Plasterboard has long been a popular material and is as famous as brick, glass or concrete. But even such a well-known finishing product is surrounded by many myths that confuse and misinform consumers. It is necessary to clearly understand what this material actually represents, where and how it should be applied and with what tools.
Features of the
The word "drywall" itself indicates a combination of compressed gypsum surrounded by an outer shell of thick paper. Everyone who has seen the GKL does not doubt its ideal evenness. This design is able to withstand a fairly powerful load and at the same time allows you to work without unnecessary problems. In addition to a couple of basic substances, components are used to ensure sheet adhesion, as well as gypsum foam additives.
The role of cardboard is twofold - it not only reinforces the block from the outside, but also acts as an excellent base for:
- applying decorative plasters;
- gluing wallpaper;
- coloring with almost all types of paints and varnishes;
- other types of interior decoration.
GKLA - this kind of drywall, which is designed to improve the acoustic properties of the room, this is directly indicated by its decoding. Similar sheets can be used for:
- frame partition;
- wall cladding;
- false ceiling formation;
- finishing coating of ZIPS panels.
Before using the GKLA, it is required to stand for 24-48 hours at the same temperature at which the installation will be carried out. Safety standards are standard. The products should be stored in a pallet with a dry and normal humidity level.
The stack outside the warehouse cannot be higher than 5 m, otherwise its stability and stability of material properties cannot be guaranteed.
Improvement in acoustic properties is achieved by perforating and covering the back edge of the sheet with a nonwoven fabric. In through holes, sound waves do not escape into the air from the surface, but remain inside and are held in a kind of "trap". The sound fades out rapidly. Due to this property, acoustic drywall is used in recording studios and in other premises where protection from extraneous noise and echo is very important.
A rare cinema hall, a conference hall do without such material. Perforated drywall almost does not interfere with the penetration of sound waves from one room to another, so it can only be used in conjunction with other solutions.
It should be noted that the outer shell of the GKLA cannot be additionally finished, because this will impair its characteristics.
The installation of such structures does not differ from the installation of an ordinary drywall sheet. The difference between the modifications is determined primarily by how exactly the perforation is located, what is the shape of the holes. Both with a solid and with a distributed arrangement of holes, the perforation can be round (8 mm), square (12 mm) and absent-mindedly round (0.8, 1.5 or 2 cm). Edges are divided into curly (stepped) and straight.
Advantages and disadvantages
Knowing the composition of drywall, we can confidently say that it is not harmful to health and that the environmental friendliness of the material meets the highest requirements. The outer surface is perfectly smooth, the material is not prone to fire. It is quite simple to handle, and the cost of creating structures is relatively low. A very important property is that drywall is initially ready for installation and use. But do not assume that GCR has only one positive side.
Serious restrictions on the use of such elements are imposed by their tendency to get wet and destroyed by excess moisture. It is impossible to apply them in outdoor work and in the decoration of the facade of the building. And even in the bathroom, kitchen and toilet, it is permissible to use not all types of material. The surface crumbles easily when nails are hammered into it, screws (bolts) are screwed in, and other fasteners are installed. The fasteners will instantly fall out as soon as they try to hang something heavy on it.
What is perforated soundproofing drywall is already generally clear. But there are a number of other options for such products on the market that differ in their characteristics. The laminated material is made on the basis of ordinary sheets, covering them with vinyl film. You can find various commercial designations for such structures:
- acrylic plasterboard;
- gypsum vinyl;
- vinyl or colored drywall.
Surfaces can have the most impressive decorative properties, differences are apparent in specific colors, patterns and textures. Modern technology makes it possible to reproduce almost all existing natural materials. The base can also be any: it does not matter whether the sheets are attached to a tree or metal surface, to concrete or to a brick.
The outer shell allows you to gently wash the sheets, they will not pick up dirt. Resistance to sunlight, high humidity and significant heating increases due to lamination.
Regular wall sheets are painted gray and the markings are blue. The width of such products is standardized (120 cm), as is their thickness (1.25 cm). But the length varies between 230 and 250 cm. Ceiling-mounted units are always thinner - only 0.95 cm. But both options are too susceptible to water ingress.
