In the course of renovation work, finishing the ceiling is not the last place. The general perception of the entire interior of the room depends on how the ceiling surface looks. Open pipes, ventilation systems, electrical wiring and other communications do not add aesthetic appeal to any room. In order to hide them, and at the same time give the ceiling surface a presentable look, a plasterboard box is most often installed. Competently and beautifully independently assembling the box is not an easy task, but quite doable, the main thing is to study the design features and clearly follow the instructions.
Features of the
The main feature of the box is the material of manufacture, namely drywall. It is a lightweight, but strong enough material, consisting of gypsum, covered on both sides with cardboard. Sheets of cardboard perform a protective function and protect the gypsum core from mechanical, chemical and other damage. Thanks to the cardboard, the internal stress of all layers of the material is contained, and also provides support for the stretching of the sheet.
In the installation of the box, sheets of different density and purpose can be used
Moisture resistant GKLV sheets, produced by manufacturers in green, are used to decorate rooms with a high level of humidity: bathrooms, toilets, garages. The material acquires resistance to moisture due to the impregnation of its layers with a special composition, in which components are also added that prevent the development of fungus
For fire resistant sheets (GKLO) drywall, which has a pink color, is characterized by resistance to high temperatures. In these sheets, in addition to gypsum and cardboard, fiberglass and clay are present, in addition, there is water (20%) in the gypsum core, so this type of drywall can hold out when exposed to open fire from the moment of ignition for 40-45 minutes
- Regular drywall sheets (gypsum plasterboard) have a gray tint. They are usually used in dry rooms where the humidity level is close to normal and does not exceed 70%, and the box does not require additional protection.
- There are also universal types of drywall (GKLVO). This type is simultaneously resistant to both moisture and fire, therefore, boxes from it are most in demand in industrial buildings.
In terms of density, gypsum plasterboards also differ. To date, manufacturers produce specimens with different densities, their thickness varies within 6-24 mm. For ceiling structures, sheets of 9.5 mm are considered the optimal thickness, they are easier to mount compared to denser specimens (12.5 mm and higher).
Unlike density and purpose, there is no such variety in sheet sizes, their width is within 120 cm, and the length is either 250 or 300 cm.
Fastening the ceiling structure of a plasterboard box gives a lot of advantages over its absence. This is not only an opportunity to hide aesthetically unsightly communications, but also to equip the room with additional lighting fixtures exactly in the place where the owner needs it. The box is a great place to place all kinds of sensors and other equipment that should not be in plain sight. In addition, without a box, it is impossible to design a multi-level ceiling that transforms any room.
Plasterboard ceiling box is versatility and aesthetics in one embodiment.
Regardless of the shape and purpose of the box, its installation will require tools and additional materials to help fix the structure to the ceiling.
- Installation of the frame is impossible without hammer drill or drill … The choice of tool depends on the material on which the box is to be reinforced. A hammer drill is more suitable for reinforced concrete, stone and brick, and if you need to drill a hole in softer materials, you can also use a drill.
- Without screwdriver and special attachments for drywall, you cannot do with sheathing with frame sheets. In addition, it is used to anchor the frame to the surface.
- In order to calculate the dimensions of the box and place it correctly around the perimeter in the right place, it is necessary to draw a plan and transfer it from paper to the design site. The marking of the future structure is carried out using a water (laser) level, paint cord, tape measure, pencil and construction square.
- The usual one will help to cut drywall sheets. painting knife with a convenient length-adjustable blade. Using a rasp, the trimmed edges of the drywall sheet are aligned, and the planer helps to clean the trimmed and end edges of the sheet with a neat bevel.
- In order to cut galvanized frame profiles, use special scissors for metal, well preserving the protective zinc layer on the profile. When trimming the material, zinc covers the cut, thereby preventing corrosive changes in the metal.
Slot milling cutter useful if you plan to make holes for lamps in the installed box. The required diameter is matched to the size of the lighting fixtures
In addition to the tools used in the installation of the box and the sheets themselves, additional materials will also be needed., without which the installation of this structure is impossible.
