material is considered the most versatile and high quality. She has the best thermal conductivity. Also, such mats are capable of absorbing sounds.
A type of mineral wool is a material such as glass wool, which has differences in texture and rigidity. Compared to mineral wool, glass wool is much tougher, its fibers have a prickly texture, so gloves should be worn when working with such mats. This insulation is quite cheap because it absolutely does not tolerate moisture.
If water gets on the glass wool during the insulation process, it will no longer be suitable for further use. To prevent such an incident from happening, you should carefully insulate the mats with foil material.
Foam insulation is in the greatest demand for thermal insulation of garage premises. This material has many positive characteristics:
- Foam boards are very easy to install. They lend themselves well to cutting with a hacksaw or even an ordinary construction knife (if the thickness of the material is small).
- Polyfoam does not lend itself to decay processes.
- The material is resistant to moisture.
The flammability of the material can be attributed to the number of negative qualities. Therefore, you need to choose types of foam that can decay on their own. It is usually necessary to extinguish the source of the flame, and foam products will extinguish themselves after 4 seconds. Also, such a heater does not allow air to pass through. Polyfoam is not suitable for insulating such surfaces, which are often exposed to sunlight, because under the influence of ultraviolet radiation, the material is prone to crumbling and acquiring a yellow tint.
Modified materials are replacing traditional foam. These include such insulation as penoplex. It is made on the basis of expanded polystyrene extrusion and is used to insulate garage buildings. The positive properties of the material are:
- high thermal conductivity;
- uniform small cells give the foam strength;
- the material is very easy to assemble by yourself;
- with the help of penoplex, you can insulate the garage from the outside, because the material has low moisture permeability;
- raw materials do not emit toxic substances during combustion.
The disadvantage of penoplex is its instability to fires.
Polyurethane foam is a material for insulation, which has a very plastic structure and includes air bubbles. It is often used for garage buildings because it has a number of special characteristics:
- the material is difficult to burn;
- resistant to aggressive chemical solutions;
- such material is able to serve for a long time as a heat-insulating layer;
- does not emit any harmful substances and gases, which makes it safe for human health and environmentally friendly;
- such a material is not afraid of the effects of moisture;
- it is important that fungus and mold do not form on polyurethane foam;
- a special property is the resistance of the material to the effects of small rodents, because sometimes mice appear in garages, but polyurethane is usually not exposed to their teeth;
- the service life of polyurethane foam reaches 50 years.
Among the negative characteristics of polyurethane foam are:
- Instability to ultraviolet radiation. To protect the material from the harmful effects of sunlight, it will be necessary to cover its surface with a special protective paint.
- The price for such material is usually high. But taking into account the service life and the area of your garage, it is quite reasonable to choose this raw material as a heater.
The combination of foamed polyurethane foam and polished foil in the insulation forms a new type of material for thermal insulation - reflective thermal insulation. The thickness of such insulation does not exceed 5 mm, so it is sold in rolls. Its main advantages include:
- the ability to carry out internal insulation of the garage without significant loss of area;
- the material meets high hygiene standards;
- reflective insulation is difficult to ignite;
- the material is lightweight, which is very convenient for transportation and installation by hand.
The disadvantage of this type of insulation is not complete, but only partial elimination of heat loss, since polyurethane foam with foil is not able to cope with all types of heat loss.
Such material is a special combination of fillers, which include expanded polystyrene, sawdust, expanded vermiculite. This material has the following advantages:
- there is no need to align before installing the insulation layer;
- the plaster can be combined with substrates made of almost any material due to its high level of adhesion;
- with the help of the plastic structure of the material, you can easily apply it even to hard-to-reach areas of the garage;
- for such raw materials, the effects of mold, fungus, and also small rodents are not afraid;
- the material is able to absorb heat and distribute it evenly;
- products of this type are environmentally friendly;
- such plaster is not subject to combustion.
Among the disadvantages of warm plaster are:
- it is necessary to apply a thick layer of such material to the walls, which contributes to the loss of space;
- because of its thickness and structure, warm plaster tends to absorb moisture;
- also a dense layer will dry longer on the surface;
- the material is quite expensive, since it appeared not very long ago on the construction market and represents an innovation in insulation in comparison with other methods.