The moisture resistant version (GKLV) is available in two formats - the same 2.3 and 2.5 m with a width of 1200 and a thickness of 12.5 mm. The color is green; blue ink is used for the markings. A special impregnation is used for the treatment of both the middle part and the cardboard shell. The drugs used have the ability to suppress the development of microscopic fungi. Sometimes GKLV may contain additives of a different kind.
Hard-to-light drywall is sold under the designation GKLO. In production, such material is painted in pink or light gray, red paint is used to apply any inscriptions. It is easy to make a chimney lining from GKLO, it is worth taking it when a fireplace is lined outside. The central part always contains an increased concentration of fibers and reinforcing elements.
If the room is both humid and fire hazardous (for example, a boiler room), it is worth taking GKLVO, in which hydrophobic and fire-fighting properties are combined.
The combination of moisture-resistant and fire-resistant qualities is demonstrated by the green color of the material itself. The inscriptions on it are made only in red. The last type worth considering is flexible drywall (some manufacturers and sellers call it arched). The thickness of the sheet is very small - only 0.65 cm, which is why it is almost always necessary to mount the coating in two layers. Reinforcing the core with fiberglass strands helps shape curved contours of a wide variety of radii.
Criterias of choice
The characteristics of drywall may be slightly different if it is required to use them in special conditions. It is not difficult to buy material:
- actively absorbing sound;
- adapted for external attachment (with additional wind protection);
- with increased thermal conductivity (optimal for a warm floor and in some other cases);
- with maximum thermal insulation;
- with a mass of layers that contain moisture and have foam properties;
- restraining flow of electromagnetic radiation, including X-rays.
The most unusual drywall boards are equipped with a center made of cement, and the cardboard in them is covered with reinforcing fiberglass. This solution is just intended for the front facade decoration of buildings. The last type of drywall to be developed is gypsum fiber. In its composition, cellulose is added to gypsum. Due to its special evenness and mechanical strength, there is no need to apply a primer before final finishing.
It is advisable to use such products (GVL) when installing the floor, as well as in the construction of a frame house. Since they are not in danger of moisture, there is no problem with working on the facade of the building.
But still, in most cases, you have to choose drywall of less complex types. The simplest wall option is installed calmly and harmoniously in dry rooms. Where a fire is burning or significant heating occurs, it is much more correct to use fire-resistant structures. Important: do not confuse it with the usual heat-resistant one, which only maintains its stable qualities at high temperatures.
Restoration drywall is used to create cladding on old structures and to imitate wood (flexibility allows you to make curly parts from it).
Typical sheets are made in the form of a rectangle, and the most practical height is 300 cm (since it is desirable to sheathe the entire surface of the wall in one block without joints). When choosing, you need to pay attention to the type of edge: if it is straight, there is no need for laying joints - this solution is ideal for multi-layer cladding and for inner layers.
A thinned edge is needed for pasting with reinforcing tapes and further applying putty; the rounded edge is similar in properties, but reinforcement is no longer required. A semicircular edge does not need a reinforcing tape, and if it is thinner (PLUK), on the contrary, it does. In these two cases, a putty must be applied to the surface.
Even the release of goods under a well-known brand does not guarantee 100% either from manufacturing defects or from counterfeiting. Moreover, on the way from the workshop to the storehouse, drywall can also deteriorate, especially if it is handled carelessly and if the rules for working with it are violated. Therefore, any responsible buyer:
- appeals only to large shopping centers or specialized stores;
- does not take drywall, which is stored in high humidity conditions;
- monitors the work of the movers so that everything goes neatly;
- examines each sheet received upon ordering and after delivery.
When the corners are dented, and the drywall itself is uneven, when the paper is peeling from it, and the gypsum spills out or the geometry is broken, this is 100% substandard or damaged material. When ordering the services of a repair team, you should not trust her with the purchase of drywall, it is better to control everything yourself. Defective products are recognized by a bending thin edge or curved slab edge.