As a frame basis are used profiles… The bearing function is performed by the profiles with the CD marking, and the profiles with the UD marking are used as guiding elements. Profiles with markings CW and UW are used if the structure of the box is conceived as a multi-level system with figured shapes
Used as fasteners tape or wire hangers… Tape-type perforated hangers help secure the box to a rough ceiling surface. Wire hangers are used if there is a need for a lower location of the structure. Most often, wire suspension elements are used in rooms with high ceiling surfaces (from 3.5 m and above)
- For fixing the frame to the surface not to do without dowels with a diameter of 6 mm and self-tapping screws with a size of 3 * 70 mm.
- To fix the profiles to each other, use self-tapping screws a different size, their length is selected based on the thickness of the profile wall. As a rule, specimens with dimensions of 3.5 * 9.5 mm or 3.5 * 11 mm are used. Fixation of gypsum plasterboard sheets to metal profiles is carried out using phosphated self-tapping screws with a diameter of 3.5 mm and a length of 25 mm.
Subtleties of the structure of the structure
Regardless of what size the box is installed and where it will be located on the ceiling surface, you should first prepare the base surface.
First of all, you need to well clean the installation site of the structure from old finishing materials. Then putty pits and cracks both on the ceiling surface itself and around the pipe inlets.
It is better to remove the hanging electrical wires in a special device - a corrugated hose, and fix the structure on the ceiling. Then you can start priming the surface of the pipes to be hidden. Carrying out this procedure will help keep the metal surface from corrosion. This is a kind of protection of the plasterboard surface from the formation of rusty spots. After waiting for the complete drying of the primer composition on the surface, you can start marking the future design of the box.
In order to properly assemble the structure, you must first make a markup. Any markup begins with a drawing, which takes into account the dimensions of the room, the location of the box and interior preferences. In case of doubts arising from the size of the structure, it is better to draw a draft box on scale paper in compliance with the proportions.
The diagram must indicate the places where the suspensions and guide profiles will be attached. In addition, in the drawing, it is necessary to take into account the location of the holes for the pipes, and also provide for the location of the holes for the lighting fixtures if you plan to install the fixtures.
After drawing up the drawing, taking into account all the nuances and details, you can start marking the location of the structure. To determine the depth of the box, you need to take into account the dimensions of the hidden communications or, if you plan to install lamps, their length. In addition, the sheet thickness is taken into account when marking. The distance between the rough ceiling surface and the sheets when installing the luminaires should be slightly more than the length of the device. As a rule, 1-2 cm are added to the length of the luminaire for safe operation.
In order to make the first mark, you need to determine the corner with the lowest location, and after measuring the desired distance from it, put points on both walls.
The number of such marks depends on the size of the box. If the structure will occupy the entire surface of the ceiling, then the marks must be placed in all corners on each wall, and if it is planned to install the structure only on a part of the surface, then the marks should be only in those corners that will be in direct contact with the box. On the ceiling, elevations define the future boundary of the structure.
In order to outline the required level of the frame, you can use different means, but it is more convenient to use a dye thread, which must first be pulled and then released sharply so that a clear line forms on the surface. But you can use this tool to draw a contour only if you plan to install a straight box. For a curly product, you will have to draw outlines by hand.
The approximate lines will serve as the location of the profiles, where the fixing step depends on the dimensions of the box and the weight of the structure as a whole.
Mounting the box is a responsible business, so you need to assemble the structure carefully and carefully. There is a certain scheme that is suitable for most frames, because the main stages of installation are the same regardless of the shape of the box.
- In order to properly make a frame for the box with your own hands, it is necessary to cut the UD guide profiles of the required length and lay them out on the floor according to the drawing.
- Individual elements of the profile are fastened with screws. If there are no mounting holes in the profile, it is better to drill them in advance. The distance between them should be within 30-60 cm. The best option, according to experienced specialists, is a step of 30 cm. Such a distance between the fasteners makes the structure more rigid and durable.
- Holes for dowels are drilled on the fixing line located on the wall using a punch or drill. They must match the holes in the profile. Experienced craftsmen fix the profile directly to the surface without preliminary drilling of the profile and the wall. Then, in the same way, the UD profile is attached to the ceiling.
- After the UD profile is screwed around the entire perimeter of the marking, you can start preparing the CD profile. It must be cut to a length equal to the depth of the box. If, together with the installation of the box, it is planned to install the backlight, then the CD element is cut in a special way. On the side facing the floor, a figure is cut out in the form of the letter P, its depth should be equal to the width of the base of the UD profile. To install a conventional box without a stretch ceiling, the CD profile just needs to be cut to the required length.
