The metal garage is very cold in winter. As a result, the car is difficult to start, and repair work is completely impossible due to the low temperature in the room. There are different ways to insulate a metal garage, but not all known materials are suitable for this. When choosing a heater, it is important to consider what kind of load the installation will give to the garage structure, as well as by how many centimeters the internal area will decrease.
The process of insulating a garage depends on the selected thermal insulation material. Somewhere installation involves additional costs for lathing and finishing, in some cases, the insulation is simply applied to the walls. Since the garage is iron, it heats up in the sun and collects condensation well. Therefore, the materials should be chosen the most moisture resistant.
For example, mineral wool is not suitable in this case. It will start to rot, and you will have to change the insulation pretty soon.
For an iron garage, the following materials are perfect as insulation:
- extruded polystyrene foam plates, polystyrene or foam insulation;
- polyurethane foam;
- heat insulating paint (for example, "Astratek").
Styrofoam it is durable, resistant to moisture, it is cheap to insulate it, but it has a high flammability. Penoplex is a variety of it. It is twice as expensive, but the slabs are thinner if the thickness of the walls is important, and also does not require additional waterproofing. You can even insulate the floor with Penoplex slabs, making a concrete screed right on it.
Penoizol essentially the same penoplex, only in a cylinder. It is twice as expensive and requires special equipment. It is applied to the walls in the form of foam, like polyurethane foam. Polyurethane foam (PPU) is more expensive, but there are no seams. Environmentally friendly, non-flammable.
Disadvantages include the need for foam spray equipment and exposure to sunlight.
Heat insulating paints do not require additional wall finishing, since they are at the same time a topcoat. They are frost-resistant, not afraid of moisture, quickly applied. A 1 mm layer of paint can replace 5 cm of mineral wool. To create the required thermal insulation, it is enough to apply two layers. Such material is very expensive, but it does not take up the internal usable space.
It is necessary to insulate not only the walls and ceiling, but also the floor. It is through it that 20% of the heat leaves.
The very insulation of iron garages is carried out exclusively from the inside.
Penoplex and polystyrene
Before insulation, the surface must be prepared. Remove peeling paint and rust. It is recommended to paint walls and ceilings to protect against corrosion. The color and choice of paint is not important, it will still not be visible under the skin. Therefore, you can save money and buy something inexpensive. If the garage is made of a galvanized profile, then nothing needs to be done.
If the region has frosty winters, then the thickness of the foam must be at least 10 cm, and the foam - 6-7 cm. A thinner layer will not provide the required thermal insulation. The material is glued to walls and ceilings with construction glue, for example, liquid nails. Can also be glued to polyurethane foam. Within an hour, it will expand, so the plates should be periodically pressed against the walls. All cracks are sealed with polyurethane foam. To increase the thermal insulation properties, foil can be glued to the plates.
If the foam is two layers, then one of them can be replaced with double-sided foil-coated isolon.
Next, you need to make a crate. The existing metal frame of the garage can be used as a frame. The lathing is made of wood in increments of 25-30 cm. You can use a galvanized profile, but then it will be more expensive. In no case should the insulation stick out behind the crate. As a finish, you can use lining, plywood, moisture-resistant drywall, OSB panels or plastic siding. The gates and doors are insulated in the same way as the walls.
The surface of the walls of the garage must also be prepared, special attention to oil stains - they should not be. The air temperature in the garage must be at least 10 degrees Celsius. Both the walls and the ceiling are insulated. Polyurethane foam is sprayed using special equipment under pressure, somewhat reminiscent of the dyeing process. The components are mixed and at the outlet give the very reaction due to which the foam is formed. The material hardens very quickly. The difference between polyurethane foam and penoplex is that it gives additional rigidity to the structure, no glue is required. The thickness of the formed foam should be 3-4 cm. For comparison, this replaces 5 cm of mineral wool.
Another advantage of polyurethane foam is that it does not require a crate. You can cover the top with paint or plaster. The high cost of polyurethane foam is offset by savings on glue, lathing and facing material, not to mention the thickness of the walls and the load on the structure.