Delivery of drywall should be carried out on specially equipped vehicles, preferably with a closed body or awning. Those firms that are not able to provide such transportation are not trustworthy.
Scope of application
But the drywall was selected and brought. Now you need to apply it correctly in a specific room. With this material, you can achieve:
- leveling and updating the appearance of the walls;
- the formation of interior partitions, mounted on a steel or wooden frame;
- arrangement of secondary walls (without load-bearing function);
- creating a decorative podium;
- ceiling covering in one or more layers;
- receiving decorative items.
If you put the vertical beams in a zigzag manner so that they do not touch both outer sheets at once and fill the gaps with cotton materials, you can strengthen the sound insulation. Some people doubt whether drywall can be used for the bathroom.
Even finishers can refuse to use tiles or other heavy decorative elements on it. It is advisable to coordinate with them both the fastening of the material and the performance of the waterproofing. Moreover, both of these points are also fully consistent with the interests of the residents.
Fastening the panels directly to the wall is possible if the walls have only slight deformations. The panels installed in this way are usually covered with building paint or wallpaper. But when using any types of tiles, you will have to mount the frame. It is made strictly from aluminum profiles, because wooden slats, even impregnated according to all the rules, are unacceptable in such work.
It will be natural to increase the strength of the frame with an increase in the severity of the finish, this moment needs to be thought out in advance.
When working in the toilet, amateurs and professionals should follow roughly the same rules. Cutting sheets must be consistent with the layout of plumbing, furniture and pipe outlets - it is better to immediately cut out the necessary holes than to punch them additionally after some time.
Drywall is also used for wall decoration in a wooden house - here its key role is the same, that is, masking visual irregularities.
In addition to such a purely utilitarian approach, you can take more drastic measures:
- put a partition between rooms or in one of them;
- make an arch to visually delineate functional areas;
- prepare a niche.
The approach for these works is not too different from the actions in a brick, aerated concrete or monolithic concrete dwelling. In the room where they work with drywall, a temperature of at least minus 10 degrees must be maintained. Otherwise, no one can guarantee the quality and durability of the material.
If the room is very small in any plane or in all three at once, it is better to consider other options for correcting defects that will consume less usable space. When a wooden house has just been put into operation, they wait 6 months and only after that they start decorating its walls.
The timber is thoroughly prepared: there should be no gaps, insulation must be carried out. If the walls are made of logs, they are sanded for the most tight fit. The frame is necessarily made floating, because wooden buildings will still settle even after the end of the regular shrinkage. Only aluminum or bars with a minimum size of 7.5x2.5 cm can be used as a support. The bars are made of strips of 5x2.5 cm in size.
It is supposed to attach drywall to wooden supports using plastic dowels. It is unacceptable to glue the material directly to the wall (this technology solution is practiced only for concrete or brick). Do not give in to the impression of a visually flat wall, in fact, it is still quite rough.
Professionals recommend fitting the edges of all sheets to the central parts of the battens (both vertical and horizontal). The typical gap between screws or self-tapping screws is 1.5 cm.
Plasterboard laying on the floor has its own characteristics. Concerns in this regard are due to the fact that initially the material was created as a wall-mounted material that does not carry significant loads. But with proper use of high-quality coating, no problems will arise. The first step is the maximum leveling of the base (it is advisable to do not only screed, but also backfill with perlite, expanded clay, sand). The best option, according to most repairmen, is perlite.
The base is laid on top with plastic wrap folded in half or more. Then a vapor barrier arises, which will not allow the bedding to get wet. The overlap under the edges of the sheets is at least 20 cm at the norm. On top of the wooden base, not polyethylene, but roofing material or bitumen paper is placed. Both of these materials can be replaced with professional waterproofing, but usually qualified builders do this, for amateur repairmen it is too difficult.
Using drywall for leveling the floor, followed by laying tiles or laminate, is a completely practical solution. Among the types of material, it is recommended to use a gypsum fiber sheet, it best meets the requirements.
When calculating the need for drywall, you need to assume that about 10% of it will go to marriage. Most likely, this figure will be less, but it is more correct to play it safe and avoid exhaustion of structures in the process.
