In order not to heat the cold attic in winter, you need to insulate the attic floor of the room. Do not heat the attic if it is not being used for its intended purpose.
In order to solve this issue, you need to think about how to insulate the attic with the help of modern building materials. The process can take place both from the inside of the room and from the outside. Insulation is carried out in the course of complex repairs before final finishing.
Even if the attic was not insulated during construction, you can always tackle this issue and carry out additional work.
Features of the
Most of the warm air masses escape through the roof. Therefore, when building a house with an uninsulated attic, you need to carefully approach the topic of insulating an attic floor with wooden beams. After all, it creates a certain barrier between warm rooms and a cold attic space.
Consider the special criteria for the thermal insulation of the attic, which affect the preservation of the temperature in the house:
- The purpose of the room. The attic is a kind of buffer between the environment and the inhabited rooms. Its task is to regulate the temperature difference between the external environment and the house.
- Temperature conditions. In any season and any day, the temperature of the air masses in the attic will always be higher than outside the window. That is why it is very cold in the attic in winter, and unbearably hot and stuffy in summer.
- Heat loss in winter. The more a substance heats up, the less dense it becomes. This is a physical phenomenon. That is why in living quarters with a heating system, warm air from household appliances is concentrated in the ceiling area. That is, if the ceiling is not insulated, then in winter all the warm air will warm the attic.
- Excessive heat in summer. The reverse process can be observed in the summer. The roof heated by the rays of the sun will warm up the attic air, which, in turn, will penetrate the room through the attic floors.
- Reverse circulation of air masses. Coming into contact with a ceiling without thermal insulation, warm air becomes colder, denser and, as a result, sinks to the floor. This is reflected in the living space in the form of walking drafts that harm human health.
- Excessive moisture. In contact with a non-insulated attic, humid hot air turns into condensation. The overall humidity level in the home increases, leading to mold growth in the corners.
- Saving… The heat lost through the roof without insulation is about 30%. This means that with the correct thermal insulation of the attic floor, 30% of the fuel used can be saved. The use of an air conditioner in the summer will also be associated with lower costs.
The ingress of warm air masses into the technical attic (non-residential) leads to negative consequences:
- Condensation may form in the attic as a result of mixing warm and cold masses. Water falling on the surface can lead to processes of decay of wood on the load-bearing beams.
- If it is warm in the attic, then the snow collected on the roof will begin to melt. The water dripping at the same time will begin to turn into icicles. Ice forms on the drainage system.
It is best to choose insulation according to the recommendations of SNIP.
In order to choose the right type of insulation for the ceiling, you need to know several factors.The heat insulator must not only have a low coefficient of thermal conductivity, but also have certain properties:
- Resistant to moisture and mechanical stress. The seal should not change its shape under mechanical stress. Its qualities must remain unchanged, even if it gets wet.
- Heat resistance… The material must not burn and support combustion. High temperatures should not have a destructive effect on it.
- Light weight. To create a protective thermal frame, you need to select materials with a low weight. Then the attic floors will not be subjected to mechanical stress.
- The ability to pass steam. The living quarters should have an acceptable temperature and normal humidity level. To ensure this, you need to choose only vapor-permeable finishing materials.
- Environmental factors… The heat insulator must comply with all sanitary and hygienic standards. Hypoallergenicity and chemical neutrality are the main requirements for the material. And also it should not contain toxic substances and volatile compounds.
- Mineral base. Insulation materials should not contain organic compounds, their base should be made of polymers. This will prevent mold and mildew from being gnawed by mice.
Based on the foregoing, in order to insulate attic wooden structures, there are several popular types of insulation:
Mineral wool is produced in two types - rolled and in mats. It is produced by melting rocks at very high temperatures. Basalt wool is the most suitable for insulating an attic. It combines all the properties of a heat insulator. Mineral wool is quite light and fragile. To protect it from mechanical stress (push through, crush), a wooden flooring is laid on top of the insulation.
The best type of insulation for these purposes will be a hard mat of high density, reinforced with foil on one side. It is laid with the foil down. At the same time, it provides heat reflection and has a vapor barrier.
The production technology of the material is very similar to the production of basalt wool. But melted glass is taken as the main component. It has good spring properties. But at the same time, there is fragility in it. It breaks under mechanical stress. Glass wool is cheaper than mineral insulation, so it is suitable for those on a budget.
But it must be borne in mind that when moisture gets in, its thermal insulation properties deteriorate. It is harmful to humans, as small pieces of glass injure the skin and can lead to irritation.
Expanded clay is rounded brown pebbles. They are made from certain types of red clay that are sintered at a very high temperature. Expanded clay has a very low coefficient of thermal conductivity, since its structure consists of closed spheres. Each pebble is protected from moisture by the fact that there is a dense clay layer on its surface. Small pebbles of expanded clay are able to fill in hard-to-reach places, hidden cavities in load-bearing wooden elements.
This natural mineral heat insulator is not subject to combustion, there are no harmful substances in it, mold does not start, and rodents do not like it.