- Sometimes the frame, or rather, its front part, by design, should have a curvilinear shape. For bending, you will have to either use a ready-made copy, or make cuts at regular intervals in the side strips of a regular profile.
- The next step in the installation will be to attach the CD profile to the UD profile located on the ceiling surface. The distance between these elements should be within 30-40 cm. CD profiles form the basis for the future wall of the box.
- After that, you can start cutting the suspensions, their length should correspond to the depth of the box. It is necessary to fasten the suspensions according to the marks on the ceiling surface. They are needed if the distance between the future walls of the box exceeds 60 cm.
The next step in the installation of the box will be the formation of its lower part. To do this, it is necessary to connect the UD profile attached to the wall with the CD attached to the ceiling. The UD profile must be installed strictly perpendicular to the wall surface with a step of 60 cm. Fixing the UD profile with self-tapping screws is the final stage in the installation of the frame
For the installation of the box, sheets of certain sizes are required, so first they need to be cut. There is a rule that helps to quickly and efficiently cut the desired sheet size.
- The prepared sheet is laid on the floor, the required value is noted by putting at least two marks.
- To obtain a straight cut line and connect the two marks, a profile is used, which is strongly pressed against the surface of the sheet, and then an incision is made in the upper cardboard layer.
- In order to evenly break the gypsum layer, the sheet must be placed either on the surface, so that the cut part hangs down, or put it on the edge. The remaining cardboard layer is trimmed by turning the sheet over.
Fastening the sheets must begin from the bottom of the structure. It is better to start the installation from the wall from the corner. The sheathing of the lower part can also be done in small fragments, the main thing is to correctly calculate the dimensions of the sheet. Each side of it must reach the metal profile so that it is possible to fix the fragment from all sides.
Care must be taken when screwing in self-tapping screws. There is no need to sink the screw heads too deep or, on the contrary, leave them to rise above the surface.
The best option would be to slightly drown them in the surface of the sheet, 0.5 mm is enough. For a tighter fit of the sheet to the frame, the distance between the screws should not exceed 17 cm.
To form a simple single-level box, the installation ends after the side wall is fastened, but to install a more complex structure, you will need to make another frame, especially if the second level is small. Two-level boxes are mounted after complete sheathing with frame sheets in the same sequence as the first levels.
Regardless of the number of levels and the shape of the box, their surface needs finishing. Drywall has a suitable surface for cladding with almost any material, be it wallpaper, paint or even ceramic tiles. But like most materials, the plasterboard sheets with which the box is sheathed need preparatory work.
You need to start finishing the box with a thorough priming of the surface. Treating the box with a primer will significantly increase the adhesion between the sheets of the box and the facing material.
After the applied layer has completely dried, you can proceed to puttying. To begin with, you need to close up with a narrow spatula all the seams, joints, ends and caps of the screws.
For the joints, use a special serpyanka tape. It is applied to the applied layer of putty, pressing a little inward, after which a new layer is applied.
The ceiling box should have a perfectly flat surface, so professionals use a little trick to achieve the desired result when processing seams. Along all seams, a cardboard sheet layer equal to the width of the tape is removed, primed is applied, and only after that the tape is attached.
For processing external corner joints of a regular and a two-level box, a perforated corner is often used. It protects the structure from mechanical damage. The corner is installed on a thin layer of putty and fixed to the sheet using a construction stapler.
The caps of the self-tapping screws are processed in the same way. After the putty has dried, the treated box surface is leveled first with a spatula, and then sanded with sandpaper. Then the surface is re-putty and primed.
Tips & Tricks
The box installation technology is simple, but there are some nuances, taking into account which many mistakes can be avoided.
- If the installation of the box is carried out near the pipes, then it is better to make the distance between the wall of the box and the pipe slightly larger than planned. This will protect the metal elements from overheating and excessive expansion.
- When installing sheets, you should consider the location of the hatch in advance. Its presence will allow you to get quick access to hidden communications.
- If the shape of the box has a rectangular oblong shape, then it is better to place the sheet in full length. So there will be fewer joints, and the structure is stronger.
- The use of high-quality materials guarantees long-term operation of the structure, so they should be bought from trusted sellers.
For information on how to make a drywall box on the ceiling, see the next video.