If it is known that the tiles will be laid on top, the polyethylene is pressed by the lags, then it will not randomly migrate over the entire floor.
Bulk materials are placed in such an amount that their layer is on the same level with the lags. Leveling is done from windows to front doors, and not vice versa. The second and subsequent layers are laid in the opposite direction.
Gluing tiles from above is allowed only on first-class, well-proven varieties of glue. If you have sufficient funds, you can safely opt for liquid nails, and the use of cement would be an economical and relatively high-quality option.
Decorating the hallway in an apartment with drywall is no more difficult than laying it on the floor. Often there ceilings are prepared from this material. In small entrance rooms, a single-tier structure is usually installed, complemented by ceiling plinths and decorated with expanded polystyrene. Lighting fixtures are carefully selected to create a sense of high wall heights.
Front finishing of such ceilings is possible using:
- paints (water-based and acrylics firmly hold the lead);
- wallpaper (non-woven or fiberglass-based);
- decorative plasters.
When bends with many levels are formed from drywall, they should be painted white or in a pastel shade.
Experienced designers can advise on another color, but in any case it will be monotonous, without foreign inclusions. This is the fundamental law of design work: either expressive form or bright tones.
The ceiling, even if it has only one "floor", is painted in no more than three colors. Neon lamps create an attractive view of the skyline, regardless of the chosen color and the style of the entire corridor.
Tools for the job
It is clear that the practical and design possibilities provided by GCR are almost unlimited, and it is difficult to find a more versatile material. But you need to work with it using the right tools. Distances are traditionally measured using a tape measure (from 5 m), and the evenness of lines is verified using plumb lines and building levels.
It is not recommended to use a marker for marks: it will remain and will spoil the view. It is much more correct to take a pencil or a special cord.
A simple utility knife will help you cut the sheets properly. But if there is a lot of work to be done, it is impractical, as it leads to quick fatigue. It is not for nothing that each qualified team brings with them to the site specialized knives for cutting drywall sheets. Choosing such a knife, you should give preference to products with a rubberized handle - they are less dangerous in terms of injury.
Curly knots and other delicate work are done with hacksaws on drywall, they will also help out if you need to cut through the material in a place that is hard to reach for other tools.
A rare wall in modern houses is not supplied with sockets and switches, and therefore special crowns are the faithful companions of repairmen. Better to have a whole set of these important tools with you. It is recommended to stock up on metal crowns, which will help out when you need to drill a profile or other solid object.
A high-quality needle roller will be able to form the necessary perforation and bend the sheets.
It is advisable to punch holes with a screwdriver. Wireless devices are more practical and more convenient than those connected to the mains through a cable, and in addition they are safer (there are no wires stretched in different directions). When evaluating a screwdriver, pay attention to its mass, because you will need to hold the tool in your hand for more than one hour during the day. The cassette screwdriver is intended primarily for professionals, since it is more powerful and heavier than the domestic version.
If you know in advance that you will have to fasten the mass of the profile to the concrete base, it is worth taking a gas construction gun. The grinder is an ubiquitous companion of any repair, it is extremely rarely needed in working with profiles for gypsum board. A jigsaw with an electric motor justifies itself when it is necessary to form a complex incision. But a straight cut of the material is much more correct to do with a hand saw, it gives much less dust. Precise cutting of the profile is achieved with metal scissors (at least 2 pieces are required - with a long straightened and short curved cutter shape).
How to use it yourself?
A qualified craftsman, when mounting drywall on a wall or ceiling, must putty the seams between the sheets. When they are filled, a reinforcing mesh (fiberglass) is placed, then the surface is re-treated with a putty. During repairs, it is extremely important to ensure the stability of the temperature and humidity in the room: not only during work, but also within 48 hours before and after closing the seam.
You should work carefully, the sheets must not fall, hit them, drag on the floor, and so on. Even fire and moisture resistant varieties should be protected from this kind of "testing" prior to installation.
