If you need to build a wall, partition, arch or niche made of plasterboard, then it is extremely important to know not only the technical aspects of installation, but also the features of the material itself.
Features of the
Drywall sheet is a lightweight and flexible material with which you can quickly and easily transform an office, home or apartment. From this material, you can both erect a wall and build an ornate interior structure.
The structure of the gypsum plasterboard (GKL) fully corresponds to the name: its core is made of gypsum with mineral pigments, to which the surface layer of the cardboard is attached with glue.
The advantages of the material are well known to professional finishers. They are as follows:
- allow you to create perfectly flat surfaces vertically and horizontally;
- allow the construction of curvilinear structures, as well as individual elements of the most varied shapes and complexity;
- have good air permeability, promote air circulation and maintain a healthy indoor climate;
- differ in sound insulation;
- characterized by high thermal insulation;
- made of environmentally friendly materials, do not cause allergies;
- fire-resistant, not prone to spontaneous combustion, do not support combustion and protect walls in the event of a fire;
- are lightweight;
- easy to install, do not require professional skills and special equipment for cladding;
- the price of gypsum board and its consumables is affordable;
- the coating of this fiber is optimal for any type of finishing (painting, plastering, wallpapering);
- leave little waste.
The use of gypsum board can significantly reduce the time spent on finishing work, for example, a plasterboard partition can be built in a few hours, while the construction of a similar brick structure will require two or more days.
Like any building material, drywall has some drawbacks that significantly limit the scope of its use - the panels are not durable, they are destroyed by mechanical damage, and in addition, they absorb moisture.
Yes, and attaching something to such a coating is quite problematic - only dowels with screws can keep a picture or a bulky shelf on themselves. But even in this case, it is undesirable to place anything heavy, this will cause the wall to collapse at any time.
Types of structures
With the help of drywall, you can build structures that are diverse in their appearance and functionality, namely:
- walls that divide the room;
- partitions of any shape;
- complex interior installations.
A plasterboard wall or partition has practical functionality or a purely decorative function. Using sheets, you can divide the space into zones, build niches, change the location and shape of the doorway, create a false wall, and achieve increased heat and sound insulation.
Partitions made of gypsum plasterboard are considered to be more appropriate than similar installations made of other materials: brick, wood and foam blocks. Plasterboard fiber partitions are produced in a short time, their cost is much lower than options from brick or wood. The false wall inside remains hollow, which allows laying the necessary utilities and making additional insulation.
The material is lightweight and small in size, it is easy to cut, so installation can be carried out even by a person with minimal experience with the usual tools that are available in every home.
There are a lot of options for partitions from gypsum plasterboard. The following are distinguished:
- by type of profile: regular and arched;
- by functional purpose: temporary or capital;
- by design type: blind or with an opening for a door or window;
- by type of installation: sliding or stationary.
In addition, partitions and interior walls made of gypsum plasterboard differ in thickness and some other criteria.
Decorative plasterboard partitions, as a rule, are mounted in order to hide the flaws in the room and close the radiators. They do not require serious fasteners; they are often complemented by stylish elements: lighting, mosaics, inserts from other types of materials. Usually, the same elements are fixed with glue or installed on a frame. Models with a practical purpose are mounted during internal repair work. They modify the general appearance of the room, facilitate its division into different zones and add additional functionality to the finishing elements. Such walls and partitions are installed in a frame way and are attached to all walls in the room.
Regardless of the type of partitions, each has the same structure, namely:
- the frame is made of wood or metal profiles;
- sheathing from GKL sheets is used for walls or partitions;
- filling the wall - glass wool or mineral wool, contributing to additional noise and heat insulation.
Depending on the technical characteristics, there are several types of drywall:
- Wall GKL It is characterized by a thickness of 12.5 mm, a width of 1.2 m, and the length of the sheet can be 2.3 or 2.5 m. It does not contain any additives, it is used for the installation of walls and partitions.
- Ceiling plasterboard has a thickness of 9.5 mm, width is 1.2 m, length - 2 or 2.5 m. This lightweight modification is widely used in the construction of niches and door arches, as well as in ceiling cladding. It differs from the first option only only in thickness.
- GKLV Is a moisture resistant material. Its thickness is the same as that of the wall version, the width is also standard (1.2 m), and the length is 2 or 2.3 m. A distinctive feature of the material is the introduction of moisture-resistant pigments and antifungal impregnations into the structure. Thanks to them, the material becomes hygroscopic, resists moisture and is used in rooms with high humidity (in bathrooms and shower rooms).
- GKLO Is a drywall sheet with fire retardant parameters. It has standard parameters: thickness 12.5 mm, width 1.2 m, length 2.3 or 2.5 meters. The core of this type of fiber contains active components that are resistant to high temperatures and combustion, all of which are reinforced with special fireproofing impregnations. The material is widely used in those rooms in which increased fire safety requirements are imposed, as well as for facing fireplaces and chimneys.
It is worth paying attention to the fact that the cardboard covering for all types of gypsum board is resistant to fire. This material does not burn, and the maximum is only charred. But the core resists the flame only at the GKLO.