Heat insulating paint
Many people value not only the quality of the insulation, but also the attractive appearance of the material. It is for such users that a special paint is suitable, which is based on acrylic polymers, organic pigments and synthetic rubber. This coating is similar to conventional paint, but it has thermal insulation properties. It has a pasty consistency, the standard color of the composition is white, but you can add any color to it. The main advantages of such coverage are:
- the ability to apply the material to the base with a thin layer that does not exceed 0.4 cm;
- the material is useful for insulating such hard-to-reach areas where it is not possible to strengthen roll insulation;
- paint can be applied using a spray, this method allows you to evenly cover the surface;
- although the service life depends on the thickness of the layer to which the material is applied, the heat-insulating paint will perform its functions for a long period of time - up to 40 years;
- the composition is presented in various variations. This helps to choose a type of paint for a certain temperature regime, in general, the temperature range ranges from -70 to +260 degrees;
- such material is resistant to ultraviolet rays;
- the composition applied to the surface is resistant to mechanical stress.
Among the disadvantages of the material, only its fire hazard can be distinguished. Isolon is a special type of materials for insulating a garage. It is made on the basis of polyethylene foam and is a structure with small closed cells. This structure is made in the form of canvases of various thicknesses. Some models have foil on one side. The advantages of Isolon include its resistance to moisture and sunlight.
From the inside, a thermal insulation layer is supplied to various surfaces of the garage building: horizontal and vertical, smooth and embossed, dimensional and small, static and mobile.
But when finishing each of them, it is important to take into account a number of special nuances that are not typical for other types of surfaces. This will help to quickly and efficiently insulate the garage.
If you decide to protect the garage building from freezing by insulating the walls from the inside, then the process of such finishing is carried out as follows:
- Clean the surface of the walls from dirt and grease stains.
- Using drywall, make a partition. It forms the frame for the thermal insulation material. To create a partition, special UD guides are used, which are attached with dowels to the floor and ceiling. Then, every 30 cm, CD profiles are installed into the wall.
- In addition to drywall sheets, you can also use asbestos fiber, a huge advantage of which is fire resistance.
But if you have chosen asbestos fiber, install the frame profiles with a more frequent pitch, since the fiber is a rather fragile material.
- When the frame is made, you need to add a layer of insulation between the partitions. It is most convenient to lay material such as glass wool, which is attached to the surface with the help of special hooks.
- After the glass wool layer, you need to create a vapor barrier layer. For this, a special membrane is taken and applied close to the insulation.
- From the outside, you need to plaster the garage "box" with warm plaster. It will protect the walls from freezing and excessive moisture. Instead of plaster, you can take a heat-insulating paint.
- It is necessary to equip the garage with ventilation, which will be designed for intensive air exchange.
If the surface of the walls is made of iron, then the most optimal is their insulation with polyurethane foam. Insulation paint with a liquid texture is also suitable. With the help of special foam generators, liquid foam is produced. It changes its state of aggregation when it is applied to the wall, becoming a hard crust.
You can also insulate your iron garage with styrofoam. This material is attached to the walls with glue. The process is carried out in several stages:
- the iron surface is cleaned and degreased;
- foam sheets are cut to the required size;
- the insulation is attached to the surface of the walls with glue;
- the cracks are sealed with polyurethane foam;
- if desired, such an insulating layer can be painted.
To insulate the floor in a garage-type room, it is necessary to make a screed using materials such as sand, crushed stone, expanded clay for additional thermal insulation. To insulate this surface, you must follow a certain algorithm of actions:
- Arrangement of a cushion made of rubble and sand. The crushed stone layer is poured 10 centimeters thick. Then a layer of sand is applied, its thickness can vary from 5 to 10 cm. The layers must be watered and compacted with a vibrating plate.
- Waterproofing on the floor is created using roofing material or polyethylene, which is evenly laid on the base. It is important that the ends of the polyethylene sheet extend onto the walls to a height of 10 to 15 cm.
- A ten-centimeter layer of expanded clay is poured onto the film and rammed.
- A vapor barrier polyethylene layer is overlapped.
- Reinforcing mesh is laid on supports made of wood or brick. In this case, the size of the cells should be 10x10 cm.
- Next, the beacons are installed and fixed with a cement-sand mortar.
- At the final stage, the cement-sand mortar is kneaded, which includes 1 part of water and cement and 4 parts of sand.
- The composition is applied with shovels to the floor and subsequently leveled using a rule and processed with a vibrating plate.
- To keep moisture in the screed, it is covered with a film. The surface will be ready for use after 28 days.
The majority of garages are equipped with a pitched roof, which must be insulated, because it is this roof that is most exposed to various precipitation. But when insulating this floor, it is important to take into account the material from which it is made. Styrofoam is usually attached to a wooden structure using nails and dowels.
If the coating is made of concrete, then a special frame made with screws and corners must be attached to it. Styrofoam is fixed to the frame, while adhesive tape is used, and the insulation plates are tightly pressed against the ceiling.
If the insulation is based on fibers, then a waterproofing layer must be placed on the roof side, and a vapor barrier on the ceiling side. To extend the life of the insulation, the surface is treated with special antiseptic paints.