Most often, drywall sheets are attached to the walls using profiles. The rack type of profile (similar to the letter C) is needed for partitions and for cladding. Using guide profiles, builders make the same partitions or do front wall decoration. Ceiling profile structures are also divided into ordinary and guides (the first subspecies helps to fix suspended ceilings).
The first stage naturally turns out to be marking on the walls. Next, note how large the indentation will be from the wall to be treated to the outer line of the sheet. Most often they are guided by a size of 20 cm, which is enough for:
- leveling surfaces;
- placement of almost any electrical wiring;
- providing additional insulation;
- connections of switches.
In any case, the same indentation is made around the entire perimeter, including the floor. On the walls, the vertical markings are done with a gap of 60 cm, and the mounting points of the suspensions are better done in 50 cm increments (they are distributed in a checkerboard pattern). When the wall has openings for a door or window, there must be at least 300 mm from the boundaries of these openings to the joints between the sheets. Having marked everything up properly, they begin to install the profile. First of all, they put it along the perimeter of the walls to be treated and only then they take up the installation of suspensions, on which the guides are attached.
To attach profiles and additional parts, you need to use dowels and self-tapping screws. If professionals work, they stick a rubber tape on the profiles so that the structure can better dampen noise.
Then comes the turn of the insulating layer - if possible, before fixing the sheet, the gaps between all the profiles are filled with foam or mineral wool slabs.
But even on top of them, you cannot immediately put sheets of drywall, they must be cut in accordance with the markup. Additional preparation consists in the formation of holes for sockets or switches; for this purpose, hand saws or an electric jigsaw are used.
Attachment of sheets is carried out on self-tapping screws for metal, the allowable step is 250 mm or less. It is advisable to embed the self-tapping screws inside the gypsum board by 0.1-0.2 cm. The laid sheets are covered with putty, it will help to overlap the joints and guarantee the density of attachment of the reinforcing nets, the protective corner. At each outer corner, such protective elements are always placed, and whether to fix them at the inner corners, each builder decides for himself. A well-applied putty does not allow visual detection of reinforcing parts and fasteners.
Additional finishing works are almost always done because they significantly improve the aesthetic and practical qualities of the premises. Most often, niches and shelves are formed that can replace large furniture. All ideas are displayed on the diagrams and in the markings applied to the walls.
It is extremely important to distinguish between the sides of the sheet, since not all of them can be used as the front. No manufacturer writes this directly, but it is still possible to figure it out. The reverse side is always the one that is covered with inscriptions. You don't have to look closely, because for a simple material, the front surface is always white, for a waterproof one, it is green, and for a hard-to-light material, it is pink.
In some cases, gypsum boards are used not only as a means of leveling planes and improving their appearance, but also as a heater. Nothing strange: in terms of thermal conductivity, drywall is ten times more perfect than reinforced concrete. The roll blocks placed from the inside are held on the rough surface of the wall using glue or special umbrella dowels. A membrane must be placed to restrain the movement of water vapor.
You should beware of warming unheated rooms with drywall sheets. Even highly qualified performers rarely agree to such work, because they know about the many pitfalls that accompany it. With significant jerks in temperature and humidity, even a first-class waterproof gypsum board will not withstand. An exception is made for glazed balconies and loggias, and the minimum bar is double-glazed windows.
There is another question that home owners and novice builders often ask, and it concerns the attachment of drywall sheet to polyurethane foam.
This solution is used relatively rarely, but it has its own advantages, in particular, a significant improvement in the soundproofing and thermal qualities of the wall. In this case, adhesion is fully ensured, and the resistance to tearing is very high.
Builders have a choice of different foam curing methods. In one case, it is blown into the technological holes, and the main fastening is done with dowels or self-tapping screws. In another, the surface of the sheet is covered with foam and then pressed against the wall. In this case, the repairmen lose in the laboriousness of the alignment, but they can control the spread of the adhesive.
In the first method, the sheet will need to be drilled, evenly distributing from 9 to 12 input channels over it. Having marked them on the wall, they are already drilling it and preparing passages for plastic plugs.