- GKLVO Is a moisture-resistant material that combines all the advantages of GKLV and GKLO.
- Arched plasterboard used to create sophisticated undulating designs and rounded interior elements. Its width corresponds to the standards of 1.2 m, the length is presented in one version - 3 m. But the thickness of the sheet is small - only 6.5 mm. The small thickness, as well as the introduction of fiberglass threads into the composition, leads to increased flexibility and ductility of the material. Such sheets have a rather high price, and the fact that they have to be mounted in several layers makes finishing work more expensive.
Plasterboard has found application in surface cladding and the creation of decorative elements in the room.
Today, drywall is one of the most popular materials for cladding ceilings and the construction of multi-level suspended structures. Drywall is necessary for design in the following situations:
- with irregularities in the ceiling;
- if necessary, hide the utility lines laid from above - pipes, a massive ventilation box, an unaesthetic cable and others;
- for the implementation of original interior solutions.
Ceiling decoration using gypsum board can be carried out in rooms of any type and purpose.
Almost any interior decoration work is associated with the installation of drywall. It is it that is used to create a perfectly even coating, equip all kinds of niches and shelves, as well as construct other elements of a design structure. In addition to the decorative function, the gypsum board also has a practical purpose - creates enhanced noise absorption and insulation of the room… Gypsum fiber sheets are mounted directly on the wall using glue or on a pre-assembled frame, usually 12.5 mm thick sheets are used for this. Sometimes, to ensure greater strength of the structure, the gypsum board is laid in two or three layers.
Plasterboard cladding is carried out in any premises, it is most effective for cold walls facing the street, which freeze in winter.
A plasterboard wall with thermal insulation helps to warm the room, prevents the accumulation of dangerous condensation and the appearance of fungus. The finish of the plasterboard wall can be any.
Drywall can also be used for dry flooring. Of course, extremely durable sheets with increased abrasion resistance and resistance to mechanical damage are used for this. This coating is applied in two layers, then covered with any standard topcoat - parquet, linoleum, carpet, tiles or laminate. The advantages of this method are obvious - they are high speed of work and their efficiency.
GCR is often used in design for the construction of multi-level compositions, for example, podiums and ledges, which effectively mask unaesthetic pipes and other communications.
For creating partitions, drywall is the number 1 material. It is it that is most often used to divide a room and create a stylish and functional space zoning. Some structures can be built on the basis of a metal profile frame, which is fixed to the walls and ceiling, and then sheathed directly with gypsum fiber plates.
Shelves with drawers in plasterboard structures look very impressive in the interior, and in houses with small children they are simply irreplaceable, because the baby will not be able to hit the sharp edges of the hinged elements. Niches are used to accommodate small decorative elements that make the room cozy. These can be photographs, small souvenirs or books. The shape of such niches can be very different. As a rule, they are equipped with lighting, which makes the interior unusual and spectacular.
Tip: when installing niches, special attention should be paid to the weight of the products that are stored in the niche. Drywall can only take light objects.
Most often, work on facing the surface with drywall is performed in a frame method, for this, a wooden or metal crate is mounted. At the same time, it is very important to apply the correct markings, since the strength and evenness of the future false wall to a large extent depends on the accuracy of the calculations.
To do this, first mark the place on the floor, from where the mounting of the carrier panel will begin, the resulting indicator is projected onto the ceiling - this is the length of the frame. The distance between the wall and the mark is its width.Perpendicular to the floor on a nearby wall, markings are applied for rack-mount metal profiles. The markings are presented in the form of vertical lines with a pitch of 50-60 cm; later, when the drywall is attached to the plank, the edges of the sheet will be located along them.
When facing walls, it is important to remember that one wall is finished first, starting with the installation of guides and ending with the installation of gypsum board, and only then the transition to the next surface is made.
The work is carried out in several stages, namely:
- the marks on the floor and walls must be connected, and then guides are mounted along them;
- installation of suspensions is carried out at a distance of 60–70 cm, their center must certainly be located along the line;
- rack metal profiles are fixed in the guides so that their middle groove coincides with the upper and lower marks, and then they are connected to each other;
- the building level controls the vertical along the base and shelves, after which it is necessary to make the final fixation with self-tapping screws.
Drywall is used for a variety of options such as:
- finishing of ceilings;
- installation of partitions;
- giving the walls perfect evenness;
- construction of interior compositions of various arches, shelves, baseboards;
- masking of unsightly and damaged surfaces;
- repair of old coatings;
- giving relief to surfaces;
- creation of multilevel structures;
- insulation, sound insulation of cavities and openings.
Drywall with increased moisture resistance, as a rule, is used for finishing bathrooms and kitchens. Fire-resistant modifications are widespread in the lining of communication shafts and air ducts, when inside it is required to conduct telephone and Internet cables, water supply systems and heating pipes, as well as ventilation devices. Drywall is used in both wooden and brick houses.