A heat insulator with a polymer structure is produced by sintering small spherical granules. Its standard size is 100x100 cm. The thickness ranges from 1 to 15 cm. Polyfoam is one of the available and cheap insulation materials. But at the same time it has the lowest coefficient of thermal conductivity. Since it consists of polymers, there is no organic matter in its composition. This means that it is moisture resistant, does not rot and mold does not form in it.The heat insulator is not exposed to fire, but in conditions of elevated temperatures, it begins to exude toxic emissions and there is a risk of high smoke. The disadvantages of polystyrene include the fact that, due to its closed structure, it does not allow water vapor to pass through at all.
It is not recommended to insulate the attic floors from the side of the living room with polystyrene foam, as there is a risk of moisture accumulation.
Expanded polystyrene boards obtained by extrusion
In terms of the composition of substances, they are the same as foam, but the methods of their manufacture are radically different. Expanded polystyrene is obtained by hot extrusion, when a prepared polymer mixture is passed through a special apparatus. The specific density of the material is higher than that of foam, its structure is porous and homogeneous. This leads to higher thermal conductivity values. The insulation is strong and can withstand a heavy weight load.
Experienced builders recommend this particular material as insulation for attic floors.
Polyethylene foam with reflective foil
The construction name of the material is penofol. It is a roll-shaped insulation made of polyethylene foam covered with foil. It can be combined with other types of heat insulators, since by itself it has a limited scope. The closed cell structure gives a low thermal conductivity. Air, liquid, water vapor does not pass through polyethylene. Therefore, penofol is a good waterproofing agent. Foil acts as a reflector, that is, it returns heat back to the living room. Its thickness is from 3 to 15 mm.
Wood shavings for reinforced concrete slab
This is, first of all, availability and cheapness. They are used as insulation for ceilings in sheds, baths, outbuildings. The method of application is the coating of wooden attic structures with a mixture of clay and sawdust. The method, although primitive, is effective. Sawdust can be bought at the sawmill. Clay is also available in available quantities. Kneading the solution is not difficult. With a low specific gravity, the mixture is very hard, especially after complete drying. Therefore, it does not load wooden floors. The material is vapor-permeable, but mold bacteria can develop due to sawdust, and rodents like to spoil this type of insulation.
Most often, the insulation of a concrete structure occurs with a mineral slab, mineral wool, chopped straw and sawdust concrete.
Scheme of work
First you need to prepare thermal insulation materials and tools:
- plane, chisels;
- drill and screwdriver;
- construction stapler;
- ruler, tape measure;
- wooden beams and boards;
- vapor barrier;
- finishing material.
Decide what kind of insulation will be used:
- mineral wool;
- expanded polystyrene;
- glass wool;
- expanded clay.
Then you should carry out the installation work.
Depending on the choice of insulation, the method of installation also differs.
Cotton wool is laid in three ways: cells, grooves and a continuous layer. The choice depends on the degree of load. The best construction is obtained from a solid layer. First you need to install a vapor barrier film. It removes water vapor, which is directed from the room to the attic. The film is laid strictly in accordance with the marking, with an overlap. Wooden structures must be tightly covered with a film, otherwise they will rot.
At the second stage, cotton wool is laid. This is a simple procedure, the insulation is cut into strips. When laying, you need to ensure that the insulation does not wrinkle, and there are no gaps between the sheets.
Attic floors must be waterproofed. Then lay the rough covering, which will later be the basis for the finishing.
Styrofoam or extruded polystyrene foam
It is quite easy to install rigid insulation.First you need to level the base, remove irregularities, drops on the floor. Lay a cement-sand screed. Sheets are stacked between the beams. If no one will live in the attic, then the insulation must be covered with plastic wrap. And if the floor is to be operated, then OSB boards should be put on the foam plastic or filled with a cement mortar screed.
First, sawdust is mixed with cement and water (10: 1: 1). This mixture is poured into the base of the attic. If it is uninhabited, then the sawdust is used without a frame, a device for strengthening. But with an increased load, it is imperative to strengthen the base, otherwise the sawdust will crumple. It is imperative to calculate and calculate the abutment to the wall.
The disadvantage of insulation is that it is difficult to deliver it to the installation site. They are poured over floor slabs and a pie. First, the crate is mounted, then the subfloor is placed on it. The heat insulator is filled up and leveled with a rake. At the end, everything is poured with cement mortar. It is better to work with the first floor in a private house with such a heater.
Tips & Tricks
For the correct execution of work, use the advice of professionals:
- foil insulation is laid with the shiny side down;
- it is better to lay a thin heat insulator in two layers, use a checkerboard pattern;
- when carrying out work, joints should be sealed;
- since wood can rot, only vapor-permeable materials can be used in pairs with it (roofing material cannot be used in such cases);
- when working with glass wool, you must adhere to the protection technique (use gloves, glasses, masks);
- foam insulation is not recommended to be combined with wooden bases;
- the technical gap between the waterproofing layer and the heat insulator is from 20 to 50 mm;
- Styrofoam sheets must be stacked very tightly;
- all joints and each node must be filled with polyurethane foam;
- the joints of the waterproofing film must be glued with adhesive tape;
- you need to combine thermal insulation materials with each other in order to achieve the best result.
Today, there are several main types of insulation for attic spaces. For each individual situation, you should choose your own type of heat insulator. If you strictly follow the instructions, then the work on the insulation of the attic will be done perfectly. In the work, you can use new types of insulation (ecowool). But for its installation, special equipment is required.
For the correct insulation of the attic floor, see the next video.