No matter how thoughtful the design is, no matter how carefully the builders approach the work, they will not be able to achieve the optimal result using low-quality drywall. Therefore, it is worth focusing only on those brands that have fully confirmed their merits for a long time.Knauf is in the first place in terms of demand.
In its lines there is a gypsum board for almost any work:
- on the walls;
- by gender;
- on the ceiling;
- to create complex geometric designs.
The assortment, in addition to the usual, includes moisture-resistant and fire-resistant materials.
Among the Russian manufacturers, the leading lines of the ratings are occupied by the company "Volma". Its products are invariably equipped with edges that effectively prevent crumbling of the finishing material. The strength and reliability of the created structures have been confirmed by the experience of a huge number of people. But it should be borne in mind that the sheets created by Volma are heavy and do not have special markings.
Scandinavian quality is just as authoritative as German quality. Gyproc drywall is a striking confirmation of this. The company pays great attention to the environmental safety of products. She managed to lighten the sheet by 20% compared to the products of leading competitors.
The supplied material is suitable exclusively for interior decoration, and the maximum block length reaches 360 cm.
If you need to buy a gypsum board, which has embodied the latest industry developments, you should pay attention to the offers from LaFarge. There are many of its products on the market, many of them for the first time began to leave the French conveyors.
An impeccable material from a reputable manufacturer that fell into the hands of trained people - 95% of success when installing drywall. The remaining 5% falls on the selection of tools and some technological secrets that you need to know thoroughly. So, joining a gypsum board to a brick has a number of subtleties, ignorance of which can lead to sad consequences. So, the use of glue in this case is permissible if:
- the area to be trimmed is small;
- the size of the relief of the material does not exceed 5 cm;
- you need to level the ceiling and not lose height in the room.
Experienced craftsmen make sure that the drywall has reliable temporary supports before the glue sets. For this purpose, dowel screws are used, driven into the wall with a pitch of 0.6 m. As adhesives, along with specially designed industrial-made compositions, foam and gypsum plaster can be used (base or finishing - does not matter).
Also, a substitute for proprietary mixtures can serve as glue for attaching tiles, "liquid nails" and even silicone-based sealants. If you already have a sufficient amount of such materials on hand, you do not need to buy anything extra.
To ensure the best adhesion regardless of the method of gluing, it is recommended to thoroughly clean and degrease the brick. As a primer, the best results are shown by the composition for aerated concrete.
Along with covering brick and wooden walls, many people are interested in the question of whether a column can be made with plasterboard. Those who know the features of this material will have the answer in the affirmative. But again, technological subtleties and nuances appear.
It is not necessary to create the entire structure from gypsum plasterboard - decorating the surface of a real concrete column with this material turns out to be much safer. But if it is nevertheless decided to build a decorative element precisely from drywall, this should not cause any difficulties. The first step is to mark with pencils or markers on the ceiling of the outer contour of the future structure.
The created lines are transferred to the floor, and the building level or plumb line will help to avoid distortions. Pre-cut profiles are screwed first to the floor and then to the ceiling.
For a column placed close to the wall, a pair of vertical posts equal to the height of the room is provided by technology. But when it is planned to decorate the center of the room, there are already four such elements.Reinforcement of the structure is provided by adding additional guide profiles every 0.5-0.6 m. Having attached the cut sheets to the frame, they are puttyed and decorated in accordance with the plan. Perforated corners will help to give the corners evenness.
They do not always try to accentuate some element with the help of drywall - in many cases it is designed to close something that spoils the elegant look of the room, for example, a radiator or pipes.
For your information: total cover is unacceptable, because then the heating efficiency will drop sharply, and in the event of a pipeline break, you will have to spend time destroying the finish to get to it.
It is necessary to provide either places for the exit of warm air or viewing windows (depending on what is being masked). Wall-mounted radiators are surrounded by an external box, while floor-standing radiators can be fenced off with a whole wall.
In any case, it is imperative to remove the old coating from the surface to be finished, remove all dust and dirt from there, and prime it thoroughly. When the wall is very uneven, it is required to correct it with gypsum plasters, after which putty is certainly applied.
You will learn more about the features of installing drywall by watching the following video.