Also, the roof is insulated with expanded polystyrene from the side of the ceiling. The process of warming itself takes place according to the following scheme:
- the surface of the ceiling must be thoroughly cleaned and degreased;
- the ceiling is primed;
- the plates must be glued to the ceiling and aligned with the rule;
- it is necessary to carry out additional fastening with dowels;
- for additional connection between the plates, it is necessary to fasten the ladder;
- then the plaster layer is applied;
- based on personal wishes, you can carry out additional staining.
Another suitable material for ceiling insulation is penofol. It is quite simple to create thermal insulation with penofol on your own due to the light weight of the material and its small thickness.
Garage doors are most often a sliding metal structure in which a small door is built. The greatest amount of heat passes through the gate, so it is imperative to insulate them. To do this, you can use ordinary plastic or high-density fabric. The process is carried out as follows:
- A film of dense polyethylene is cut into strips, the length of which does not reach the garage floor by 1 cm.The width of the segments should be from 20 to 30 cm.
- To fix the strips, you need to install a wooden rail.
- Polyethylene strips are fastened with an overlap of 1.5-2 cm. This ensures that there are no cracks through which cold air penetrates.
The most suitable material for insulating garage doors is polystyrene. It is filled with a pre-installed crate. Using adhesive tape and rubber seals, gaps that can pass drafts are eliminated.
In places where the insulation will come into contact with the surface of the base, corrosion often forms, therefore, it is necessary to apply a special anti-corrosion compound to the surface of the canvas in advance. The final stage is the fastening of a waterproofing frame made of plasterboard, which is pre-primed.
Many people prefer to insulate garage structures exclusively from the outside. Such users believe that internal insulation significantly hides the space of the room. Also, a distinctive feature of interior decoration is the emission of corrosive substances and gases from some heaters.
If you decide to insulate the garage from the outside, then you can additionally decorate the structure with an interesting finish that will not only decorate the appearance of the structure, but also help withstand environmental factors that affect the state of the thermal insulation layer.
The most popular design of a garage structure using heat-insulating paint of the desired shade. The gate is covered with it. But if the garage is large and in addition to the gate, there are also open sections of the wall that can be finished with other materials. The most popular, practical and interesting option is siding.
Many garages have a basement, which often functions as a cellar. This area of the room should be properly insulated, because it has a special microclimate. One of the most popular materials for warming basements is polystyrene. At the preparatory stage of work, it is necessary to thoroughly clean the basement from dust and dirt.
The surface of the walls in the cellar must be leveled with putty and ground mortar, which will also protect against the possible occurrence of fungus. Using a spray gun, it is important to moisten the surface of the insulation and the base. It is necessary to create a special ventilation layer between the wall and the insulation.
Next, you need to make a special frame for the slabs. The polystyrene itself can be attached in different ways:
- With an adhesive solution. It is mixed in a special container and applied to the walls in a dotted manner - by forming stains at a distance of 0.2 m. Another layer of glue is applied with a trowel. The sheet must be applied to the wall surface by tapping with the palm of your hand.
- Fungal method assumes the use of dowels. It is also necessary to use disc-shaped plastic self-tapping screws. Through holes are made in polystyrene and in the wall with a drill. It is necessary to leave indents in the corners with a length of 100 to 150 mm. The length of the self-tapping screws should be selected with the addition of another 40-50 mm to the thickness of the polystyrene plates. The gaps between the slabs must be repaired after 5 days using polyurethane foam.
At the last stage, the room is finished, for which plaster or acrylic compounds are used.
Tips & Tricks
Absolutely not all openings for ventilation of the room should be sealed. This can significantly complicate the further operation of the garage and even harm your health. Due to the lack of even minimal ventilation, harmful gaseous substances will accumulate in the garage building.
- By insulating the floor, you can create a slope so that the water can drain better.
- When you create a curtain from plastic strips, don't make them too narrow, because they will cling to the car.
- Consider how harmful the insulation is. Some materials are toxic and are therefore recommended for outdoor use rather than indoor use.
- To insulate a concrete roof from the outside, it is best to use extruded polystyrene.
- When insulating garage doors and gates, do not forget to cut the material taking into account the holes for the lock.
- Instead of drywall, you can use OSB panels of small thickness.
- If in the process of foam insulation you need to take breaks for a day, then it is better to use a construction gun, with which you can resume work with the composition after a while.
- To create additional insulation along the contour of the doorway, roller shutters can be used.
- When insulating with mineral wool, remember that the minimum thickness of the insulating layer should be 100 millimeters.
Considering all the recommendations and advice, you can easily insulate the garage building yourself and create a comfortable microclimate in it both for the car and for your own stay.
For information on how to insulate the garage on a budget, see the next video.