It is impossible to leave polyurethane foam without lining, since the sun's rays have a destructive effect on it.
Astarek paint is a mastic that can be applied with a brush or by spraying. After drying, an elastic coating forms. The paint simultaneously acts as a heater, is used for waterproofing, and has anti-corrosion properties.
A great option for shell garages. For example, it is rather difficult to insulate corrugated material with plates; an additional frame is required. All this will take even more of the usable building area. The process for applying thermal insulation paint is the same as for conventional paint. The surface needs to be prepared. Apply in a layer of 1 mm, the second layer only after the previous one has completely dried. Two layers for insulation are quite enough. The paint can be applied to walls, ceilings and gates. It does not put any additional stress on the structure of the building.
Material consumption per 1 sq. m is 0.5 liters of paint. Because of its cost, the total cost of insulating the garage will be significant. But you can insulate it from the inside with your own hands, without resorting to outside help. All work is carried out quickly, the total volume of space does not decrease. Savings on other building materials such as no glue, lathing and cladding. The paint itself is the topcoat.
She is not afraid of moisture, walls can be washed, and shelves can be attached. Astratek paint can be used to insulate a garage not only from the inside, but also from the outside, which other types of insulation cannot boast of.
Some garages have a basement, cellar or viewing pit. It will be correct to insulate them too. Due to the limited area, it is inconvenient to use mineral wool or foam. Therefore, it is worth paying attention to such materials that require the construction of additional structures. For example, walls can be insulated with polyurethane foam and paint "Astratek". These materials do not require additional waterproofing, which is very important in such premises. But the PUF will need to be painted.
Another option is warm plaster. This is expanded vermiculite or expanded polystyrene granules. This insulation is at the same time a finishing coating, but the walls must be pre-plastered. Expanded clay can be poured onto the floor with a fraction of 5 to 20 mm. The larger version will shrink.The thickness of the coating should be about 10 cm.
You can also fill the floor with rubble (10 cm), sand on top (soft layer) and pour bitumen on top.
If the floor is earthen, then it can also be insulated. To do this, it is necessary to remove the top layer of soil by 15 cm. Then add a layer of sand or expanded clay. This is necessary for drainage, so that moisture does not accumulate under the insulation, at the same time it will allow to level the surface.
Next, the foam boards are laid. Sufficient thickness is 5 cm. No additional waterproofing is required for this material. Next, sand is poured onto the insulation with a thickness of 3-4 cm. On top of the structure, it is necessary to mount a frame made of reinforcement in two layers of 1 cm. It is necessary for the screed. Cover with cement mortar and allow to dry.
Instead of a screed, you can put a tongue-and-groove board. To do this, wooden logs are laid on the drainage with a step of 30–40 cm, between them is expanded polystyrene or polystyrene. All cracks must be sealed with foam. Attach boards from above to the logs. You can put linoleum as a topcoat. It is better to start any insulation of the garage from the floor.
Otherwise, it will be problematic and inconvenient to do all the work without damaging the wall decoration.
Most often, metal garages are insulated from the inside, but if the space allows, then you can do all the work outside. This will save space, especially if the garage is small.
A frame for the lathing is being erected around the garage. Polystyrene or penoplex is used as insulation. Seams are sealed with polyurethane foam. Siding is used as cladding. If the roof has a rafter system with one or two slopes, then:
- with a wide step, insulate with mineral wool between the rafters and cover with waterproofing on top;
- with a frequent step - lay the insulation under the rafters;
- in the presence of an attic, cover the floor with expanded clay.
If the roof is flat, then the outside can be covered with heat-insulating paint or the ceiling can be insulated from the inside.
The method of insulation is selected based on the area and location of the garage, as well as the financial capabilities of the owner.
When calculating the estimate, all costs should be increased by 10% so that there is a supply of materials for an unforeseen event.
How to insulate a garage, see below.