The installation technology is quite simple. First, the sheet is cut. For this, a conventional construction knife with a spare block of replaceable blades is used. The sequence of actions in this case is described by the instruction, according to which it is necessary to perform the following actions:
- the sheet is laid on a clean, flat surface;
- marking is applied with a pencil;
- using a knife, the cardboard is cut from the outside;
- GKL is installed on the edge of the support, the sheet is neatly broken along the notch line;
- the drywall panel is returned to its original position, placed on the edge and bent;
- the cardboard is also cut from the inside, while the blade should not go through;
- the sheet is turned over to the inside, placed on the support again and finally broken.
After the sheet is prepared, you should proceed to the direct assembly of the installation with your own hands in accordance with the step-by-step instructions.
You need to do the following:
- along the lines drawn on the ceiling and floor, guides are attached, for this they use self-tapping screws;
- a sealing tape is placed under the fixed profile;
- strips are mounted to the profile along vertical markers, all work begins from the corners and leads to the center;
- stiffeners are fixed on self-tapping screws;
- then communications, wires and cables are carried out in the cavity, they are also filled with mineral wool;
- on top of the frame, a sheet of drywall is attached directly;
- the edges of the sheets are covered with putty or a reinforcing mesh is applied, then sanded;
- a primer is applied over the panels and finishing is carried out.
It is worth paying attention to the following points when installing the gypsum board:
- the sheet is attached to metal profiles using self-tapping screws 3.5x35 mm;
- first of all, the edges of the panel are attached, and then the central part. The self-tapping screw is placed with a step of 10-25 cm;
- screw the self-tapping screw in such a way that the caps slightly "drowned" in the drywall, it should in no case stick out above the surface;
- if possible, before starting the cladding, it is worth watching a master class on how to install drywall.
Tips & Tricks
Drywall is a very popular material, so it is widely available in hardware stores. At the same time, it absorbs moisture well, therefore, if stored improperly in a warehouse, its consumer parameters can be significantly deteriorated. To avoid problems and purchase the highest quality product, you should adhere to the following recommendations:
- try to purchase the product only in large stores that have established themselves as a reliable and stable seller, avoid questionable points of sale;
- evaluate the conditions in which the gypsum board was stored, the cleanliness of the room and the level of humidity in it;
- personally inspect each purchased sheet of gypsum board, it should not have chips and deformations. No curved bends, dents or scratches are allowed on a product of proper quality. Any violation of the integrity will entail the breaking of the entire sheet in the damaged area;
- you need to carefully monitor the loading and unloading operations. Even if a drywall sheet was purchased in perfect condition, this does not guarantee that it will arrive in the same form. If the product was purchased and paid for, but defects were discovered later, then the warranty will not be valid;
- if possible, you should not purchase the entire batch at once with the required quantity. For starters, you should buy one sheet to test it. For example, you can cut a sheet into strips, a high-quality sheet should have a core that is strictly uniform, a cut without inclusions, and a knife should go smoothly and smoothly when cutting;
- if you decide to buy a product from a dubious supplier, but at a very attractive price, then it is worth remembering that a stingy person always pays twice. Handicraft products can not only crumble and break, but also turn out to be unsafe for health.
To protect yourself from counterfeiting and marriage, you should give preference to products from well-known brands.
About 70% of the Russian construction market is occupied by the products of the German concern Knauf… This giant has manufacturing facilities all over the world. In Russia alone, there are about 10 factories for the production of building materials. Knauf is associated by many with high quality, reliability and practicality. About 10% of the market is accounted for by other European brands - Lafarge, Gyproc, Rigips.
Gyproc Is a Scandinavian brand that has successfully established itself as one of the leaders in the global plasterboard market. In 2002, it took the first place in terms of production volumes, leaving all the main competitors far behind. A distinctive feature of the GKL of this brand is its high environmental safety, confirmed by the certificates "Leaf of Life", "Ecomaterial". In addition, Gyproc has released drywall that is 20% lighter than other manufacturers' products. However, the price for it is slightly higher than the cost of Knauf products.
Lafarge Is a Polish manufacturer that has established the production of drywall around the world. Even Knauf is inferior to this concern in terms of the number of production workshops. This allows you to reduce the cost of production, which is why Lafarge drywall has a fairly affordable price. It was this company at the beginning of our century that made a real revolution in the manufacture of drywall, bringing to the market semicircular sheets, all sides of which are pasted over with cardboard. Such processing of the panels has become a kind of visiting card of the company.
About 20% of the market belongs to domestic companies. Among the leading Russian manufacturers, the following can be distinguished:
- "Gips" (Volgograd) - produces drywall under the well-known brand "Volma". The products of this brand are distinguished by excellent performance characteristics and an acceptable price.
- manufactures products of exceptionally high quality, which, in terms of their operational parameters, are not inferior even to popular European brands.
- Abdullingips (Kazan) - established the production of conventional GKL and GKLV, is distinguished by a low price relative to other Russian analogues.
- Golden Group Gips (Togliatti) - produces drywall sheets on the equipment of the French concern Lafarge. The products are distinguished by exceptional quality and favorable prices.
See below for more details.